Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 1 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario: Jewish Haven at Oswego, NY SUNY Oswego, Penfield Library Safe Haven site | Oral Histories | Video R ecordings https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven "The refugee is like a plant without soil or water." Moses Ibn Ezra, Shirat Yisreal In August of 1944, close to one thousand refugees from war torn Europe were placed in an internment camp at Fort Ontario to await the outcome of the Second World War. The majority of these refugees were Jewish and had recently been liberated from the perse cutions of Nazism in central Europe. Their stay in Oswego was to become an emotional event for the community of Oswego and a political conundrum for the nation. It was not until January of 1946 that the gates of the War Refugee Center were opened and the r efugees allowed to become truly free. In an effort to better understand the plight of the refugees and the mindset of this tragic era, Penfield Library has compiled this study guide and bibliography to assist those interested in the subject. In addit ion, Safe Haven, Inc., formed in 1989 is dedicated to preserving the documenting how life in Oswego contributed to their experiences and new found freedom Their Safe Haven Holocaust R efugee Shelter Museum houses valuable resources and artifacts. Some historical material is available through their website, http://www.safehavenmuseum.com Call numbers, below, refer to locations for titles in collection of Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY.
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 2 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Published Books, Monographs and Chapters of Interest Committee for the Study of Recent Immigration from Europe. "Conditions Causing Flight" and "Extent and Characteristics of the Refugee Movement." In Refugees in America New York: Harper & Brothers Pub. 1947. D 809 U5 C6 1947 Feingold, Henry. "The War Refugee Board." In The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938 1945 New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 1970. D 810 J4 F38 1970 Friedman, Saul S. "New Agencies: Old Rationalizations." In No Haven for the Oppressed: United States Policy Toward Jewish Refugees, 1938 1945 Detroit: Wayne University Press. 1973. D 810 J4 F75 1973 Gruber, Ruth. Haven: t he Unknown Story of 1000 World War II Refugees Fiftieth Oswego Anniversary Edition. Oswe go, NY: Safe Haven Publication, 1994, c1984. [Other reprints available] D 809 U5 G78 1994 Gruber, Ruth. Ahead of Time: My Early Years as a Foreign Correspondent New York: Wynwood Press, 1991. PN 4784 G78 A3 1991 Gruber, Ruth. Haven : the Dramatic Story of 1000 World War II Refugees and How They Came to America New York: Three Rivers Press 2000. D 809 U5 G78 2000 Gutman, Israel, ed. 1990. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust New York: MacMillan Pub. Co. o See entry "Fort Ontario," by Ariel Hurwitz. (Vol. 2, pp. 503 504 .) Ref D 804.3 E53 1990 (in Reference Storage) Lowenstein, Sharon R. A New Deal for Refugees: The Promise and Reality of Oswego, 1944 1 945 Ann Arbor, MI: UMI. 1985. (Ph.D. dissertation) Special Collections D 810 J4 L6 1985 (Spec Coll only) Lowenstein, Sharon R. Token Refuge: The Story of the Jewish Refugee Shelter in at Oswego, 1944 1946 Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. HV 640.5 J4 L68 1986 Wyman, David S. "The Search for Havens" and "The Fort Ontario Experience." In The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 1941 1945 New York: P antheon Books. 1985 D 810 J4 W95 1985 Yad Vashem International Historical Conference. Rescue Attempts During the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference Jerusalem. April 8 11, 1974 Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. 1977. D 810 J4 Y29 1974b
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 3 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Primary Sources Published & Manuscript Material in Penfield Library Columbia University Library. New York. The Varian Fry Papers: The Fo rt Ontario Refugee Shelter Papers Archives of the Holocaust vol. 5. Ed. by Karen J. Greenburg. N ew York: Garland Pub. 1990. Ref D 809 U5 C726 1990 (in Reference Storage) Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario. Copies of Shelte r's newsletter, oral histories, statistics, news clippings and articles, 1944 1990. Special Collections Manuscript Box 131 Fort Ontario. Refugees. Letters to a teacher, Miss Wood, 1944 45. Special Collections Manuscript Box 131 Letter. Roosevelt, Eleanor to Joseph P. Lash, 21 September 1944. Published in A World of Love: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends, 1943 1962 by Joseph P. Lash. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. 1984. E 807.1 R48 L38 1984 (Copy of published letter also in Special Collections Manuscript 1 31, Box 1, Folder 4 ) Ralph Swetman Papers. Correspondence, petitions, re ports, statistics and clippings re lated to s at Fort Ontario and President f. Includes letters from Joseph Smart and Alexander and Rajko Margulis. (10 folders in box 2, folders 19 29) Special Collections Archives 1/4/33 Smart, Joseph H. Freedom. Salt La ke City, Utah: Heritage Arts, 1991. Special Collections Manuscript Box 131 Token Shipment: The Story of America's War Refugee Shelter. [by Edward B. Marks Jr.] U.S. Dept. of Interior. War Relocation Authority. N.Y.: AMS Press, 1975. R e p rint of 1946. ed Vol. 8. Special Collections JV 6601 R4 U55 1975 Wyman, David S., ed. America and the Holocaust: A Thirteen volume Set Documenting the Acclaimed Book The Abandonment of the Jews Vol. 10, Token Shipment (Oswego Camp) S ummar y R New York: Garland Pub. 1989. (Vols. 7 9, and 11 also have numerous sources cited.) D 804.3 A47 1989 United States Congress. House. Committee on Immigration and Naturalization. Investigation of Problems Presented by Refugees at Fort Ontario Refugee Shelter Hearings, Subcommittee VI, 79th Congress, 1st Session... House Res. 52... June 25 and 26, 1945. Special Collections D 809 U5 A5 1945c
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 4 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Magazine and Journal Articles Photocopies of articles can be found in Special Collections Keane, Betty. "Be hind the Doors of the War Refugee Board." Answer 2(4) (10 March 1944): 5 6. "Oswego American Jewish World 32(50) (11 August 1944): 1,9. Sandrow, Edward T. "The Thousand Who Were Saved." Congress Weekly 11(26) (11 August 1944): 6 7. "Refugees Arrive from Europe." Life 17(8) (21 August 1944): 25 29. "U.S. Admits and Cares for 982 Refugees at Emergency Shelter in Oswego, New York." Rescue 1(9) (September, 1944): 7 8. Gross, David C. `Free P ort' is Refugee Haven." American Jewish World 33 (September, 1944): 11 12. Syrkin, Marie. "At Fort Ontario." Jewish Frontier 11(9) (September, 1944 ): 9 12. Wachsman, Z.H. "New World at Oswego." Answer 2(10) (November, 1944): 11 13. Morehead. "Oswego Ref ugees Hurt Over Strict Internment ." [part I] PM (New York) 2 6 February 1945. Morehead, Eleanor. "Oswego, an Average U.S. Town, Chooses to Ignore It s Refugees [part 2] PM (New York), 27 February 1945. Karpf, Ruth. "Displaced Persons: a U.S.A. Close up ." Survey Graphic 34 (June, 1945): 282 284,304. Walrath, Jean. "Restrictions Irk Colony of 900 Refugees." Democrat and Chronicle (28 July 1945) Jolles, Naomi. "The Four t h R." Woman's Home Companion ( July 1945 ) : 16, 32. Krichefsky, Gertrude. "The Effect of Our Quota Law s ." Rescue 2 (July/August, 1945):5. "Climax at Fort Ontario." NRS [National Refugee Service] Community Bulletin 6(3) (August September 1945): 1, 7 8. "Truman Opens Gates to Refugees." Christian Century 63 ( 2 January 1946 ) : 4.
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 5 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Brand, Edward. "Oswego A Study of Liberation." American Hebrew 155(40) ( 1 February, 1946): 14 15. Palmitesso, Carl. "The Refugees at Fort Ontario." Publication of the Oswego County Historical Society (1953): 65 71. Neff, Carol. "A Page in BB's History of Service: the Fort Ontario Refugee Project." National Jewish Monthly (May 1980): 22 23 Lowenstein, Sharon. "A New Deal for Refugees: The Promise and Reality of Oswego." American Jewish History 71(3) (March, 1982): 325 341. Baron, Lawrence. "Haven from the Holocaust: Oswego, New York, 1944 1946." New York History 64(1) (January, 1983): 5 34. Strum, Harvey. "Fort Ontario Refugee Shelter, 1944 1946." American Jewish History 73(4) (June 1984): 398 421. Strum, Harv ey. "Token Refuge." NAHO 18 (1) (Spring 1985): 20 23. Greenberg, Karen J. "A Missed Chance: Reassessing the Fort Ontario Refugee Center." Hudson Valley Regional Review 9(1) (1992): 129 137.
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 6 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Oswego Palladium Times Newspaper Articles p. 4 col 1 6. p. 12 col 1 5. p. 14 col 1 4 p. 10 col 1 4. 2. p. 16 col 1 4. Janu p. 4 col 1 3. p. 4 col 1 3. p. 12 col 3 4. p. 4 col 1 3. The Oswego County Historical Society has five scrapbooks of newspaper clippings from local and national newspapers, including the Refugee Camp Newsletter Ontario Chr onicle published durin g the time of their internment.
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 7 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Oral History Audiotapes in Penfield's Special Collections T he following interviews were conducted by Lawrence Baron, an adjunct professor from Saint Lawrence University (Canton, NY), in conjunction with WR VO (NPR, Oswego, NY) in 1984. The interviews we re done in connection with the R efugees' 40th reunion in New York City and contain interviews with an d about Fort Ontario Refugees. These i nterviews were made to generate Haven from the Holocaust a one hour radio documentary about the refugees and the people involved with them. The documentary is a p roduction of WSLU FM, North Country Public Radio, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY. Jackie Sauter, Executive Producer. Beverly Hickman, Producer. Dr. Lawrence Baron, Researcher & Script Consultant. A transcript is available from Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego (OH 284). The interviews were originally recorded on audiocassette tapes with little quality contro l. The recordings contain many deformities and the interviews tend to end abruptly. I nterviews have been both digitized (.mp3 files) and transcribed. Both the audio files and the transcripts are available at: https://www.oswego.edu/library/oral histories emergency refugee shelter fort ontario safe haven Transcript Folder & Tape Number Title/Interviewees Date, if Known OH 269 Interview with 3 former residents of the Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario: Moric Kamhi, Leon Levitch & Fredi Baum. Also, Samuel Grafton, columnist. 1985? OH 270 Opening remarks, recognitions, etc., at reunion. Ruth Gruber, Jack Bass, Jolanda Bass, Manya Breur, Walter Greenberg 1984? OH 271 Fredi Baum, Julius Krauthamer, Karl Bader, Samuel Grafton Aug 1984 OH 272 David Simmons, an Oswego resident, remembers Ft. Ontario 198? OH 273 Director of the Refugee Shelter Joseph Smart July 10, 1984 OH 274 Oswego teachers: Seward Salisbury and Muriel Perry Nov 19, 1983 OH 275 Walter Greenburg lif e before and at Ft. Ontario Jan 26, 1984
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 8 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven OH 276 David S. Wyman, author is interviewed by Pat KcKeon Sep 23, 1986 OH 277 Segment of 40 th Reunion Program: Joseph Papp, Moric Kamhi, Ruth Gruber, Governor Mario Cuomo, Manya Breur, Walter Greenberg, Adam Munz, Leon Levitch, Florence Freedman, Jolanda Bass, Rochelle Sidell Aug 1984 OH 278 Oswego educators and sc out leader recall refugees: Ralph Faust, Virginia Dean, Harold Clark Nov 19, 1983 OH 279 Oswego citizens recall refugees: Geraldine Rossiter, Aulus Saunders 198 4 ? OH 280 Steffi Steinberg life before and at Ft. Ontario Jan 26, 1984 OH 281 US Policies and refugees: Michael Dobkowski Nov 2, 1983 OH 282 David S. Wyman, author, is interviewed by Lawrence Baron Apr 30, 1986 OH 283 Sharon Lowenstein, author, is interviewed by Lawrence Baron July 10, 1984 OH 284 Radio Program: Haven From The Holocaust A one hour documentary produced by WSLU FM, North Country Public Radio, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY. The program includes excerpts from previo us interviews. Participants include: David Wyman, Josiah DuBois, Samuel Grafton, Sharon Lowenstein, Ruth Gruber, Geraldine Rossiter, Lawrence Baron, Fredi Baum, Leon Levitch, Steffi Steinberg, Muriel Perry, Edith Weiss, Walter Greenberg, Seward Salisbury, Manya Breuer, Joseph Smart, Adam Munz, and Moritz Konig. Jackie Sauter, Executive Producer. Beverly Hickman, Producer. Dr. Lawrence Baron, Researcher & Script Consultant. Mar 2, 1987
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 9 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Video R ecordings Ahead of Time: the Extraordinary Journey of Ruth Gruber Waltham, MA: National Center for Jewish Film, 2011. Media PN 4874 G78 A4 2011 o Documentary on the remarkable life of Ruth Gruber o Chapters 8 and 9 are about work with the refugees Doody, Vince. Safe Haven : 50th Reunion [Oswego, N.Y.] Safe Haven, Inc, 1994. Special Collections D 810 J4 S132 1994 16 vid eocassettes. o Interviews with surviving refugees and local residents, panel discussion, and some other reunion activities. Technical quality is poor on some tapes. o The i nterviews have been digitized and are available for viewing on the Safe Haven 50th Anniversary Reunion Video Collection website maintained by SUNY https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven reunion Safe Haven: a Story of Hope Rockport, Media D 810 J4 S135 2000 o A presentation of the Safe Haven Holocaust Refugee Shelter Museum o The story of Safe Haven including the selection process, travel to Oswego, life in Fort Ontario, and leaving the Fort o Includes interviews of refugees and of Ruth Gruber o Includes many historical photographs Ulanowski, Chris et al. Safe Haven 1944 1945. Oswego, N.Y. Safe Haven, Inc. and the Learning Resources Center, SUNY Oswego, 1985. Special Collections D 810 J4 S129 1995 o Interviews with Oswego residents reminiscing about arrival of Jewish refugees to their city. WXXI (Television station, Rochester, NY). Safe Haven Written, produced & directed by Paul Lewis. Executive producer C. Zimmerman; host Robert Clay. 55 min. Rochester, NY: PBS Video, 1987. Special Collections D 810 J4 S128 1987 o Interviews with some of the 982 Holocaust survivors interned at Oswego's Fort Ontario 1944 46.
Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario Page 10 of 10 Special Collections, Penfield Library, SUNY Oswego Last modified, May 2016 https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Web Sites Penfield Librar y. SUNY Oswego. Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario (Safe Ha ven) https://www.oswego.edu/library/safe haven Oswego (NY) Public Library. The Safe Haven Collection. http://cdm16694.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p16694coll19 o The Safe Haven Collection contains a few photographs, several copies of the Oswego Chronicle and other files Safe Haven Holocaust Re fugee Shelter Museum Oswego, NY http://www.safehavenmuseum.com/ US Holocaust Memorial Museum: Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter http://www.ushmm.org/research/resear ch in collections/search the collections/bibliography/fort ontario emergency refugee shelter