Citation
Our lakes, our community, May 19th-23rd, 2008, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada

Material Information

Title:
Our lakes, our community, May 19th-23rd, 2008, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
Publisher:
International Association for Great Lakes Research
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Great Lakes (North America)
Limnology
Water quality
Genre:
Book

Notes

General Note:
Submitted by Christopher Hebblethwaite (chris@oswego.edu) on 2008-12-10.
General Note:
Made available in DSpace on 2008-12-10T16:24:09Z (GMT).

Record Information

Source Institution:
SUNY Oswego
Holding Location:
SUNY Oswego
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Related Items

Related Item:
http://hdl.handle.net/1951/44449

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

Book of Abstracts May 19 th 23 rd 2008 Trent University Peterborough, Ontario, Canada 51st Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research Institute for Watershed Science Trent University INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR GREAT LAKES RESEARCH

PAGE 2

Note to Abstract Readers: This document is an enhanced Adobe Acrobat PD F with embedded bookmarks for the first author abstracts and indices to enable easy navigation and location of desired material. This document is best viewed using Adobe Reader 8, but is comp atible with Adobe Reader 5 and above. Using Bookmarks: The bookmarks are divided into three sections, 1. Abstract by First Author: Click plus symbol to expand the list of bookmarks. Then clicking on authors name bookmark will go directly to page with the authors abstract. 2. Index Author: Click plus symbol to expand list of bookmarks. Page numbers in the bookmark indicate location of aut hors abstract. Clicking autho rs name bookmark goes to the author index page. Use Adobe R eaders page navigation tools to go directly to desired page. 3. Index Subject Matter: Click plus symbol to expand the list of bookmarks. Page numbers in the bookmark indicate location of a subject matter within the abst racts. Clicking the subject matter bookmark goes to subject matter index page. Use Adobe Readers page navigation tools to go directly to desired page.

PAGE 3

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 1 ABDELOUAHAB, N. 1, MERGLER, D.1, TAKSER, L.2, VANIER, C.1, ST-JEAN, M.1, BALDWIN, M.1, SPEAR, P.A.3, and CHAN, H.M.4, 1CINBIOSE, Universit du Qubec Montral (UQM), Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada; 2Centre TOXEN, Universit du Qubec Montral (UQM), Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8, Canada; 3Dpartement Obsttrique Gyncologie, Univ ersit de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 5N4, Canada; 4University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada. Gender Differences in the Effects of Organochlorines, Mercury, and Lead on Thyroid Hormone Levels in Lakeside Communities of Quebec (Canada). Environmental chemicals can disrupt thyroid ho rmone (TH) homeostasis. However studies differ with respect to thyroid profile changes and ge nder differences are rarely examined. This study investigated the THs in relation to serum organochlor ines (OCs), bioindicators of mercury (Hg) and blood lead (Pb) in 211 freshwater fish consumers in Canada. THs were within the normal range and the bioindicators of exposure were low co mpared to other reports on fish consumers. Stratified analysis showed significant gender differences. For women, se rum T3 levels were nega tively related to serum concentrations of PCB-138, PCB-153, noncoplanar congeners Arochlor 1260, and PCB, as well as p,p-DDE. No relations were observed between T4 and any of the chemicals measured, but TSH was negatively related to blood Pb. For men, serum T4 was inversely related to PCB 138, dioxin-like PCBs and PCB. A significant positive rela tion was observed between serum TSH and PCB 180, non coplanar congeners, mono-ortho coplanar congene rs, dioxin-like PCBs as well as PCB. Serum TSH increased with hair and blood Hg concentrations. No associations were observed for T3 in men. These findings suggest that even at low concentr ations, these environmental contamin ants can interfere with thyroid status and effects differ by gender. Keywords: Bioindicators, Human health, PCBs. ADAMS, J.M. 1, HINCHEY, E.K.1, HORVATIN, P.J.2, and WARREN, G.J.2, 1Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program, Purdue University, Liaison to U.S. EPA GLNPO, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., G-17J, Chicago, IL, 60604; 2U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), 77 W. Jackson Blvd., G-17J, Chicago, IL, 60604. U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office Nearshore Monitoring Using the Triaxus Towed Instrument Platform. Nearshore monitoring is an important factor in assessing the ecosystem hea lth of the Great Lakes, but it often presents a challenge due to the limited availability of re search vessels and difficulty in surveying the extensive (>10,000 miles) shoreline. The U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) recently acquired a Triaxus 3D towed undulating vehicle that will be deployed from the R/V Lake Guardian in all five Great Lakes in waters as shallow as 20 m to gain more insight into nearshore water quality and habitat characteristics. This state of the art towed instrument platform will provide realtime multiparameter profile data of the nearshore water column over a large shoreline distance as well as supplement the GLNPO open water surveys. Details of the Triaxus specifications, the various sensors it will house, and preliminary sampli ng locations will be presented. Keywords: Monitoring, Habitats, Water quality.

PAGE 4

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 2 ADLERSTEIN, S.A. 1, NALEPA, T.F.2, and VANDERPLOEG, H.A.2, 13010 Dana Building, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1041; 22205 Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2945. Zebra Mussel Impacts on the Lower Food Web in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron: 1990-1996. We characterized temporal-spatial trends in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos in Saginaw Bay prior to zebra mussel invasion, over peak densities and stabilization. We used density data of main taxonomic groups quantified during a bay-wide NOAA-Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratories monitoring program a nd generalized linear models. Zebr a mussels were first found in 1991, reached peaks from 1992 to 1994 depending on location, and later remained at more stable levels. Densities were higher in stations with harder substrates. Phytoplankton and zooplankton declined uniformly within the bay consiste nt with the zebra mussel invasion. Densities of all phytoplankton groups declined starting in 1991 or within the next three years. The most immediate and noticeable decrease was for cyanophytes with disappearance of photosensitive sp ecies. Densities recovered during the study period except for cyanophytes and chlorophytes. All zooplankton groups declin ed after 1990 and showed some recovery. While cyclopoids and clad ocerans exhibited lowest densities in 1993, calanoids and rotifers continued to decline until 1995. Macr oinvertebrate trends differed by group and substrate, and mussel effects are harder to demonstrat e. Results are invaluable to u nderstand invasion responses at the ecosystem levels and to design future monitoring. Keywords: Exotic species, Zooplankton, Lake Huron. AHMED, S. and TROY, C.D. 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2051, United States. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Large Stratified Lakes. An unstructured, three dimensional, finite volume, non-hydrostatic numerical model is being adapted to study windand thermal-forced circulati on in lakes. We apply th e modified model to the idealized case of an unsteady, wind-forced, stratified large circular lake, following the test case of Beletsky et al. (J. Phys. Ocean. 1997). The hydrodynamic code, SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain Adaptive Navie r-Stokes Simulator), uses a z-level coordinate system and adaptive mesh refinement, and has been used successfully elsewhere in the simulation of st ratified coastal flows. We apply the model in a parallelized configuration for a range of horizontal and vertical resolutions, discussing the results in the context of planned Lake Michigan simulatio ns that will highlight circulation patterns and thermal features along the Indiana-Illinois lakeshore. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hydrodynamic model. ALLENDER, C.J. and WILHELM, S.W., Department of Mi crobiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996. Identifying the Source of Unknown Microcystin Genes and Predicting Microcystin Variants by Linking Multi-gene Diversity within Uncultured Individual Cyanobacteria. While multiple phylogenetic markers have been used to study microcystin producing cyanobacteria, in only a few instances have multiple ma rkers been studied within individual cells, and in all cases these have been cultured isolates. Linking genes along individual micr ocystin (mcy) synthetase operons from uncultured cells would allow for the prediction of toxin varian ts and provide a better

PAGE 5

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 3 diagnostic for species identity. Beca use of the inability to cultivate many microcystin-producers, it was imperative to develop these culture-independent methods. We employed a l ong-PCR method and lambda vector cloning to isolate large DNA fragments (> 6 kb) encompassing both mcyA2 and mcyB1 gene regions. Using a combination of phylogenetic analys es and bioinformatic prediction, the condensation domain of mcyA2 and the adenyla tion domain of mcyB1 were examin ed. These data allowed for the comparison of individual uncultured cel ls to the database of partial mc yA gene sequences as a query of diversity among microcystin-producers while simultane ously predicting microcys tin variants. Initial efforts have been to predict the toxins produced by a mcyA-genotype termed Microcystis -like that is pervasive in Lakes Erie and Ontari o. Preliminary results have suggested that at least a portion of these organisms produce the LR variant of microcystin. Keywords: Microcystis, Genetics, Great Lakes basin. ANDERSON, E.J. 1, SCHWAB, D.J.1, HOLTSCHLAG, D.J.2, and LANG, G.A.1, 1NOAA-Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2USGS Michigan Water Science Center, 652 0 Mercantile Way, Lansing, MI, 48911. An Operational 2Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the St. Clai r-Detroit River Waterway: Implementation into the Great Lakes Forecasting System (GLFS). A Computational model has been created for th e St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway connecting Lake Huron and Lake Erie. The two-dimensional (RMA2) unstructured model was developed (Holtschlag 2002) to predict water levels and flow velocities in the system, and is now linked with the Great Lakes Forecasting System (GLFS) in order to provide operational nowcasting and forecasting. Water levels near the Huron-St. Clair River and Erie-D etroit River mouths in conjunction with wind fo rcing data from Lake St. Clair are used to drive the m odel for both hindcast and nowcast simu lations, where lake levels from GLFS predictions are used in order to provide system forecasts. Water levels are compared to observed data from 10 NOAA gage stations located along the St. Clair-Detroi t River waterway. Calibration to water level boundary conditions with these stations as well as adjustments to Mannings-n roughness parameters within the system bring level predictions to within 2 cm of recorded gage station water levels for nowcast and monthly hindcasts. Improvements to pr ediction accuracy and reso lution of complex flow areas in the St. Clair-Detroit Ri ver waterway enhance understanding of the physical processes in the system and allow for operational implementation within the GLFS. Keywords: St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Hydrodynamic model. ARCAGNI, M. 1, ARRIBRE, M.1, CAMPBELL, L.M.2, KYSER, K.3, KLASSEN, K.3, and RIBEIRO GUEVARA, S.1, 1Laboratorio de Anlisis por Activacin Neutrnica, Centro Atmico Bariloche, Bariloche, Argentina; 2School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston; 3Department of Geology & Geological Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston. The Role of Native Galaxias maculatus in a Food Web with Introduced North American Salmonids (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina). The diet of the native fish Galaxias maculatus (small puyen) was studied in Lake Moreno, a satellite of Argentinas largest lake, Lake Nahuel Huapi watershed. G. maculatus is a common species across Oceania and lower South America. The la kes of Nahuel Huapi National Park have been

PAGE 6

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 4 significantly impacted by in troduced salmonid species, including brown, rainbow, and brook trout. Stable C and N isotopes for G. maculatus and selected food items were dete rmined on a seasonal basis in the west and east basins of the hour-glass shaped lake. 15N values were higher in the east basin for all species, suggesting a higher trophic position or nitrogen enrichment due to the topography, which exhibits sharp coasts, depths higher than 100 m, and limited littoral areas of rocky bottoms with poor aquatic vegetation. On the other hand, the we stern basin has shallow bays with organic sediments and highly productive aquatic vegetation. All benthic food items analyzed in the western basin showed similar 13C but smaller 15N values, showing that according to SI analysis, puyen have the highest trophic level within the nearshore littoral food web, and may be important prey items for the introduced salmonid species in Lake Moreno in bot h western and eastern basins. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Benthos, Food chains. ARHONDITSIS, G.B. University of Toronto, Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystem Dynamics. Climate variability is increasingly recognized as an important regulat ory factor, capable of influencing the structural properties of aquatic ecosystems. Lakes appear to be particularly sensitive to the ecological impacts of climate change, and several long time-series have shown a close coupling between climate, lake thermal properties and individua l organism physiology, population abundance, community structure, and food-web dynamics. This study presents a statistical anal ysis of a long-term limnological record from Lake Washington. It is shown that La ke Washington has experienced a warming trend, with overall increase of 1.5C for epilimnetic temperature. Th is warming trend is greatest for the period from April to September and is positively correlated with interannual variability in air temperature and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Th ese results are the first to dem onstrate strong PDO effects on the thermal properties of a lacustrine ecosystem. There is also evidence for climate-induced changes on the magnitude of the spring bloom/timing of the clear water phase, the coupling of the trophic interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton, the interspeci fic niche differentiation, and the sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) behavioral patterns. Keywords: Climate change, Ecosystem modeling, Water quality. ATILLA, N. 1, BENNINGTON, V.1, KIMURA, N.1, MCKINLEY, G.A.1, URBAN, N.R.2, WU, C.H.3, and DESAI, A.1, 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Climate Research, Madison, WI, 53706; 2Michigan Technological Universi ty, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Houghton, MI, 49931; 3University of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Madison, WI, 53706. The Carbon Budget of Lake Superior: Firs t Results from the CyCLes Project. CO2 emissions and seasonal cycling from the Great Lakes may be comparable to that of local terrestrial ecosystems. CO2 fluxes from Lake Superior are of particular interest because they may greatly impact observations at nearby Ameriflux towers. L ong residence time of water and limited watershed inputs suggest carbon cycling in Lake Superior is tightly coupled with physical processes. We developed a coupled ecosystem-carbon-hydrodynamic model of Lake Superior to estimate carbon fluxes and their spatio-temporal variations. The ecosystem, including two sizes of phytoplankton, macronutrients, and a

PAGE 7

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 5 single grazer, is implemented to estimate spatio-temporal patterns of carbon cycling in the lake. Carbon as DOC, DIC, and POC, and O2 (as an indicator of biological produc tivity) are included as state variables upon which ecosystem processes act. Model predicted chlorophyll concentr ations will be compared with results of synoptic surveys made in 2006. Spatia l and temporal patterns of chlorophyll, pCO2, and CO2 fluxes as predicted by the model will be summarized in this talk. These patterns will be used to illustrate some of the factors controlling carbo n cycling (temperature, watershed in puts), some influences of human activities (e.g., high nutrient inputs in the western basin) Keywords: Lake Superior, Carbon cycle, Modeling. ATKINSON, J.F. Great Lakes Program, Univers ity at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14260. Particle Tracking Applications to Link Physical and Biogeochemical Transport. Particle tracking applications are presented for three problem domains related to Great Lakes issues: (a) tracking algae blooms; (b) defining resour ce sheds; and (c) modeling sediment transport. In each case the particle tracking model is based on a random walk algorithm that incorporates velocities and diffusivities produced by a hydrodynamic model. For th e first two examples the particles are neutrally buoyant and non-reactive and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used to cal culate the hydrodynamic variables. Applications in Lakes Erie and Ontario are shown. For the third case the particles have mass, settle and interact with the bottom, and particle movements are driven by the Estuarine, Coastal and Ocean Model (ECOM). This model is applied in the Buffalo River (Buffalo, NY). Various issues involved with linking the particle tr acking and hydrodynamic models, such as grid size, are discussed and it is shown that particle tracking provides a useful tool for underst anding circulation and quantifying transport properties in a lake or stream. A unique web application also is demonstrated for real-time applications of the model. Keywords: Water currents, Distribution patterns, Coastal ecosystems. AUSTIN, J.A. Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA. Observed Increases in Wind Speed over Lake Superior. Observed wind speeds over open water in Lake S uperior (and the other northern Great Lakes) observed at NOAA NDBC buoys have increased by about 25% over the period 1980-2007. The increase in wind speed is independent of direction and rou ghly spatially uniform over Lake Superior. These increases are greatest in the summ er months but are observed in all seasons. Wind speeds recorded at coastal (CMAN) stations also show increases, though these increases ar e weaker than those observed over the open lake. We speculate that this increase may be due to increases in surface water temperatures in excess of the increase in air temperature, which may be lead ing to a less stable atmospheric boundary layer. Consequences of this increas e in wind speed include deeper mixe d-layers and increased evaporation rates, which may in turn be responsible for a long-term trend toward lower water levels. Keywords: Climate change, Atmos phere-lake interaction, Lake Superior. BACH, C.A. 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Toronto Waterfront Aquatic Habitat Restoration Strategy.

PAGE 8

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 6 The Greater Toronto Area occupies an extensive length of the coast of Lake Ontario. Historically, the shoreline and lands were used for commercial purposes with some areas for recreation. Degradation has led to substantive losses of important aquatic habitat. Recentl y, renewed interest in revitalizing the waterfront has emerged. Significant effo rts to revitalize the waterfront require effective coordination at all levels of government. Aquatic Habitat Toronto has b een created to implement the Toronto Waterfront Aquatic Habitat Restoration Strategy and coordinate all three levels of government so that projects can be implemented in a time and cost effective manner. This presentation will showcase the planning process involving consensus based development of aquatic habi tat on the Toronto waterfro nt. The objective is to provide an overview of the research, monitoring, planning and ultimatel y implementation with respect to aquatic habitat within the highly urbanized Greate r Toronto Area. The Toronto Waterfront Aquatic Habitat Restoration Strategy represen ts an integrated approach to adaptive management. The strategy is an effective tool for facilitating federal, provincial, and municipal agen cies in their respective review and approval process ensuring a sustainable no net loss policy for development on the waterfront. Keywords: Management, Habitats, Planning. BALDWIN, R.J. and WALTERS, M., 120 Bayview Pk wy., Newmarket, ON, L3Y 3W3. Lake Simcoe Assimilative Capacity Study (ACS) Growth Ma nagement through Informed Decision Making. Managing growth and mitigating agriculture are significant challenges encountered when trying to protect and sustain our water resource s. This is the case in the Lake Si mcoe basin where continued growth combined with impacts from existing agricultural ha ve accelerated the natural eutrophication process. Inputs of phosphorus have tripled since European settle ment in the late 1700s. While significant progress has been realized, increased demands for continued de velopment within the watershed have resulted in wide range of concern from stakehol ders that the protection of the lake is at risk. To address these concerns the Lake Simcoe Conservation Authority undertook an Assim ilative Capacity Study for Lake Simcoe basin. The goal of the study was to develop a framework whereby proposed changes to land use could be evaluated based on their impact on water quality relative to water quality targets. Land use decisions could then be made ensu ring that the potential to impact water quality conditions would not impact the health of aquatic communities and Lake Simcoe. This paper documents the process and results of the study conducted to quantify cu rrent and likely future sources of phosphorus, develop load targets, and outlines the mechanism for managing growth within the basin to achieve a nd maintain the phosphorus target. Keywords: Water quality, Planning, Lake Simcoe. BALDWIN, R.J. 1, BAKER, K.1, and HENSHAW, B.2, 1120 Bayview Pkwy., Newmarket, ON, L3Y 3W3; 28 Main St. N., Markham, ON, L3P 1X2. Natural Heritage Planning in the Lake Simcoe Basin A Foundation for Science, Research, and Planning. A case study on natural heritage planning using an existing policy structure. In Ontario, the Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) guides land use planning, including natural heritage. The PPS, under the Planning Act, provides the legi slative framework within which muni cipalities must adhere to when considering land use changes and de velopment. The PPS further prohibits/restricts development from:

PAGE 9

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 7 significant woodlands, signifi cant valleylands, significant wildlife habitat, Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest (ANSIs), and fish habitat. Lacking in expertise, budget, and incentive, municipalities have failed (since 1999) to identify and designate, and thereby protect, these features. As a principal review the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority opted to identify a natural heritage system, comprised of the features identified in the PPS, on beha lf of their municipal partners. This is the first time that all PPS features have been identified as part of a natural heritage system for adoption by municipal Official Plans in the Province. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Planning, Habitats. BANDA, J.A. and STEPIEN, C.A., 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. A Temporal Analysis of Walleye Genetic Stock Structure. Walleye Sander vitreus is one of the most exploited fish species in the lower Great Lakes, and understanding the genetic basis for its stock structure is critically impor tant for fisheries management. Our laboratory research using nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and mt DNA data has shown that most spawning groups in Lake Erie genetically differ due to spawning site philopatr y. The present study thus tests whether spawning groups are temporally stable, using 10 Lake Erie spawning sites over a 12 year period (1995-2006) for 10 nuclear mi crosatellite loci. Samples from the Maumee River, the largest walleye spawning group, from 1995 (N=50), 1998 (N =28), 2003 (N=76), and 2006 (N=51) showed no significant temporal differences indicating a common gene pool in all except the 2003 samples, demonstrating that genetic structure was generall y consistent. The 2003 run had more gene flow among sites along the southern Lake Erie shore and constituted the largest recruitment year in past decades. We are comparing this Maumee River spawning site baseline with those from th e Sandusky River and Van Buren Bay, which also showed high gene flow in 2003. Our study illustrates the importance of testing temporal patterns of genetic variat ion (rather than a single year snapshot) to understand stock structure. Keywords: Lake Erie, Genetics, Walleye. BARBIERO, R.P. 1, ROCKWELL, D.C.2, WARREN, G.J.2, and TUCHMAN, M.L.2, 1Computer Sciences Corporation, 1359 W. Elmdale Ave. #2, Chicago, IL, 60660; 2USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL, 60604. An Overview of Possible Dreissenid Impacts in the Offshore Waters of the Great Lakes. The EPAs Great Lakes National Program Office has conducted regular monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes since 1983, five years before the discovery of dreissen ids in the Great Lakes. During this time, all four lakes supporting dreissenid populations have experienced cha nges potentially linked to the invasion. In Lake Erie spring transparency has decrease d in both the western and central basins, perhaps due to dreissenid re packaging of particulates into more readily suspended material, while spring transparency in the eastern basin has in creased substantially. Spring phytoplankton populations have declined in the western and eastern basins, and communities have shifted notably in all three basins. While there are some indications of increases in spri ng transparency in the open waters of central Lake Ontario, the main dreissenid impact in that lake has been a dramatic increase in summer transparency, apparently due to calcium uptake by dreissenids and a consequent reduct ion in whiting events. In Lakes Michigan and Huron, increases in spring Secchi dept h have coincided with the recent expansion of

PAGE 10

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 8 Dreissena bugensis populations into deeper wate rs, although these increases in water clarity could also be the result, in part, of continued reductions in nutrient loading to those lakes. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Turbidity, Dreissena. BELETSKY, D. 1, SCHWAB, D.J.2, and MCCORMICK, M.J.2, 1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Res earch Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI. Nested Grid Circulation Modeling in Southern Lake Michigan. A nested grid version of the Princeton Ocean Model for the Great Lakes was applied to the coastal area in southern Lake Michigan. The model uses 3D boundary conditions derived from the whole-lake hydrodynamic model to simulate circulation in a small coastal area at very high (100 m) horizontal resolution in 2005. Model results are tested with current observations and data from tracer release experiment in the vicinity of Burns Ditch, Indiana. This tributary to Lake Michigan is known to contain high levels of coliform bacteria and is adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. In the tracer experiment, the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride was intr oduced into the tributary and the plume was tracked using a shipboard-based gas chromatogr aphy system for several days after the release, and also with a 3D particle transport model applied during the same period. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Lake Michigan. BELETSKY, D. 1 and SCHWAB, D.J.2, 1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research La boratory, Ann Arbor, MI. Modeling Thermal Structure in Lake Erie. A 1D version of the Princeton Ocean Model was a pplied to Lake Erie to model vertical thermal structure in 1972-2005. The model is driven with mome ntum and heat fluxes calculated from standard meteorological observations at Clev eland using overland-overlake co rrection for wind speed. The model was calibrated with 1994 data and evaluated wi th 2004-2005 temperature observations at mid-lake location. The model was also run in 3D mode for 2005 on a 2 km horizontal grid. 3D model results were compared with 1D model results to assess how late ral processes affect stra tification and also how stratification varies spatially over the central basin, and how lateral processes limit (or impact) the use of 1-d model approximations. BENNINGTON, V. 1, KIMURA, N.1, MCKINLEY, G.A.1, WU, C.H.2, ATILLA, N.1, and URBAN, N.R.3, 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Atmospheri c and Oceanic Sciences, Madison, WI, 53706; 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Madison, WI, 53706; 3Michigan Technological University, Civil and Environmenta l Engineering, Houghton, MI, 49931. Climate Impacts on the Circulation and Thermal Structure in Lake Superior. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to Lake Superior on 2 km and 10 km grids to study the circulation and thermal structure. The mode l is forced by interpolated meteorological data constructed from land-based weather stations, b uoys, and other measurements. Observations of temperature profiles at 19 moorings ar e used to test the sens itivity of vertical grid resolution and different

PAGE 11

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 9 turbulence mixing closures in the model. The thermal profile is best modeled us ing a 5-m vertical grid resolution near the surfa ce, but different turbulence closures do not significantly change the modeled thermal profile. Increasing horizonta l resolution from 10 km to 2 km improves the seasonally and depth averaged circulation patterns compared to 1967 su mmer data. Modeled surface temperatures compare well to satellite-based surface wa ter temperature images derived from NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), though ther e are regional patterns of bias that suggest errors in the heat flux forcing. Adding terms for cooling of the lake surf ace through the latent heat loss during ice breakup improves model-data comparisons. We consider results from an El Nio and a La Nia year to consider the effects of climate variability on lake circulation and temperature structure. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Lake Superior, Climate change. BERGES, J.A. VON KORFF, B., GUINN, E ., and YOUNG, E.B., Dept. Biological Sciences, U. Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI, 53211. Are Nuisance Blooms of Benthic Algae Reshaping Nearshore Si lica Cycling in Lake Michigan? Blooms of Cladophora sp. in Lake Michigan have obvious effects on aesthetics, but only more recently has their role in nutrient cy cling been considered, e.g., their i nvolvement with dreissenid mussels in the nearshore shunt of phosphor us. We investigated whether Cladophora and its dense communities of epiphytic diatoms could also be a significant sink for silicate. Cladophora was collected over two summers from sites near Milwaukee, and biogenic silicate (BSi) in th e algae and dissolved silicate (DSi) in overlying waters were measured. Cladophora with epiphytes averaged a remarkable 166 68 mg BSi /g dry mass, but even Cladophora lacking epiphytes contained >50 mg /g. DSi in the nearshore was often lower and much more variable than offshore, sugge sting a nearshore sink for Si. Using estimates of Cladophora coverage from aerial photos, and biomass a nd BSi from samplings, we modeled DSi use by benthic algae in the nearshor e region. Daily Si demand of Cladophora assemblages represented 7 70% of dissolved Si in overlying nearshore waters. This significant but previously unrecognized Si pool could therefore significantly change the Lake Michigan silica cycle, affecting othe r Si-requiring organisms (e.g., pelagic diatoms) in nearshore waters, during periods of calm weather. Keywords: Nutrients, Cladophora, Biogeochemistry. BHAVSAR, S.P. AWAD, E.R., WINTER, J.G., and FLETCHE R, R., 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6. Temporal Trends of Legacy Cont aminants in Lake Simcoe Fish. Lake Simcoe receives the greate st angling pressure of any Ontari o inland lake, with an estimated fishing effort of approximately 702,000 angler hours resulting in over 781,000 catches in the 2005 winter fishery alone. Annual recreational activities on the lake generate approximately 200 million dollars, with the fishery as the main contributor. However, consum ption advisories are issued for large sizes of many fish species found in the lake becaus e of high levels of persistent toxi c chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury. Long-term trends of contaminants in sport fish can be useful in assessing the health of Lake Simcoe and in constructing future management plans. The data collected by the Sport Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment show that PCB levels are generally much lower compared to the levels in the 1970s; however, the de cline has ceased since the

PAGE 12

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 10 early 1990s. In contrast, mercury levels are stable or show a weak decline over the last 30 years. Concentrations of some pesticides (e.g., Chlordane, Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) have also declined. Total dichlorodiphenyltrichlor oethane (DDT) concentrations were elev ated in the late 1970s, but declined in the early 1980s. Since that time, the levels have remained relatively low and stable. Keywords: Biomonitoring, Enviro nmental contaminants, Fish. BIDDANDA, B.A. 1, KENDALL, S.T.1, SANDERS, T.G.1, and NOLD, S.C.2, 1Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751. Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems of Lake Huron: Insights into System Metabolism. Dissolution of Silurian-Devonian aquifer in the Lake Huron basi n has produced several limestone karst formations in the bedrock, through which groundwater containing high dissolved sulfate and extremely low dissolved oxygen discharges onto the Lake Huron floor. This supports unique underwater habitats having steep environmental gradients and pr olific benthic cyanobacterial mats. Earlier ROV and diver led studies of some recently discovered Lake Hu ron sinkholes in western Lake Huron showed them to be microbially dominated biogeochemical hots pots of intense photosynthetic and chemosynthetic production of organic matter. New continuous in situ sonde measurements of dissolved sulfate and oxygen in water and benthic chambers suggest that whereas shallow sunlit sinkholes are clearly photosynthesis dominated, they give way to chem osynthesis dominated deeper aphotic sinkholes. Intermediate depth sinkholes appear to be fueled by both photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis taking place in the purple cyanobacterial mats. A dditional data from pigm ent composition, molecular fingerprints, stable isotope pr obing, 13C, 15N, and 34S signatures, dissolved oxygen metabolism, and radiolabelling experiments will be analyzed to provi de insights into the complex system metabolism occurring at submerged sinkhole ecosystems of Lake Huron. Keywords: Ecosystems, Biogeochemistry, Lake Huron. BIDLEMAN, T.F. 1, WATSON, S.B.2, RIDAL, J.J.3, and STARK, T.4, 1Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0, Canada; 2Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research, Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada; 3St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont St., Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1, Canada; 4IQsynthesis, 11810 Borman Dr., St. Louis, MO, 63146, USA. Chiral Taste and Odor Compounds in the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Geosmin ( trans -dimethyltrans -9S-decalol) is a principal cause of musty odor and taste in drinking water drawn from the St. Lawrence River a nd the Great Lakes. Geosmin is a sesquiterpenoid produced by some cyanobacteria, Streptomyces and other actinomycetes (soil bacteria) and fungi such as Penicillium It is a principal odor component in soil and has been identified in lakes, reservoirs, pulp mill effluent treatment ponds, and wine contaminated by m oulds. Reports indicate that the () enantiomer is the naturally synthesized form of geosmin, although th e enantiomer composition of geosmin found in the Great Lakes has not been characteri zed. This is important, since the odor threshold of () geosmin (<10

PAGE 13

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 11 ng/L) is about 10 times lower than the (+) form. The commercial standard used by most labs for sensory and chemical analyses is a racemic mix. Extracts of water collected from the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario, and from pure cultures of microorganisms, were analyzed for geosmin and a second mustyflavored terpenoid, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). Concentrations ranged from 2.2-8.7 ng/L for geosmin and 1.1-2.5 ng/L for 2-MIB. Separation and identific ation of geosmin and 2-MIB enantiomers were achieved by GC-MS on chiral-phase co lumns. Only the () enantiomers were found in all water samples. Keywords: Algae, Impared water use, Lake Ontario. BINDING, C.E. JEROME, J.H., BUKATA, R.P., and BOOTY, W.G., National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. Suspended Particulate Matte r in Lake Erie Derived from MODIS Aquatic Color Imagery. A study was conducted exploring th e potential use of MODIS Aqua wavebands in the red/nearinfra-red for estimating concentrations of suspended pa rticulate matter (SPM) in the turbid waters of Lake Erie. At these longer wavelengths th e influence of dissolved organic ma tter and chlorophyll on the optical properties is greatly reduced thereby offering improved accuracy in the determination of SPM concentrations from satellite observations of aquatic color. Daily MODIS aqua imagery were obtained and processed for the retrieval of spectral water-leaving ra diance over Lake Erie. A strong correlation was found between water-leaving radiance at 748 nm and co incident in situ measurements of surface SPM concentrations, suggesting it may be possible to use inverse optical modeling te chniques to accurately retrieve SPM concentrations at this wavelength. The absorption and scattering properties required as inputs into these models were determined for Lake Er ie during research cruises in 2004/05. Results of the modeling procedures are outlined and used to crea te maps of SPM concentrations for Lake Erie. Keywords: Remote sensing, Lake Erie, Sediment resuspension. BIRCEANU, O. 1, MCCLELLAND, G.B.2, and WILKIE, M.P.1, 1Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L3C5; 2Department of Biology, McMast er University, Hamilton, ON, L8S4K1. Different Effects of TFM on Gill Function and Toxicity in Larval Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) Compared to Rainbow Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). The lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), is applied to streams containing larval sea lampreys to control parasitic lamprey populations in the Great Lakes. However, the mode of action of TFM is unclear. One hypothesis is that it inhibits oxida tive ATP production by mitochondria, leading to fuel deficits and death. A second hypot hesis is it that it may cause deat h by interfering with ion uptake (e.g., Na+) at the gills. We tested this second hypothesis by exposing larval lamprey and rainbow trout to sub-lethal concentrations of TFM fo r 12 h. Radiotracer experiments using 24Na+ revealed that TFM exposure caused an immediate and sustained 50-60% decrease in Na+ uptake by trout, but not larval lamprey. However, the Na+ uptake disturbance was reversible when the trout were transferred to TFMfree water. Mean cellular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased by 3-4 times after 12 h of TFM exposure in trout, but not in lamprey. This finding suggests that by compromising ion uptake at the trout gill, TFM exposure may have led to osmotic (water) im balances and blood cell shrinkage. Thus, the mode of TFM toxicity in trout compared to lampreys may be different, but reversible. The authors gratefully

PAGE 14

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 12 acknowledge the Great Lakes Fishery Co mmission for funding this project. Keywords: Comparison studies, Fish, Pesticides. BOBROWSKI, R.J. 1, DESJARDINS, M.2, WILSON, C.C.2, and JONES, N.E.2, 1Watershed Ecosystem Graduate Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON; 2Ontario Ministry on Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON; 3None, None. Survival, Growth, and Emigration of Stocked Atlantic Salmon in Lake Ontario Streams. Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) were once abundant in Lake Ontari o, but died out in the late 19th century. Key information needs for restoration include determining stocking and recruitment success of different stocked life stages, and asse ssing life-stage specific survival contributing to adult returns. To address these, we are assessing the relative survival and growth of different lif e stages (fry, fingerlings, and yearlings) stocked in tributaries, as well as their timing of emigration to Lake Ontario with respect to environmental cues. Results from the first field seas on indicate substantial diffe rences in survival and timing of out-migration among stocked life stages. A bundance and distribution of stocked fish in lotic habitats were assessed by backpack electrofishing; emigrating smolts were captured using a stationary fyke net in the lower reaches of Cobourg Brook. Numbers of emigrants were estimated using injected tags and stratified mark-recapture techniques; identification of life stages relied on fin clips, scale pattern analysis, and size distribution. Outmigrating smo lts from Cobourg Brook (n=7748) showed bimodal emigration intervals: one strong puls e coincided with spring stream di scharge and warming temperatures, and a second, more diffused, emigration peak continued until midsummer. Keywords: Fish populations, Fisheries, Fish management. BODAMER, B.L. and BOSSENBROEK, J.M., University of Toledo The Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. Wetlands as Barriars: Effect s of Vegetated Waterways on the Downstream Dispersal of Zebra Mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha ). Stream flow is a major vector for zebra mu ssel spread among inland lakes. I hypothesized that vegetated waterways, i.e., wetlands would hinder downstrea m dispersal of zebra mussels in connected inland lake systems. To test this hypothesis, velige r (larva) abundance, recru itment, and adult mussels were surveyed in four lake-wetland systems in southeastern Michigan, USA from May through August 2006. Sampling was conducted downstream of the zebra mu ssel invaded lakes, begi nning at the upstream edge of aquatic vegetation and c ontinuing downstream through the wetlan d streams. Results showed that veliger abundance decreased rapidly in vegetated waterways compared to their previously reported rates of decrease in non-vegetated streams. Veligers were rarely found more than 1 km downstream from where vegetation began. Newly recruited in dividuals and adults were extrem ely rare beyond open water in the study systems. These results suggest that densely vege tated aquatic ecosystems lim it the dispersal of zebra mussels downstream from invaded sources. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Dispersal, Dreissena, Veligers, Wetlands, Source-sink dynamics.

PAGE 15

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 13 BOEGMAN, L. 1, LOEWEN, M.R.2, CULVER, D.A.2, and HAMBLIN, P.F.4, 1Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Al berta, Edmonton, AL, T6G 2W2; 3Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, The Ohio Stat e University, Columbus, OH, 43210; 4National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Coupling Between Stratification, Mixing and Dreissenid Grazing Impact s in Western Lake Erie. Dreissenid mussels are an invasive species that have been implicated in the reduction of algae stocks in the near-shore environmen t of western Lake Erie. Here, we numerically model their basin-wide effects during 1994. When modeled as true benthic organisms (resting on the bottom), the dreissenids grazed 53% of the western basin net algal growth re sulting in a 0.1 mg/L reduc tion in the pelagic algae concentration relative to the case without dreissenids. In compar ison, dreissenids grazed 77% of the western basin algal growth when the lake was fully mixed. The biomass grazed was governed by a balance between the timescales of vertical wind-induced mixing and benthic grazing. During calm conditions, weak stratification (~ 1C between surface and bottom waters) was sufficient to suppress vertical mixing. Under these conditio ns a concentration boundary layer CBL ~ 1 m thick formed wherever the dreissenid areal pumping ra te is greater than 2 m3m-2d-1; thus accounting for the reduced grazing effect relative to the fully mixed case. Entrainment of th e CBL occurred when the mean daily wind speed 4 m above the lake surface U > 6 m/s (associated with the characteristic 10-d storm cycle). Typically in western Lake Erie, U < 6 m/s, the water column is weakly stratified and a CBL is present. Keywords: Dreissena, Hydrodynamics, Lake Erie. BOLLIN, T. 2, HAPONSKI, A.E.1, and STEPIEN, C.A.1, 16200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618; 2Scott Park Campus, Toledo, OH, 43607. Genetic Divergence Pattern s of the Rainbow Darter Etheostoma caeruleum : A Watershed Analysis using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences and Nuclear Microsatellites. The rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum is a common small benthic fish in the eastern United States, whose population genetic st ructure in the Great Lakes re gion is largely unknown. Our study analyzes mitochondrial DNA sequences from the cytochrome b gene (cyt b; 1122 bp) and 8 nuclear microsatellite loci to compare popul ation genetic variation of the rai nbow darter from the Lake Erie watershed (Blanchard, Chagrin, Cuyahoga, Grand Rivers) versus the Oh io River watershed (Big Darby Creek and Little Miami River). We identify 34 cyt b haplotypes that are differe ntially distributed between the two watersheds, and fine-scale relationships with in their respective tributar ies are further resolved using microsatellites. Bayesian Stru cture analysis reveals two distinct clusters between the watersheds, which diverge by ST = 0.378 and a pairwise distance of 0.014, da ting to ~700,000 years ago according to a cyt b molecular clock calibration for darters. Within th e two systems, greater di vergence distinguishes the Ohio River locations ( ST = 0.094), reflecting less connectivity, than is found among the tributaries linking with Lake Erie. Lake Erie tributary populations al so are differentiated using microsatellites, showing fine-scale patterns. Keywords: Biodiversity, Fi sh populations, Genetics.

PAGE 16

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 14 BOOTY, W.G. 1 and BOWAN, G.S.2, 1National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 2Toronto and Region Conservation, 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. The Determination of Stream Loadings and the Identification of Sources of Contaminants along the North Shore of Lake Ontario. Lake Ontario serves as the drinking water suppl y for over six million Ontario residents and is the subject of a special study funded by the Ontario Ministry of Environmen t to protect lake-based drinking water intakes. Also, in 2008, an intensive Canada/U .S. nearshore monitoring program will take place in Lake Ontario. On the Canadian side of the lake ther e are four focused sampling areas. Because adequate stream flow and water quality data are missing for most of the watersheds, in Phase 1 of the project we employed a range of estimation procedures designed to provide an approximation of the loads. Loadings for nutrients and suspended solids were determined through the use of several different methods: event mean concentrations coupled with runoff volumes for daily, monthly, and annual time steps; unit area loadings on a watershed and sub-wate rshed basis; directly calculated loads using combined stream and flow chemistry; and non-point sour ce model estimated peak loads for major storm events. In phase 2 enhanced monitoring of the priority tributaries, along with more detailed watershed-based modeling assessments, are being carried out to identify sources and to better quant ify the loads. In addition, other drinking water quality parameters are also being investigated to expand our understanding of effective watershed BMP's. Keywords: Monitoring, Lake Ontario, Model studies. BORTONE, S.A. MOEN, S., SCHEUER, D., and JOSEPH, A ., Minnesota Sea Grant College, 2305 East Fifth St., Duluth, MN, 55812. Recent Trends in Great Lakes Research: Information for Those Who Suffer from Lake Envy!. There is an unspoken, or at least su btle, adage that some lakes get more than their fair share of attention when it comes to research funding, initiativ es, and effort. We examine this adage by evaluating the research focus in abstracts presented over the past 20 years at the annu al IAGLR conferences. All abstracts were read and tabulated for research con ducted according to lake (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario), subject matter (fish, frogs, chemicals, plankton, sediments, etc.), and year. We also examined the results with regard to bias created wh en the host institution was proximate to a particular lake. For example, this past year (2007) a prepondera nce of the presentations we re about Lake Erie but the IAGLR conference was held at nearby Penn St ate University. Adjustments to the analyses incorporated other considerations th at included lake specific features such as size (volume, area, and drainage area), associated huma n population, financial importance, and environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient levels). There have been si gnificant increases in research rela ted to education, aquatic invasive species, hypoxia, and wetlands and d eclines in research regarding ma mmals, arthropods, economics, and sediments. A notable conclusion: Sometimes some lakes get more attention than they deserve sometimes not! Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Public education, Water quality. BOUGHTON, L.1, LAPLANTE, E. 2, and SIMON, M.B.2, 1Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 230 Chestnut St., Meadville, PA, 16335; 2United States Environmental Protection Agency, 77

PAGE 17

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 15 W. Jackson, Chicago, IL, 60604. Illuminating the Great Lakes: LaMPs as the Model for Ecosystem Management. The Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) serves as the model for ecosystem management for the Great Lakes basin. Born out of th e 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, each of the Great Lakes is managed by either a LaMP or an appropriate pr ogram. The LaMPs apply the practical methods of an ecosystem approach to regional policy and resour ce management through stakeholder diversity, ongoing cooperation, and adaptation to cha nging environmental and political c onditions. The LaMPs foster crosssector collaboration between local, state, and fede ral stakeholders and exemp lify binational partnership between the U.S. and Canada. LaMPs provide structure for coordinating research, pooling resources, making joint commitments, and identifying funding priorities. The LaMP adaptive management approach addresses persistent issues and syst ematically incorporates emerging issu es, such as the effects of global climate change. The successes and failures of the LaMP can also be identified when considered as the ecosystem model. LaMPs should be the guiding framew ork for the management interventions needed, as the GLWQA defines, to maintain and restore the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. Keywords: Policy making, Public involvement, Management, Ecosystem approach, Water quality, Research. BOUVIER, L.D. 1, COTTENIE, K.2, and DOKA, S.E.1, 1Great Lakes Lab for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada; 2Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. Relating Species Traits to Habitat Characteristics in Coastal Wetlands of the Lower Great Lakes. It is well known that habitat characteristics play a critical role in struct uring fish assemblages. Generally, relationships are determin ed between species assemblages and habitat characteristics first and in some cases these relationships are related to certai n key traits. However, fourth -corner analysis directly associates species traits to habitat characteristics. We tested these asso ciations in wetland systems of the lower Great Lakes. Fish and habitat surveys were conducted in 12 wetlands. A literature search was completed to gather information on 42 life-histor y and biogeographical characteristics for 129 fish species. We predicted, a priori, specific species tra it and habitat associations based on our literature search. Results indicated that the environmental variab les with the greatest significant relationships to the life-history and biogeographical char acteristics were the area of the tertiary watershed, macrophyte coverage. Of the 49 predicted associ ations approximately half were co rrect (49-53% correct predictions). However, 72-83% of the predicted a ssociations related to vegetative coverage were correctly predicted. This method provides a very important framework whic h may be incorporated into risk assessments for invasive species, and used to predict effect s of climate change on species distributions. Keywords: Coastal wetlands Fish, Species composition. BOWEN, K.L.1, GERLOFSMA, J. 1, and LORENTZ, J.A.2, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2University of Waterloo, 200 Universi ty Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Abundance and Population Dynamics of Mysis relicta in Lake Huron 2007.

PAGE 18

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 16 The lower food web of Lake Huron has undergon e dramatic changes following the spread of quagga mussels ( Dreissena bugensis ) and the spiny water flea Bythotrephes Diporeia, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and alewife appear to have declined markedly since 2003. However, the status of the opossum shrimp Mysis relicta is largely unknown in Lake Huron, despite its intermediate position in the food web. In 2007, following sampling done in 2003, we sampled the mysid population at four stations seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) and did a lakewide survey in August. Mean abundance was low in May (24 mysids/m2) and increased through August (115/m2) and into October (151/m2). Compared to our 2003 data, May and August densities were low. The maximum abundance of 200/m2, found in Oct 2007, was also considerably lower than the 847/m2 found in 1971 by Carpenter et al As with the other Great Lakes, abundance increased with depth. August sa mpling showed lower populations of mysids in Georgian Bay compared to L. Huron. Keywords: Populations, Mysids, Lake Huron. BOWEN, K.L. 1, GERLOFSMA, J.1, SCHANER, T.2, and KOOPS, M.A.1, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2OMNR, Lake Ontario Management Unit, 41 Hatchery Lane, R.R. #4, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Monitoring the Spread of the Invasive Crustacean Hemimysis anomala in the Great Lakes. The first North American reports of the bloody red shrimp ( Hemimysis anomala ) were in Muskegon, MI and Oswego, NY in 2006. This Ponto-Casp ian mysid has already invaded many areas of Russia, Europe, and the UK. In contra st to the coldwater native shrimp Mysis relicta this species adaptation to shallow, warm waters will allow it to invade many habitats currently free of mysids. Hemimysis is a voracious omnivore that consumes phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus. To determine its spread and potential effects on the aqua tic food web, we sampled nearshore areas of all five Great Lakes in 2007 for both Hemimysis and zooplankton. As this mysid prefers rocks and other hard substrates, sampling from docks and breakwalls with bot tle traps or nighttime vertical net hauls was often effective. In Lake Ontario, nearshore surface tows taken at night also produced Hemimysis To date, this invader was captured in nearshore areas throughout Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Erie, but was not found in Lakes Superior, Huron, or the De troit/St. Clair river co rridor. Given its wide spread distribution, it likely invaded the Great Lakes some time prior to 2006. Keywords: Invasive species, Hemimysis, Monitoring. BOWERMAN, W.W. 1 and FOX, G.A.2, 1Clemson University, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Clemson, SC, 29634; 2Canadian Wildlife Service, Nationa l Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3. Analysis of Wildlife Indicators to Measu re Impaired Reproduction and Deformites. One of the health indicators related to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement is the Beneficial Use Impairment for impaired reproduction or deform ities in wildlife. We exam ined the literature to determine which wildlife species had defensible ca use-effect linkage data, indicating injury from environmental contaminants within the Areas of Con cern. Criteria included the ability to identify Toxic Reference Values for reproductive impairment and/or deformities in these species. Only nine wildlife species fit these criteria: mink; snapping turtle; herring gull ; Caspian, common, and Forster's terns; bald eagle; black-crowned night -heron; and double-crested cormorant. Chemicals where TRVs could be

PAGE 19

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 17 determined for these two endpoints included mercur y, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs-PCDDs-PCDFs. No single indicator species coul d be used for both endpoints and all 4 gr oups of chemicals. When none of the nine wildlife species are present in an Area of Concern, we have developed a bioaccumulation model to indicate potential effects to wildlife based on concentrations of these ch emicals in forage fish. This talk will illustrate the utility and limitations for delisting AOCs based on this beneficial use impairment. Keywords: Indicators, Bioi ndicators, Ecosystem health. BOWERMAN, W.W. 1, SIKARSKIE, J.G.2, and BEST, D.A.3, 1Clemson University, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Clemson, SC, 29630; 2Michigan State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 3U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Ea st Lansing Field Office, East Lansing, MI, 48823. Trends of Contaminants and Effects in Bald Eagles from Michigan, 1986-2007. The effects of environmental contaminan ts on the reproduction of bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are well known. Eagles were one of the primary sentinel species that indicated the impacts of legacy compounds in the Great La kes region. By the mid-1960s, eagles we re nearly extirpated from the shorelines and islands of the lakes. Reproductive out come for nearly all nests in Michigan has been monitored since 1961. Beginning in the 1970s, unhatched eggs were collected from nests and analyzed for concentrations of environmental contaminants. In the mid-1980s, non-lethal collections of blood and feathers from nestlings began and c oncentrations within these tissues indicated exposure. We report here on the trends in concentrations of legacy compounds within eggs, blood plasma, and feathers of adult and nestling eagles from Michigan, for the period 19862007. Concentration of legacy compounds with the exception of Hg have declined. We have also anal yzed these tissues for new and emerging chemicals including PFOS, and will present thes e data also. Their large size, co ntinuous reproductive database, and great distribution across Michigan allo ws us to use the eagle as one of the primary biosentinel species for monitoring trends and effects of environmental contaminants. Keywords: Bioindicators, Environmental contaminants, Toxic substances. BOYER, G.L. 1, SATCHWELL, M.F.1, DAMON, R.2, HOTTO, A.M.1, and YANG, X.1, 1State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210; 2Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY, 13224. Analysis of Cyanobacteria Toxins in Lake Champlain; What This Tells Us about Harmful Algal Blooms in Other Large Lake Ecosystems. Cyanobacterial toxins have been detected in Lake Champlain for the past 8 years. Since 2002, water samples were collected lake-wide and an alyzed for nutrients, algal abundance, and the cyanobacterial peptide toxin microcystin. Microcystin concentrations were determined by the activity based protein phosphatase inhibiti on assay (PPIA). PCR was used to detect cyanobacterial and Microcystis 16S rRNA genes, and the microcystin bios ynthetic genes mcyB, mcyD, and mcyA, which indicate potential microcystin production. Cyanobact erial abundance and microc ystin concentrations peaked in late summer and showed a distinct nort h south gradient. Toxin levels were highest in Missisquoi Bay, the extreme northeast end of the lake, where concentrations routinely reached 5 g/L in open water and greater than 30 g/L in surface scums. PCR analysis indicated that both toxic and nontoxic cyanobacteria are common throughout the lake. Presence of th e microcystin biosynthetic genes

PAGE 20

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 18 outside Missisquoi Bay indicates pot ential for toxic blooms to occur in other areas of the lake. The neurotoxin anatoxin-a occured at significant concentrations (>1 g/L) but was ephemeral and represented unique and nonsystematic events. The relationships between toxin distribution and major nutrient and physical forcing factors will also be presented. Keywords: Cyanophyta, Micr ocystis, Lake Champlain. BRANDT, S.B. 1, COSTANTINI, M.2, LUDSIN, S.A.3, MASON, D.M.1, and VANDERPLOEG, H.A.1, 1NOAA Great Lakes Environment Research Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2World Wildlife Fund, Rome, Italy; 3Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Ohio St ate University, Columbus, OH, 43212. Spatially-explicit Growth Predictions to A ssess Habitat Quality of Walleye during Hypoxia in Lake Erie. Biological and environmental data were used to quantify the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of walleye in the Lake Erie central basin. Walleye growth rate potential (GRP) was modeled along kilometer-scale transects at 4-hr intervals across the diel cycle. Tr ansects were sampled during August (before hypoxia), September (dur ing hypoxia), and October (after hypoxia), 2005. We introduced a detrimental effect of reduced DO concentrations (3 mg L-1) on walleye consumption in a prey-temperature GRP model to estimate growth within the species optimal foraging light range. Results showed that walleye habitat quality (GRP>0) was only slightly reduced by bottom hypoxia per se. Maps showed also that GRP followed the distribution of preyfish, which, in turn, aggregated in oxygenated waters. Accordingly, hypoxia did not largely affect the wa lleye habitat quality pe r se. In contrast, by concentrating prey in oxygenated waters and forcing them up in the water column, hypoxia might have the potential to increase prey density at depths where light levels and te mperatures are optimal to forage. Results should be useful in eval uating how increasing hypoxia in Lake Erie might affect overall walleye production. Keywords: Lake Erie, Walleye, Oxygen. BRIDGEMAN, T.B. and SIGLER, W.V., Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606-3390. Lyngbya wollei Blooms in Western Lake Erie 20062007. We report observations on the first known majo r bloom of the potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya wollei, in Lake Erie. In early September 2006, a period of strong northeast winds and accompanying elevated water levels a nd wave action deposited large mats of L. wollei in coves along the southern shore of Maumee Bay. These mats rema ined intact over the winter and new growth was observed along the margins of the mats in Apri l 2007. Mats ranged betwee n 0.2-1.2 m in thickness and we estimated that one 100 m stretch of shoreline was covered with approximately 200 metric tons of L. wollei (wet weight). Near-sho re benthic mats growing at water de pths of 1.5 m were observed in August 2007. Patterns of L. wollei growth and mobility appear similar to reports from other regions as large portions of the mats became detached from the bottom in September 2007 and were observed floating up to 10 km offshore. Fresh shoreline material was analyzed in spring of 2007 using ELISA to detect paralytic shellfish toxi ns known to occur in L. wollei Saxitoxins (saxitoxin plus analogues) were detected at a concentration of 1.1 g saxitoxin g-1 dry weight (+/0.02). Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Lake Erie, Invasive species.

PAGE 21

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 19 BROWN, S., VILLELLA, M., BROWN L., MCMASTER, M., and SHERRY, J. Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Is the Thyroid Status of Wild-fish Impaired in the Lake Erie Areas of Concern? As part of a broader assessment of wildlife health in Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) we are examining wild-fish for evidence of exposure to thyroid disruptors. Thyroid microfollicular hyperplasia was a continuing problem in Great Lakes salmonids as recently as 1995. We will focus on the Lake Erie AOCs: Wheatley Harbour, the St. Cl air River, and the Detroit Rive r. We divided each AOC into upstream, impact zone, and downstream sites. At eac h site, we captured adult males and females of a pelagic and a benthic species. We asse ssed the external and internal stat e of the fish by visual estimation of malformations such as lesions, tu mors, parasites, and eroded fins (D ELTs). We used a suite of assays to detect perturbations in the thyroid axis. Those assays can de tect changes in the production of T4 (thyroxine) and in the peripheral production of T3 (tri-iodothyroxine) from T4. T4 and T3 de-iodinase activity were measured in liver microsomal fractions We measured thyroid ep ithelial cell height and assessed follicular condition in slic es through that gland. The results, which showed some evidence of hormonal perturbation, shall be discusse d within the context of the thyroi d systems ability to compensate for stress on one or other of its component parts. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Fish, Bioindicators. BRUCE, J.P. 1875 Juno Ave., Ottawa, ON, K1H 6S6. Water Levels of the Upper Great Lakes. To the limited extent practicab le, through the IJC, levels of S uperior and Ontario have been regulated to maximize economic, social, and environmen tal benefits, especially when levels are high or low in the historical range. What should be done when those high and low events become more frequent and extreme, especially since co mmunities, recreation, ecosystems, a nd businesses related to the lakes have adapted to the norms of the 20th century? This is the essence of the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS). Levels of La kes Superior and Michigan-Huron ha ve been near or below record lows since autumn 2007. Possible reasons for the decline in levels must be assessed in order to recommend suitable action. Among these, in addition to a drainhole or contin uing erosion in the St. Clair River as some have proposed, are glacial isostatic rebound, diversi ons of water out of the system, changes in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff. If the causes are hydroc limatic, are they due to natural variability which will soon return to normal, or a manifestation of longer term climate change? This 5 year study will address the St. Clai r River issue first, with a repor t due in 2009, and later consider modifications to Lake Superior regu lation. The Study approach and scientific results from the first years work will be presented. Keywords: Water level, IUGLS, St Clair River, IJC, Lake Superior. BURLAKOVA, L.E. and KARATAYEV, A.Y., Great Lakes Center, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, NY, 14222. The Effect of Zebra Mussel In vasion on Benthic Communities in North American and European Lakes.

PAGE 22

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 20 Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha ) are very effective ecosystem engineers, impacting both the physical and biological environment. They change the existing and provide a new habitat for native bottom organisms, and affect trophic interactions and the availability of food fo r both benthic and pelagic species. To compare the effect of zebra mussels on native invertebrates we studied density and composition of zoobenthos within D. polymorpha aggregations (druses) formed on different sediment types, and in the bare sediments near druses, in glacial lakes in North America and Europe. Benthic community associated with D. polymorpha in both North American and European lakes had higher density, biomass, and species richness. Regardless of the type of sediment where Dreissena druses were formed, benthic community within druses (excluding zebra mussel) was always remarkably similar and dominated by amphipods, leaches, midges, and mayflies. In contrast, zoobenthos density and dominant species in bare sediments differe d significantly depending on the subs trate type. By forming druses on various substrates, zebra mussels create new multi-dime nsional habitat colonized by invertebrates that are generally uncommon in fine sediments, increasing the local biodiversity and heterogeneity of benthic communities. Keywords: Benthos, Zebra mussels, Species composition. BYER, J. STRUGER, J., KLAWUNN, P., and SVERKO, E., Environment Canada, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Analytical Evaluation of the ELISA Method as a Water Quality Monitoring Tool for Surface Water Samples. Compound degradation versus sample holding time was investigated for four herbicides; atrazine, glyphosate, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor using a magnetic-based, competitive direct, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of each pesticide in several surface water matrices from southern Ontario was de termined and monitored for two identical sample batches, frozen and unfrozen. Subsamples were analyzed over the span of eight weeks in order to develop a stability value for each pesticide. Regression analys is showed that both frozen and unfrozen samples demonstrated a relatively insignificant difference in stability value for atrazine and metolachlor. The reliability of ELISA results for surface water samp les was evaluated against gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for 2,4-D, atrazine, and metolachlor and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for glyphosate. Comparative an alysis between wet chemistry methods and ELISA revealed a R2 value of 0.35, 0.92, 0.32, and 0.88, for the above mentioned herbicid es, respectively. The commercially available 2,4-D and metolachlor ELISA k its appeared to be unreliable alternatives to GC/MS analysis while glyphosate and atrazine ELISA test kits were determined to compare quantitatively with traditional analysis. Keywords: Pesticides, Atrazine, Glyphosate. BYER, J.1, STRUGER, J. 1, KLAWUNN, P.1, SVERKO, E.1, and TODD, A.2, 1Environment Canada, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON. Large Scale Field Utilization of the ELISA Method as a Water Quality Monitoring Tool for Surface Water Samples in Ontario. A total of 739 surface water samples from over 100 sampling locations throughout Ontario were monitored using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from April to October 2007, in order to obtain spatial and temporal trend information. Concentra tions exceeded the method detection limit in 38% and

PAGE 23

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 21 26% of the samples for atrazine and glyphosate, respectively. The highest concentrations for both pesticides were observed in samples collected duri ng a precipitation event. Atrazine concentrations exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for the protection of freshwater aquatic life (1.8 g/L) in less than 1% of the samples (6 of 739 samples). The highest concentratio ns of atrazine were observed in late spring/early summer in ag ricultural watersheds. Glyphosate c oncentrations showed a bimodal distribution with peak concentra tions occurring in late spring/early summer and autumn. Glyphosate concentrations did not exceed the guideline for the protection of aquatic life (65 g/L) in any of the samples. The highest concentrati on of glyphosate was 12.02 g/L associat ed with a precipitation event in an urban watershed. Keywords: Pesticides, Watersheds, Atrazine, Glyphosate. CAMPBELL, G.D. 1, WELCH, M.K.1, BARKER, I.K.1, MOCCIA, R.D.2, and ROBINSON, J.T.3, 1Ontario/Nunavut Region, Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Cent re, Dept. of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Aquaculture Centre, Dept. of Animal & Poultry Science, Ontario Agricultural Colleg e, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 3Canadian Wildlife Service, 465 Gideon Dr., London, ON, N6P 1Z7. Canadian Experience Type E Botulism in Fish-eating Birds on the Lower Gr eat Lakes: A Consequence of Invading Alien Species? Clostridium botulinum Type E spores are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems, but until recently, Type E intoxication has rarely been associ ated with large-scale w ildlife mortality. Since 1998, Type E botulism involving thousands of shorebirds, gulls, terns, diving ducks, mergansers, grebes, cormorants, and loons has occurred in southern Lake Huron, progressing down Lake Erie into Lake Ontario in 2002. Unusual in terms of the number of avian species i nvolved, their geographic scope, their size, and their recurrent nature, these outbreaks may reflect fundamental ecological shifts in the lower Great Lakes associated with invading alien species Predisposing factors may include perturbations associated with eruptions of inva sive dreissenid mussels, and round gobi es. Type E botulism toxin may be evolved in a suitable redox environm ent in the extensive mussel beds on the lake bottom, and may be concentrated in mussels. Fish such as gobies may acquire toxin through feeding in mussel beds and act as a source of toxin for predatory fish or for fish-eat ing birds higher in the f ood web. Mussel-feeding diving ducks may acquire toxin directly, rath er than via a fish vector. Scavengers such as gulls may acquire toxin through consumption of toxin-containing carcasses, and shoreb irds through consumption of toxic invertebrates. Keywords: Botulism Type D, Avian diseases, Invasive species. CAMPBELL, L.M. 1, MUIR, D.C.G.3, POULOPOULOS, J.1, BACKUS, S.3, KYSER, K.1, COX, L.1, ARRIBRE, M.4, and HECKY, R.E.2, 1School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minne sota, 2205 E. 5th St., Duluth, Minnesota, MN, 55812-2401; 3Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Roa d, Burlington, Ontario, ON, L7R 4A6; 4Centro Atmico Bariloche, Avenida E. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche, Argentina. Food Web Contaminant Trends in Great and Large Lakes of the World. Biomagnification of mercury and metals is a co ncern world-wide. We re view our food web data collected from great and very-large lakes of the world spanning three c ontinents (North America, Africa,

PAGE 24

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 22 and South America), collected in conjunction with many co llaborators. The Great Lakes include lakes from the only two Great Lakes systems in the world, the Laurentian and the African Great Lakes. The very large lakes include Lake Champlain in USA, Lake Albert in Uganda, and Lake Nahuel Huapi in Argentina. We discuss spatial and temporal trends for mercury and key metals. Food web bioaccumulation trends are compared and contrasted across lakes and continents. Keywords: Mercury, Metals, Food chains. CARGNELLI, L.M. 1 and BRIGGS, T.2, 1Environment Canada, Strategic Integration and Partnerships Division, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Ontario Ministry of the Envi ronment, Southwestern Region, London, ON, N6E 1L3. Delisting the Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern. Wheatley Harbour, a small commercial fishing harbor on the north shor e of Lake Erie, was designated an Area of Concern (AOC) in the 1970s because of dissolved oxygen depletion, elevated bacterial levels, nutrient enrichme nt, and PCB contamination of sedi ments. The AOC encompasses the harbor proper and the wetlands in lower Muddy Creek, a small tributar y which flows into the AOC from the north. The development of the Wheatley Harbour Remedial Action Plan (RAP) was initiated in 1986, and a combined Stage 1/Stage 2 report was complete d in 1998. The report highli ghted five environmental concerns resulting in the impairment of the following be neficial uses: (1) restriction on fish and wildlife consumption, (2) restriction on dredgi ng activities, (3) eutrophication or undesirable algae, (4) loss of fish and wildlife habitat, and (5) degrad ation of fish and wildlife populati ons. Numerous activities have been undertaken by the RAP toward understa nding and restoring these impairme nts. Actions have been guided by delisting criteria and water use goals developed in consultation with the local community. This presentation provides an overview of the efforts made by the RAP part ners toward delisting the Wheatley Harbour AOC. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Im pared water use, Remediation. CARPENTER, D.O. Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, 5 University Place, Rensselaer, NY, 12144-3456. Health Effects of PCB Exposure at Akwesasne. The residents of Akwesasne have been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through consumption of contaminated fish and by breathing c ontaminated air. My colleagues and I have studied routes of exposure through analys is of PCB congener patterns in various media and human blood, and have explored the relationship between exposure and va rious diseases. PCBs levels in this population are only slightly higher than those in the general populat ion. Young people have a PCB pattern that corresponds to that in air, indicating that inhalation as well as ingestion is an important route of exposure. We have demonstrated a significant relationship between elevations of total serum PCB levels in adult Mohawks and diagnosis of diabetes (OR = 3.9 comparing highest to lowest tertile of exposure), elevations in total serum lipids leading to increased cardiovascular disease and reduction in serum testosterone levels in both men and women. In addition we find that higher levels of PCBs are associated with reductions in thyroid hormone function in both a dolescents and adults. Serum levels of DDE and hexachlorobenzene were also positively correlated with some of these diseases, although that of mirex was not. We conclude that even modest exposure to PCBs is associated with elevations in ra tes of several diseases. Keywords: Environmental health, PCBs, St. Lawrence River.

PAGE 25

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 23 CARRICK, H.J. and LASHAWAY, A.R., School of Forest Re sources, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA. Remnants of the Spring Diatom Bloom May Regulate Hypoxia in Lake Erie. Sedimentation of phytoplankton cells following su rface blooms is commonplace, and these events have been tied to hypoxia in some large lake and coas tal ecosystems. Our previous work in Lake Erie shows that planktonic diatom species dominate th e benthic assemblage in the central basin, and chlorophyll concentrations in the benthos decline significant throughout the thermally stratified period (June-September). We tested that hypothesis that oxidation of algal ch lorophyll on the bottom of the lake accounts for the lions-share of oxygen loss in the hypolimnion in lake Erie. During on 18 basin-wide cruises, seasonal sampling of the benthos (M ay-October) was done over four years (2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007). Undisturbed benthic sample s were retrieved on using a box core r so that surficial sediments could be removed and analyzed for chlorophyll, phaeopigments, and algal cell counts. In all years, chlorophyll concentrations decreased with time after thermal stra tification (range 1,000 to 100 mg/m2). In 2007, the rate of decline at two sta tions suggests that the oxidation of algal material can account for a majority of oxygen drawdown from the centr al basin (algal car bon loss of -20.6 mg/m2/days). These appear to be representati ve of basin-wide patterns, as measured among 18 stations throughout the central basin in 2002. Keywords: Diatoms. CAVALETTO, J.F. and VANDERPLOEG, H.A., NOAA/ Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Effect of Hypolimnetic Oxygen Concentration on Vertical Migration and Abundance of Zooplank ton in the Central Basin of Lake Erie. During a hypoxic period in the central basin of Lake Erie zooplankton were collected from sites that varied in levels of dissolved oxygen (02) concentrations from <1 to 4 mg/L in the hypolimnion. To observe the effects of low 02 concentrations on vertical migrati on patterns of zooplankton, samples were collected with a pump from the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion. Under normoxic conditions many zooplankton species migrate to deep regions of the water column during th e day to avoid predation from visually feeding fishes and invertebrate predators like Bythotrephes longimanus. During moderately hypoxic conditions (2 mg/L 02) cyclopoids, Bosmina and some Daphnia mendotae were found in the hypolimnetic zone with total zooplankton densities of 80,000 and 100,000 per m-3, day and night respectively. During severe hypoxic conditions (<0.7 mg/L 02), few were found in the hypolimnion, with total zooplankton densities of 482 and 630 per m-3, day and night respectively. Bythtotrephes, a preferred prey of fishes, was more a bundant at sites with low 02 concentrations. This may be a result of the fishes moving out of such regions and more overlap of Bythotrephes with its prey that was denied its hypolimnetic refuge. Keywords: Zooplankton, Lake Erie, Oxygen. CHADDERTON, W.L. 1, ROTHLISBERGER, J.D.2, KELLER, R.2, FEDORA, M.3, and LODGE, D.M.2, 1Suite 2301, 8S Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL, 60603, USA; 2University of Notre Dame, 107 Galvin Life Sciences Center, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA; 3USDA Forest Service, Otto wa National Forest, E6248

PAGE 26

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 24 U.S. Highway 2, Ironwood, MI, 49938, USA. Intervention Strategies for Limiting the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species by Recreational Boaters. Small-craft recreati onal boating is an important secondary vector for the spread of aquatic invasive species (AIS) within and beyond the Laurentian Gr eat Lakes basin. We surveyed recreational boater movement patterns and AIS hygiene be haviors in northern Wisconsin and the Michigan UP. Almost 70% of boaters showed high fidelity to single lakes, an d thus pose a low risk of spreading invaders. Of the boaters visiting multiple lakes 90% travelled < 15 km between water bodies. Desp ite recreational fishers accounting for 90% of boaters, the small number of fish ing guides surveyed collecti vely visited the largest number of lakes. Boaters showed good awareness of th e risks they pose for the spread of aquatic weeds, but only 46% pressure wash their bo ats and 90% did not drain live well s between lakes. However, most (87%) boaters reported a willingness to use boat-washing facilities if available. We have used these data to assess the risks of AIS spread posed by differe nt boater groups (e.g., gu ides, visitors, permanent residents), to identify the most im portant local sources of invasive species, and to determine those lakes most at risk of new introductions. Results will enable targeted education programs, and guide the type and location of intervention measures to reduce the risk of AIS being transported on recreational boats. Keywords: Invasive species. CHAFFIN, J.D. 1, BRIDGEMAN, T.B.1, and FILBRUN, J.E.2, 1Department of Environmental Science & Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo, Oregon, OH, 43618; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State Univers ity, Bowling Green, OH, 43403. Quantification of Microcystis sp. Blooms in Western Lake Erie (2002-2007) a nd Relation to Tributary Flow. The magnitude of Microcystis blooms in western Lake Erie vari es considerably between years and is potentially related to environmental conditions. However, quantifying blooms using cell counts and satellite data presents challenges and limitations. We investigated an alternativ e approach using a density technique to separate Microcystis from other algae in preserved we stern Lake Erie plankton samples (N=343) and to obtain robust estimates of bloom magnitude for summers of 2002-2007. Traditional cell counts (N=60) demonstrated the efficacy of th e density separation method (counts vs. volume; r2=0.842). Microcystis volume in the water column varied considerably between years, with maximum peak volumes (892.3 mLl m-2) in September 2003, and minimum peak volumes (67.3 mL m-2) in September 2002. Maumee River flow is likely to be a large influence on cyanobacterial bl ooms in western Lake Erie. For 2002-2006, total summer Microcystis volume increased linearly (r2=0.931) with total Maumee River flow (June 1 August 31). Microcystis volume also increased with loadings of total phosphorus (r2=0.922), soluble reactive phosphorus (r2=0.917), and suspended solids (r2=0.846). Keywords: Microcystis, Eutrophication, Lake Erie. CHAPMAN, D.C. USGS-Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO, 65201. Effects of Bighead and Silver Carp on Invaded Environments. There exists a substantial body of information on the effects of bighead and silver carps on the limnology and ecology of systems where they have been introduced worldwide, including some emerging

PAGE 27

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 25 research on environments in North America where the fish have invaded. Risk assessments have established that bighead and silv er carps are likely capable of su rviving and estab lishing reproducing populations within the Great Lakes basi n. Predictions of effects in the Great Lakes are difficult and at this time would require a high degree of speculation. However, certain mechanisms by which bighead and silver carps change their environment are somewhat consistent across a variet y of habitats. Observed effects include changes in zooplankton and phytoplankt on communities, including trophic cascade effects, changes in toxic blue-green alga e abundance and in toxin production, and in some cases, documented declines in the populations or fitn ess of native fishes. This presentation will describe these observed effects and discuss the mech anisms of these effects. Keywords: Carp, Risk assessment, Cyanophyta, Zooplankton, Invasive species, Phytoplankton. CHAPRA, S.C.1, DOVE, A.E.2, and ROCKWELL, D.C. 3, 1Professor and Berger Chair, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 2155; 2Water Quality Monitoring and Survei llance Ontario, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604. Long-term Trends of Great Lakes Chloride. Data collected over the past 150 years are compiled and analyzed to identify chloride trends in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The data indicate that chloride levels in all the lakes, w ith the exception of Lake Superior, began rising in the early twentieth century. Lake Michigans concentration has continued to increase steadily and currently sta nds at its maximum recorded level. In contrast, Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario reached peak levels in about 1970. Concentra tions in these lakes then began to decline due primarily to the reduction of industria l salt discharges. However, recent data indicate that all three systems are now increasing again. The increases in Lake Hur on are primarily due to inflow from Lake Michigan. After exhibiting major decreases in the 1970s and early 1980s (due primarily to reductions of industrial sources in the Detroit River and the Cleveland area), chlo ride levels in Lake Erie are now rising again at a significant clip. This increase in tu rn is being passed along to indu ce a comparable increase in Lake Ontario. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Model studies, Dissolved solids. CHATTERJEE, A.1, DEMARCHI, C. 2, and MICHALAK, A.M.1, 1Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 2School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 3Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Improving Estimation of Over-lake Precipitation An Application to Lake Erie. Over-lake precipitation is a key component of Great Lakes water balance. Yet, reliable estimates of such a component are difficult to obtain in the Great Lakes region due to the lack of gages in the lake themselves and their sparsity in parts of the dr aining basin. Traditionally, over-lake precipitation is estimated by distance-weighted and other data-driven methods. In spite of their wide acceptance, such methods suffer from intrinsic limitations as they fail to take into account the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Potentially, multisensor pro ducts combining Doppler radar and rain gage data (MPE) could better estimate over-lak e precipitation. However, the pres ence of biases in MPE products has raised serious concerns on th eir applicability. In the present study we propose a geostatistical

PAGE 28

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 26 methodology to spatially integrate these two datasets. Using available gage and MPE data for the Lake Erie region, we developed a suite of spatial interpolation techniques based on universal kriging for estimating monthly overlake precipit ation. Results indicate that this universal kriging setup outperforms gage-only methods and the MPE data during th e spring-summer months of 1997-2005 by providing estimates with significantly lower ro ot mean square error and bias. Keywords: Over-lake precipitation, Multi-sensor precipitation estimates, Universal krigging. CHIANDET, A.S. and XENOPOULOS, M.A., Trent Univers ity, WEG Program, 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J7B8. Determinants of Water Quality a nd Plankton Communities in Urban Stormwater Ponds of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin. Stormwater management ponds (SWMPs) are designe d to retain urban runo ff, with the aim to reduce pollutant load to receiving waters. However, contaminants accumulate in ponds in concentrations greater than surrounding waters, the effects of which are unknow n. We sampled 60 SWMPs to: (1) characterize plankton communities, (2) determine whet her nutrient levels affect plankton community structure, and (3) determine the role of pond characteristics, mana gement protocols, and landscape characteristics in structuring plankton communities. SWMPs vary widely and are unique compared to surrounding waterways. SWMPs tend to have high to tal phosphorus and total suspended solids (24-563 g/L and 0-97 mg/L respectively), extremely high bottom conductivity and surface temperature (2074,505 S/cm and 16-32C respectively) and low oxygen levels (as low as 0.09 mg /L), especially in thermally stratified ponds, which was true of 78 % of ponds sampled. Pond age and the presence of forebays were important determinants of water qualit y. This research will provi de water managers with science-based guidelines to use in designing stormwater management syst ems that remove nutrients more efficiently, in addition to im proving understanding of aquatic ecosystems in urban landscapes. Keywords: Stormwater management ponds, Urban watersheds, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Water quality, Nutrients. CHIBLOW, S. Chiefs of Ontario, Fort William First Nation. Engaging Ontario's First Nations in Scientific and Water Policy Initiatives. With the expanse of scientific research being done related to water and water management, there continue to be gaps in the research with respect to First Nations input. As legislation pert aining to water is being proposed, and strategies are being implemente d, First Nations are voicing concern about not only the lack of input in these initiati ves, but also the virtual absence of any cultural reference therein. The speaker will discuss the importance of including First Nations perspectives and research in science based initiatives related to water. She w ill reveal how to engage First Nations in research and policy projects. Protocols related to obtaining such input, which vary from First Nation community to community, will be explained. Keywords: Engagement, Water policy, First Nations. CHOC, S.J. DWYER, D.F., and DESAINT VICTOR, C., University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 2600 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. Escherichia coli and Sediment Load Monitoring in Berger Ditch

PAGE 29

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 27 with Implications for Reduction of Water Qualit y Advisories at Maumee Bay State Park, Oregon, Ohio. Berger Ditch (BD) opens into Lake Erie at Maumee Bay State Pa rk (MBSP) in Oregon, Ohio and is the primary source of fecal contamination for th e public swimming beach. Water quality advisories are issued by the Ohio Department of Health when densities of Escherichia coli exceed 235 cfu/100 mL. Water within BD was monitored to attain data nece ssary in formulating a model wetland to improve water quality. Water samples were obtained with an automatic sampler and analyzed for E.coli densities, turbidity, and total suspe nded solids (tss). Discharge was determin ed using an acoustic doppler velocity meter. From May through December 2007, densities of E.coli varied from 834 to 77,000 cfu/100 mL (n=334) and correlated with discharge, turbidity, and tss (R values of 0.62, 0.60, 0.48, respectively). The data were used to design a wetland described herein for reducing microbial and se diment loading to Lake Erie. Keywords: Environmental health, Escherichi a Coli, Gages, Monitoring, Lake Erie, Wetlands. CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H. 1 and SHERMAN, K.R.2, 1Dept. of Biological Scienc es, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Severn Sound Environmental Assoc., P.O. Box 100, Midland, Midland, ON, L4R 4K6. Benthic Invertebrate Community Compositio n in Severn Sound, (Georgian Bay) Lake Huron 2007. Severn Sound was designated an Area of Con cern largely because nutrient enrichment caused poor water quality and degraded ecosystem heal th (including zoobenthos ). Benthic community composition indicated that waters of Severn Sound were in a state of recovery following remediation measures that improved water quality in the 1990s To determine whether these changes have persisted Ponar grab samples were collected at 25 locations (corresponding to areas previously sampled in 1994 and 1998) in Midland Bay, Penetang Bay, and adjacen t open waters in April and August 2007. In 1998, 94 Hexagenia larvae/m2 were found at 68% of sites sampled. Cl uster analysis identified 3 distinctive groups of sites based on relative co mmunity composition. Shallow water (<4 m deep) sites near shorelines were dominated by crustaceans (Asellus and Gammarus ) and Dicrotendipes chironomids. A second group of sites characterized by sphaeriid molluscs, Tanytarsini chironomids naidid worms, and Hexagenia mayflies occupied deeper parts of Midland and Penetang bays. Hexagenia, Chaoborus and tubificid worms distinguished the deepest sites, characteristic of open waters. In 2 007, densities of many taxa, including Hexagenia, were considerably lower than in 1998, although community composition was similar. Keywords: Lake Huron, Bioindicators, Zoobenthos. CLEVINGER, C.C. BADE, D.L., and HEATH, R. T., Kent State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent, OH, 44242. Causes of Hypoxia in Lake Erie: Potential Role of Nitrification. The traditional viewpoint of hypoxia in freshwater systems is that excessive phosphorus loadings lead to eutrophication and subsequent respiratory oxygen consumption. Recently this view has been challenged by the reappearance of Central Basin hypoxia even with stable or reduced phosphorus loadings. Measurements of P-uptake, P-debt, and AP A activity in the study system indicated limited Plimitation, especially within Sandusky Bay. Other resear chers have implicated ni trogen or iron as possible

PAGE 30

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 28 limiting (or co-limiting) nutrients. These results lead us to inve stigate another source of oxygen consumption: nitrification. Nitr ification can consume large amount s of oxygen, 2 moles of oxygen per mole of ammonia oxidized. Nitrifica tion assays showed significant oxyg en consumption attributable to nitrification. This is of special concern, considering the recent increases in nitrogen loadings to the lake. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Oxygen, Phosphorus. CLOYD, E.T. and MANNO, J.P., SUNY College of Environm ental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210. Ecosystem Approaches to Managing the Great Lakes: Conceptual and Practical Differences. Canada and the United States have a long hi story of jointly mana ging and protecting the Laurentian Great Lakes. Over time, the two count ries have broadened their focus from studying and managing these water resources atomistically to adop ting an ecosystem approach that considers these waters within larger context of the natural and human ecosystems in which they occur. However, this approach is manifested in science and policy across a broad philosophical and pr actical range in the two nations. Using literature and interview data, we descri be some underlying concep tual differences in the approaches adopted in the Great Lake s region and how they ultimately lead to differences in the resulting science and management practices, w ith the goal of informing future environmental policy and practices in both nations. Specifically, we char acterize the key conceptual foundati ons of the ecosystem approaches adopted, demonstrate the ways in which these foundations influence the issue space of each case (e.g., key questions, problem definition), and trace how thes e foundations are translated into the practice of science, policy, and stakeholder engagement. Keywords: Ecosystem approach, Decision making, Lake management. COHEN, A.N. 1 and MOLL, R.A.2, 1San Francisco Estuary Institute, 7770 Pardee Lane, Oakland, CA, 94621-1424; 2California Sea Grant, 9 500 Gilman Dr., Dept. 0232, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0232. Quagga Mussel Invasion West of the 100th Meridian. Quagga mussels were discovered in Lake Mead, Nevada in 2007, marking the first establishment of a dreissenid mussel west of the 100th meridian. La ke Mead is a deep rese rvoir behind the Hoover Dam in the Colorado River basin. Similar to their distri bution in the Great Lakes, quagga mussels were found on a variety of substrates and at depths of over 100 m in Lake Mead. Following the flow of the Colorado River, the mussels were subsequently found downs tream of the Hoover Dam in Lakes Mohave and Havasu and in the southern California water distri bution system. Quagga musse ls have now made their way into additional reservoirs, reaching from San Die go, California to Phoenix, Arizona. In response to the threat posed by the quagga invasion, the Californi a Department of Fish a nd Game created a Science Advisory Panel that developed a series of recommenda tions on how to cope with the westward expansion of this invasive organism. This presentation will cover the salient poi nts of the quagga invasion west of the 100th meridian, the recommendations of the Scien ce Advisory Panel, and the steps that have been taken to date to address the invasion. Keywords: Invasive species, Exotic species, Dreissena.

PAGE 31

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 29 COLLINGSWORTH, P.D. and MARSCHALL, E.A., 1314 Kinn ear Road, Columbus, OH, 43212. Yellow Perch Spawning Behavior in the Western Basin of Lake Erie. The reproductive behavior of yellow perch has been intensively studied throughout its range, but little work has been done in large systems, such as Lake Erie. To determine broad-scale spawning patterns of yellow perch in Lake Erie we sampled spawning aggregations along the sout hern shoreline of the western basin weekly during spring 2006 and 2007. We th en compared models describing spatial patterns in the presence/absence and CPUE of adult yellow perch. For both years, the likelihood of catching yellow perch and the CPUE of these fish increased thr oughout the spring. Empty trawls were less frequent and CPUE was higher in 2006 than in 2007. More yellow perch were caught in th e eastern portion of the western basin than in the western portion in 2006. Fi nally, the proportion of grav id females captured in our trawls was very high until bottom temperatures reached 11C, and we began to see flowing and spent females as bottom temperatures rose. Our sampling dete cted large aggregations of yellow perch in the eastern portion of the western basin and spawning within a narrow range of temperatures. These results document spatial and temporal variabili ty in yellow perch reproductive effo rt that can be used to develop management strategies that protect spawning aggregations in producti ve areas and during peak spawning times. Keywords: Yellow perch, Lake Erie, Spatial distribution. COOPER, M.J. 1, UZARSKI, D.G.2, BURTON, T.M.3, and BOSCH, A.T.1, 1Grand Valley State University, Annis Water Resources Institute 740 West Shoreline Dr., Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Central Michigan University, Brooks 156, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859; 3Michigan State University, 25B Natural Science, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Invertebrate Biomass and Co mmunity Composition in the Muskegon River Drowned River Mouth Wetland: Variability Throughout the Growing Season. The Muskegon River widens to form a broa d drowned river mouth wetland upstream of its confluence with Muskegon Lake and Lake Michigan. Within the wetland invertebrates form vital linkages between primary producers and higher trophic levels (e.g., birds and fish). We evaluated the importance of season, vegetation type, and microhabitat (sediment, water co lumn, and macrophyte stems) in predicting patterns of inve rtebrate density, biomass, and commun ity composition. Invertebrate densities increased from 8,958,689 m-2 in May to 43,383,161 m-2 in June to 85,937,416 m-2 in August, 2004. Invertebrate biomass, however, did not incr ease throughout the growi ng season (May: 2,273 mg m-2, June: 4,477 mg m-2, August: 4,061 mg m-2). Biomass was significantly higher in the sediment and on macrophyte stems than in the wate r column in May and June but not in August. Nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling revealed a grad ient in community composition best explained by season. Our results suggest that whil e a constant supply of invertebrate biomass is available to higher trophic levels throughout the growing season, the shif t in community composition may require higher trophic organisms to adjust behaviors for utilizing this resource. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Macroinvertebrates, Species composition. CORKUM, L.D. 1, DOPAZO, S.N.1, and MANDRAK, N.E.2, 1Dept. Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisherie s and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries

PAGE 32

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 30 and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Fish Assemblages and Environmental Factors Associated with Gobiids in the Huron-Erie Corridor. We investigated which fish species and environm ental factors were associated with two invasive species, round goby and tubenose goby, in nearshore Canadi an waters of the Huron-Erie corridor. Thirty sites were sampled in the day and a subset (n=14) at night. We used triplicate beach seine samples to collect fishes. Of 1955 individuals caught in daytim e samples, the most abundant fishes were round goby (21.0 %), spottail shiner (17.3 %), and emerald shiner (14.2 %); tube nose goby represented 0.9 % of all fish in the day. Of 1,521 individu als collected at night, the most abundant species were round goby (42.3 %), emerald shiner (24.1 %), br ook silverside (9.0 %), and spo ttail shiner (8.5 %); tubenose goby represented 1.6 % of all fish at nigh t. Characteristic fish assemblages as sociated with clustered sites were the benthivore (round goby) and two groups of schooling, pelagic fishes (1. emerald shiner and spottail shiner; and, 2. white perch, alewife, gizzard shad, and brook silversi de). Tubenose goby, rock bass, and yellow perch were associated with round goby, but di d not characterize the group. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that round goby were abundant in deeper, cooler, clear water. No factors were associated with the tubenose goby. Keywords: Invasive species, Round goby, Fish. CROLEY, T.E.1, DEMARCHI, C. 2, HE, C.3, and HUNTER, T.S.1, 1NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593; 2School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593; 3Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, 3234 Wood Hall, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008-5424. Performances of the Distributed La rge Basin Runoff Model for Different Watersheds in the Great Lake Basin. The Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM ) is a physically based, spatially distributed, hydrology model that is widely us ed for hydrological forecasting and climate change assessment throughout the Great Lakes region. It is also a major component of the watershed characterization of the ECOFORE 2006 project. The DLBRM was automatica lly calibrated to reproduce the 1950-1964 and the 1999-2006 flows in 18 watersheds thr oughout the Great Lakes region. This presentation will analyze how calibration sets and model performances varied in space and time and examine what these tells us about the model robustness, changes in the waters hed, and possible effects of climate change. Keywords: Watershed hydrology, Nutrients load, Model validation. CROWE, A.S. and BALAKRISHNAN, V., Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Antibiotics in Groundwater below Beaches of the Great Lakes. Pharmaceutical and personal care products have been found in diverse aquatic environments. Human antibiotics typically enter groundwater via septic systems. This is a potential concern for beaches of the Great Lakes given that most beach-front residences employ septic systems for waste-water disposal, large numbers of septic systems are with in 50 m of the shore, an d groundwater flow below beaches is toward the lake throughout the year. Our st udy investigated the presence of 18 antibiotics of the three classes (sulfonamides, fl uoroquinolones, tetracyclines) in gr oundwater at a beach on Georgian

PAGE 33

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 31 Bay, Ontario. Enrofloxacin and levofloxacin were seen at levels up to 300 g/L 15 m (furthest distance measured) from the tile bed. It is not surprising that antibio tics were detected because they are generally soluble, have a relatively low Kow, and beach sand has low OC content. Our preliminary findings have implications for beaches throughout the Great Lakes in cluding: (1) large numbers of septic systems at beaches = potential large numbers of antibiotic sources and loadings, (2) antibio tics mobility = potential to travel via groundwater to lake, (3) short distance betw een septic system and lake = potential for antibiotic discharge into lake, (4 ) ingestion by nearshore organisms = unknown health risks at multiple trophic levels. Keywords: Coasts, Water quality, P harmaceuticals, Endocrine disruption. CULVER, D.A. 1 and CONROY, J.D.1, 1The Ohio State University, 1315 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH, 43212; 2The Ohio State University, 1314 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH, 43212. Twenty Years of Dreissena on Western Basin Lake Er ie Hard Substrate Why is There Any Phytoplankton Left? Immediately post dreissenid mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha and D bugensis ) invasion into Lake Erie 20 years ago, many scientists pr edicted decreased energy transfer to upper trophic levels due to dreissenid consumption of phytoplankton (PP). Howeve r, PP biomass has recently dramatically increased (especially cyanobacteria). Here, we present mussel community structure dynamics (density, species composition, and size-frequency) at 10 hard substrate sites in Lake Er ies western basin, comparing postinvasion structure with that in 2004; we then asse ss how structural changes potentially shape musselderived effects on PP. We found that June 2004 densities were much less (mean +/standard error = 3,838 +/1,142 mussels m-2) than previously reported maxi mal densities (> 100,000 mussels m-2) and were nearly all quagga mussels (98 +/1%). With lower densities, recently collected mussels were heavier at a specific length, potentially indica ting reduced exploitative competition. However, the mussel community still could have important effects; e.g., calcula ted mussel nutrient (nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P) excretion could potentially supply > 50% of PP areal demand for N and < 10% for P. Continued intrasystem mussel nutrient subsidy may interact with extra-system nutrient subsidy to facilitate recent increased PP biomass. Keywords: Phytoplankt on, Dreissena, Lake Erie. CVETKOVIC, M. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univ ersity, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Factors Affecting Species Composition of the Fish Communities in Coastal Wetl ands of Eastern Georgian Bay. Wetlands perform valuable ecological services and host a diversity of organisms, including economically important fish species. This habitat has been increasingly lost si nce European settlement, and for this reason wetland conserva tion should be one of the foremost priorities of government and conservation agencies. We have sampled marshes thr oughout the Great Lakes basin (water quality, fish, and macrophytes), and have found Georgian Bay wetlands to be of outstanding qua lity and diversity, with numerous sites displaying minimal human impacts. Here we present an overview of the sampling we have completed in the Georgian Bay region, including wo rk done using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Our goals are to summarize both the biotic and abiotic data gathered to date, as well as to evaluate and explore some of the factors affecting fish hab itat and composition such as water quality, macrophyte presence and diversity, and exposure. In the future we plan on determ ining specific relationships between

PAGE 34

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 32 fish and macrophyte species, fish and the degree of e xposure, as well as the e ffects of declining water levels. The combination of extensive wetland habita t throughout Georgian Bay, high diversity, and low human populations highlights the importance of immediate conser vation required for this area. Keywords: Georgian Bay, Fish, Coastal wetlands. DA SILVA, A.F. 1 and SZARLETA-YANCY, E.J.2, 1Northern Illinois University, Zulauf Hall 415, De Kalb, IL, 60115; 2Indiana University Northwes t, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN, 46408. Citizen Participation in Watershed Management: Northwest Indiana as a Case Study. Citizens have played on important role in the preservation and re storation of the biologically diverse northwest corner of Indiana. The northwest corner of Indiana co ntains the Lake Michigan 45 mile watershed. The Lake Michigan watershed contains one of the most industrialized areas of the nation. It is also home to the 7th most biologically diverse na tional park in the nation, the Indiana Dunes National Lake Shore Park. Citizens played a cr itical role in the creation of the park. Northwest Indiana is also home to the Grand Calumet River Area of Concern (AOC). This AOC is the only AOC which has been listed as having all 14 Beneficial Use Impairments. Northwest I ndiana is a biological comm unity in contrasts. This paper will discuss the efforts of citizens, busine ss, and NGOs to protect an d restore the biologically unique and sometimes fragmented corner of the globe. Keywords: Water quality, Watersheds, Decision making. DAHL, T.A. and SELEGEAN, J.P., 477 Michigan Ave., Detroit, MI, 48226. The Right Tool for the Job: Creating a Full Suite of Models to Help the Clinton River Watershed Decrease Sediment Loading. The Clinton River drains to Lake St. Clair just north of Detroit, MI. The southern half of this 760 square mile watershed consists of suburban land-use, while the norther n portion has historically been agricultural. Recently, however, rapid urbanization has been displacing these agricultural lands, resulting in degradation of the river. A vari ety of models have been developed to allow community planners to examine sediment issues at multiple scales. These models range from a large SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to examine general areas of sediment production and agricultural best management practices across the entire watershe d down to site-specific GSSHA (Gridded SurfaceSubsurface Hydrological Assessment) m odels to look at the effects of subdivision zoning practices, such as lot size and spacing, buffer strips, and rain barrels. Each of these tools has a specific purpose and the full suite of models allows pla nning authorities to use the most appropriate tool for the job. Keywords: Sediment load, Se diment transport, Urbanization. DAMAIA, S.M. and TODD, K., Ontario Ministry of Na tural Resources, 300 Water St., 2nd Floor, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Lflow A Data Collection and Analysis Package to Support Low Streamflow Surveys.

PAGE 35

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 33 All divisions of government depend on a common se t of base geographic information, such as low streamflow, for water resources studies. Conservation authorities rely on it for conducting water budget studies for Source Water Protection. Municipalities rely on it for evaluating future drinking water supplies. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) uses it for fisher ies related research and reporting streamflow conditions. Efforts are being made by the MNR to standardize and centralize low streamflow information for data management, retrieval, and reporting needs. The Water Resources Information Program (WRIP) has developed Lflow Be ta 1.0, data collection and analysis package, to provide a standard data collection, storage, and anal ysis environment for low streamflow data. Lflow will serve as a foundation for integrating, analyzing, and sharing low streamfl ow data easily and consistently. Lflow has been developed around a standard low streamflow measurement methodology established by the Geological Survey of Canada (Hinton 2005). A st andard data model and interface has been designed in Microsoft Access to simplify data entry functi ons and calculations. A se t of GIS tools has been developed in ESRI ArcGIS enabling standard ma pping products to be created based on the spatial distribution of low streamflow measurements. Keywords: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Drinking water, Water level. DE CATANZARO, R. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univ ersity, Dept. of Biology, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Use of Ecological Indices to P redict Occurrence and Abundance of Turtle Species in Great Lakes Coastal Marshes. Ecological indices are crucial assessment tool s for evaluating and tracking overall condition of Great Lakes coastal wetlands, many of which have become degraded due to increased nutrient and sediment inputs from agricultural and urban devel opment. Past research in our lab has focused on development of biological indicators to assess wetland quality. Here, we use published ecological indicators, the Water Quality Index and the We tland Macrophyte Index, to predict occurrence and abundance of vulnerable aquatic species because of their known sensitivity to wetland degradation. Relative abundances of five turtle sp ecies were obtained from fish surv eys that included turtle by-catch. The surveys were conducted during th e summers of 2001 to 2007 inclusive in all Canadian Great Lakes, and sampling was carried out with paired fyke nets, set parallel to shore. Co mmon musk turtle abundance decreased along a gradient of deterior ating wetland quality, while painted turtle abunda nce as well as total turtle abundance increased. Turtle sp ecies richness and abundance of sn apping turtle peaked in wetlands of intermediate quality. The results suggest that c onservation of sensitive species such as the common musk turtle will become critical as human development continues. Keywords: Indicators, Wetlands, Water quality. DEKKER, T.J. 1, LAUTENBACH, D.1, PETERSON, G.W.1, and SILVER, E.2, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Michael Van Valkenburgh and Associat es, 18 East 17th St., New York, NY, 10003. Integrating Hydrology, Ecology, and River Geom orphology into Urban Landscape Design: The Lower Don Lands Naturalization Project. The Lower Don Lands Area of Toronto is located at the intersection of three emerging Toronto neighborhoods: the West Don Lands, East Bayfront, and the Port Lands area. This intersection of

PAGE 36

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 34 neighborhoods contains the mouth of the lower Don River, a channelized and constrained river mouth surrounded by transportation corridors and other aging ur ban infrastructure. In recent years, the public demand for restoration of the river mouth area ha s greatly increased, while the emerging neighborhoods have created a need to find a dynamic balance between the surrounding urban environment and the hydrologic and ecologic requirements of the river mouth. An internationa l design competition to develop a plan for resolving these competing needs was held in 2007. This talk describes how the winning design was developed as a highly multidisciplinary creative effort supported by a strong technical understanding of local hydrology, local freshwater estuarine ecology, and hydrologic an d ecological interactions with Lake Ontario. The result is a proposed winding river mouth with natural meanders, wetland margins, wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities. The pl an also retains and enha nces the function of the lower Don as a floodway, providing sufficient floodw ater conveyance capacity to convey the most extreme regulatory flood event. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Planning, Hydrogeomorphology. DEL GOBBO, L.1, ROBSON, M.E.1, DIAMOND, M.L. 1, and VANDERLINDEN, L.2, 1University of Toronto, 45 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 2E5; 2Environmental Protection Office, Toronto Public Health, 277 Victoria St ., Toronto, ON, M5B 1W1. Lipid Declines in Fish Due to Freezing. While it is common practice to freeze fish prior to consumption or analysis freezing can alter the chemical composition of fish. Quality, but not nutritiona l, decline in fish due to frozen storage has been well documented using biochemical and se nsory indices. In this study, the lip id levels in eight fish species expected to exhibit a range of lip id concentrations were monitored over a three week period during which they were stored at -20C. Total fatty acids (TFA) declined 80-96% in rainbow tr out, red mullet, atlantic mackerel, and black cod after 7 days of freezing at -20C. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturat ed fatty acids (PUFAs) declined at different rates after 7 days of freezing at -20C. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) aci d declines were greatest over the first week of freezing. These results suggest that fish should be consumed fresh (unfrozen) for maximum retention of beneficial lipids such as EPA and DHA, and analyzed fresh to avoid underestimating lipid content in fish. Keywords: Fish, Human health, Chemical analysis. DELEARY, M. 1, JACKO, N.2, and DUCKWORTH, G.3, 1Womens Water Commission, Union of Ontario Indians, Nipissing First Nation, ON; 2Wikwemikong Unceded Nation, Wikwemikong, ON; 3Aboriginal Affairs Units, Ministry of Na tural Resources, Peterborough, ON. Ontario First Nations Perspectives on the Science Strategy of the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement. Mutually agreeable mechanisms are being devel oped by the Great Lakes St ates and Provinces, as part of the Agreement, to facilitate scientific interaction with Fi rst Nations and federally recognized Tribes on Agreement components such as the review of major water proposa ls, understanding of basin water, and groundwater and water cons ervation. Aboriginal traditional know ledge will be integrated into policies and programs. Ontario First Nations perspectives will be presented by individual speakers, and linkages with Agreement implementation will be high lighted. Mary Deleary, of the Anishinabek Women's Water Commission, will speak to the Commissions advisory role related to Great Lakes management.

PAGE 37

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 35 She will share some traditional ecological knowledge Noella Jacko of Wikwemikong Unceded Nation will present results of an inventory of species at risk that was conducted on the shorelands of their reserve on Manitoulin Island. Featured species include Dwarf Lake Iris, Least Bitt ern, Ram's Head Orchid, Cylindric Blazing Star, and Beach Grass. George Duckworth from MNR Aboriginal Affairs Unit will outline MNRs strategy to understand aboriginal knowledge of the land and to work with First Nations to collect and use this information in natural reso urce management. Other speakers may be included. Keywords: Water policy, Traditional Ecological Knowledge, First Nations. DELONG, E.J. 1, CAMPBELL, L.M.1, and MIERLE, G.2, 1Queens University, Department of Biology, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2Ontario Ministry of Environment, Dorset Environmental Research Centre, P.O. Box 39, Dorset, ON, P0A 1EO. Analyzing a Long-term Enviro nmental Dataset: Fish Tissue Mercury Burden Trends in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Environment (OME) has been collecting da ta on fish tissue mercury (Hg) burdens in lakes and rivers across Ontario since the mid-1970s. Approximately 165,000+ fish from 86 species and 1,600+ sites have been tested for Hg, yielding about 1.5 million database records across Ontario. Currently, many species still exceed Hea lth Canada guidelines for human consumption, particularly those in higher trophic levels. While the OME uses its data primarily for the publication of the biennial Guide to Eating Ontario Sport Fish and for the identification of Hg sources, the data also allow for the characterization of historical spatial / temporal patterns of Hg burdens. However, analysis of this long-term environmental dataset is complicated largely by its hetero geneity due to non-systematic sampling methods, and presents a distinct set of ch allenges. We are applying a model developed by the USGS to standardize the sampling characteristics of the entire database to a single species, length, and cut. We are then able to use a GIS to examine sp atial and temporal trends and associations with surrounding biogeochemistry and envir onmental spatial data. We present our analysis results and discuss the relevance of the tr ends observed to date. Keywords: Mercury, Spatial analysis, Fish. DEMARCHI, C. School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593. Estimating Over-lake Precipitation: Traditional Approaches and Alternative Methodologies. Over-lake precipitation is a key component of the Great Lakes water balance. Yet, reliable estimates of such component are difficult to obtain in the Great Lakes region due to the lack of gages in the lake themselves and their sparsity in parts of the draining basin. Traditionally, over-lake precipitation is estimated by distance-weighted and other data-drive n methods. In spite of their wide acceptance, such methods suffer from intrinsic limitations as they fail to take into account the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Alternative methods for esti mating over-lake precipitat ion include geostatistical interpolation of gage data, doppler radar, assimilation of observed meteorology in numerical weather prediction systems, and different satellite remote sensing techniques. This presentation reviews and compares some of the available products and their applicability in the Grea t Lakes region. Particular attention will be devoted to the problem of evaluating such products in absence of a "ground truth."

PAGE 38

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 36 DEPEW, D.C. 1, OZERSKY, T.1, HOUBEN, A.1, GUILDFORD, S.J.2, HECKY, R.E.2, SMITH, R.E.H.1, and BARTON, D.R.1, 1Biology Dept., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2Biology Dept. and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota-Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812 2401. Macrophytes in Cooks Bay: Effects on Water Quality and Nutrient Cycling. Submerged aquatic macrophytes dominate the be nthic producer assemblage in meso-eutrophic Cooks Bay, Lake Simcoe. Excessive macrophyte growth in recent years has presente d largely an aesthetic issue, as uprooted plant material accumulated on s horelines adjacent to numerous cottages. Historically, the abundance of macrophytes was attributed to excessive nutrient loading from agriculturally dominated inputs via the Holland River. Studies in the mid 1980s to monitor the response of macrophyte growth to reductions in nutrient loading revealed an increase in growth area and biomass as water clarity increased. The invasion of Lake Simcoe by dreissenid mussels has resulted in further increases in water clarity, potentially expanding the importance of submerged macr ophytes in the cycling of nutrients. We report the results of acoustic surveys in 2006 and 2007 designed to estimate the biomass of submerged vegetation in the postDreissena era. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Submerged plants, Phosphorus. DEPINTO, J.V., VERHAMME, E.M. LARSON, W.M., and REDDER, T.R., LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Application of LOTOX2 for the De velopment of a PCB TMDL for Lake Ontario. LOTOX2, a PCB mass balance model, has been app lied to assist New York State in developing a TMDL for Lake Ontario. Several challenges in developing the TMDL include the varied nonpoint and internal sediment sources of PCBs as a legacy contaminant and varying criteria for human health versus the ecological health of the system used to estab lish target PCB levels. The major confounding factor for regulatory agencies is that most of the PCB sources are not controll able through existing programs. In order to establish the TMDL and to allocate load re ductions fairly to controll able sources in New York, we have applied an approach that assumes uncontrollable and background sources are meeting their fraction of the TMDL load. To do this, baseline PCB loadings (2005) were used to calculate a contribution factor (CF) for each major PCB loading category. The CF was then multiplied by the water quality target to determine the steady-state PCB concen tration that must be met by that particular loading component. LOTOX2 was then used to develop a loading response curve at stea dy-state to determine the allowable load from each loading category. Using the most stringent water quality standard of 1 pg/L, current loadings (2005) from all sources would have to be reduced by 99% in order to meet the criteria. Keywords: PCBs, Lake Ontario, Model studies. DEPINTO, J.V. 1, VANDERPLOEG, H.A.2, and AUER, M.T.3, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108, USA; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Res earch Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, USA; 3Michigan Technological University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Houghton, MI, 49931, USA. Cladophora and Open-water Desertification: Do Dreissenids Play a Role?

PAGE 39

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 37 Empirical observations and modeling analysis of the ecological impacts of zebra mussels in Saginaw Bay subsequent to their invasion in 199 0 have provided considerable knowledge about how dreissenids impact primary production, nutrient cy cling, and lower food web dynamics in shallow environments. We have also developed through ob servation and modeling a good understanding of the environmental conditions that favor Cladophora growth in nearshore environments. This presentation will combine these two bodies of knowledge to suggest a hypothesis for how the role of dreissenid filteringrelated impacts on water clarity and phosphorus cycling in the nearshore zones of the lakes have fueled the resurgence of Cladophora in Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario while at the same time greatly reducing the primary production potential of offs hore waters in these systems. Dreissenids provide for increased light penetration in shallow areas while at the same time re-mobilizing a sizable portion of the particulate phosphorus in these ar eas. Both the increased light and av ailable phosphorus lead to lush Cladophora growth, which in turn traps a considerable amount of the phosphorus entering the nearshore area from the watershed, greatly redu cing production in the offshore waters. Keywords: Dreissena, Cladophora, Phosphorus. DERBYSHIRE, D. TONINGER, R., and MCDONALD, K., 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Bird Study in Canadas Largest City: A Bala nce of Fundamental Research and Education at Tommy Thompson Park Bird Research Station. Toronto and Region Conservation launched the Tommy Thompson Park Bird Research Station in 2003 to improve the awareness and prot ection of birds in Tor onto. The research statio n is located within Canadas largest city, a site of global significance to bird populations. Tommy Thompson Park is a 5 km long man-made peninsula connecting an extensive netw ork of urban park spaces that form a corridor of greenspace connecting Lake Ontario with the Oak Ridges Moraine. The station is one of 25 Canadian Migration Monitoring Network stati ons in Canada and to date has banded over 30,000 birds representing 240 species. Results indicate the site is an important stopover area for migratory birds, comparable to known sites such as Long Point and Point Pelee. Data collected are used to support local land management decisions and regional pl anning initiatives and are also used to assess continental population changes. The proximity of the research station to Toronto offers great op portunity to engage the public in environmental education. Through education programs TTPBRS interacts with thousands of visitors on an annual basis. The station represents a unique oppor tunity to balance fundamental research and public education. Keywords: Avian ecology, Urban areas, Public education. DEVANNA, K.M. and MAYER, C.M., University of Tole do Lake Erie Cent er, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. Hexagenia Use of Dreissena-colonized Habitat: Opposing Effects of Hypoxia and Fish Predation. Dreissena affect the distribution and abundance of bent hic invertebrates and the flow of benthic energy to fish. It is not clear how the current spread of Dreissena onto soft sediment will affect invertebrates such as Hexagenia. Preliminary experiments show that Hexagenia select for habitat with live Dreissena over bare sediment in well-oxygenated water. The goal of this study was to examine two distinct mechanisms that may affect whether or not Hexagenia select Dreissena-colonized habitat: 1) risk

PAGE 40

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 38 of predation by fish may promote selection of Dreissena habitat, whereas 2) hypoxia may discourage use of Dreissena habitat. Laboratory experiments show that Hexagenia derive no protection from round goby predation due to the presence of Dreissena. However, we hypothesize Hexagenia will gain protection from yellow perch predation when burrowed beneath Dreissena clusters. Conversely, we found that under low oxygen conditions Hexagenia show equal selection for Dreissena-covered and bare sediment. Hexagenia were also found to leave thei r burrows during hypoxia. Theref ore, short-term periods of hypoxia may increase availability of Hexagenia to fish by forcing mayflies to leave their burrows to seek normoxic water. Keywords: Dreissena, Hexagenia, Benthos, Hypoxia, Invasive species. DIEP, N.K. and BOYD, D., 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination in Wheatl ey Harbour Area of Concern. Muddy Creek, a small wetland system in the Wh eatley Harbour Area of Concern (AOC), was identified as an area contaminated with polychlorinat ed biphenyls (PCBs). Character ization of the vertical and spatial extent of PCBs in Muddy Creek sediment was conducted in 2004 to 2007. PCBs were spatially delineated with higher concentrations along the northeast shore; however maximum PCB concentrations were below the Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines severe effect level (PSGQ-SEL). Elevated PCB concentrations were observed at discre te locations and with dept h, however the area-weight averaged PCB concentration of 2,655 ng/g in the ecologica lly relevant surfical sediment layer suggests a system moderately contaminated with PCBs. M odeled PCB body burdens in young-of-year fish were found to be consistent with measured concentrations, however site-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were generally higher, which suggest PCBs to be more bioavailable and bioaccumulating in benthic invertebrates. Modeled and measured PCB tissue residue in Muddy Creek fish were found to be below the site-specific PCB tissue threshold. We show that though PCB levels in sediment remain consistent over time and are bioavailable, PCBs in Muddy Creek sediment, benthic invertebrates, and fish do not pose a risk to piscivorous wildlife. Keywords: Bioaccumulation, PCB, Benthos, Area of Concern (AOC), Lake Erie. DIERKS, S.B. JFNew, 605 S. Main St., Suite 1, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104. The Triple Bottom Line in Watershed Planning: The River Rais in Watershed Management Plan. Restoring impaired designated and de sired uses to the River Raisin is one of the key driving forces behind the development of the Watershed Management Plan (RRWMP). The other major driving force can be summed up as economics, but can also be understood as the complicated relationship between commerce, money, influence, and politics. The two foremost challenges for the River Raisin are closely connected. The first challenge is th at agriculture, the wate rsheds primary economic engine, is also the industry/land use causing most of the water quality impacts. The second challenge is the poor public perception of the river. To addre ss these challenges, the connection between the land and the river has to be understood not only in ecological terms but also in terms of economic and social impact. We believe the key here is to achieve the triple bottom line--econom ic and ecological sustainability as well as social equity---by making agricultural viabili ty and ecological integrity simulta neous and inter-related goals. The major assumption in the River Raisin Watershed Management plan is that a healthy local economy

PAGE 41

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 39 will actually help foster a healthier ecology. This plan includes recommendations that fall outside of typical Best Management Practices in order to he lp build local economic re sources that will foster ecological restoration. Keywords: Triple bottom line, Agricultural watershed, Sustainability. DOBIESZ, N.E. 1 and LESTER, N.P.2, 1UMN Duluth-109 Research Lab Building, 2205 E. 5th St., Duluth, MN, 55812; 2OMNR, DNA Bldg., Trent University, 2140 East Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. The Importance of Long-term Datasets: A Case Study from the Great Lakes. Ongoing monitoring programs provide data to build long-term datasets, but insufficient funds to support these programs or changes in management directives can affect the collection of these data. This presents special challenges to re searchers studying long-term trends. We compiled limnological data from government agencies in the U.S. and Canada who sampled Lakes Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario between 1968 and 2002. The final compilation included over 15,000 sta tions yet despite the large database, temporal and spatial gaps occurred. The number of samples pe r month decreased over time such that 42% of the samples occurred between 1970 and 1979, 35% occurred between 1980 and 1989, and 23% occurred between 1990 and 2002. Notable exceptions to this pattern occurred in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, and Lake St. Clair where observations increas ed in response to zebra mussel invasion. Spatial gaps occurred when stations were grouped by depth. There were 79% more Secchi depth samples in the offshore (depth >10 m) than nearshore segments across 10 basins representing an additional 15 years of offshore data. We examine how this research was imp acted by the limitations of the long-term datasets and discuss the importance of ongoing monitoring for future research. Keywords: Monitoring, Data acquisition, Great Lakes basin. DOLAN, D.M. 1, RICHARDS, R.P.2, and PIETTE, C.M.1, 1University of Wisconsin Green Bay, 2420 Nicolet Dr., Green Bay, WI, 54311; 2National Center For Water Quality Research, Heidelberg College, Tiffin, OH, 44883. Updated Total Phosphorus Load Es timates for Lake Erie 2005-2007. Although it is the smallest of the Great Lakes, La ke Erie receives the gr eatest loading of total phosphorus. It has the largest GLWQA target load of any of the lake s (11,000 metric tonnes per annum) and the target can be exceeded due to continued input s from urban and rural sources. The Ohio Tributary Monitoring Network established by the National Cent er for Water Quality Re search at Heidelberg College continues to collect one to three samples per day for nutrients and sedime nt at sites on six Lake Erie tributaries. The resulting total phosphorus data from this program combined with other data sources allow for the estimation of daily load time series required by ecosystem m odelers at the NOAA-Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory for th e ECOFORE 2006 project. The loads are still reported by Lake Erie basin (western, central, and eastern) and can be aggregated to the level of total lake loading for comparison to the GLWQA target Starting in 1999, the Lake Erie total phosphorus loads have been consistently below the GLWQA target but preliminary estimates indicate that the target was approached or exceeded in 2006 and 2007. Keywords: Phosphorus, Lake Erie, Pollution load.

PAGE 42

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 40 DOVE, A.E. Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Trace Organic Contaminants in the Open Waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes How Low Can We Go? As part of its Surveillance Program, Environment Canada conducts water quality monitoring on each of the binationally-shared Gr eat Lakes. Since 1988, this monitori ng has included a suite of organic contaminants. An ongoing challenge has been to measure the very low concentra tions of many of these parameters in the open waters of the Great Lakes. Over the years, we have made improvements to the sampling methods, sample handling, and laboratory an alysis to reduce sample contamination. Since 2003, we have been using a new sampling platform called the PoPCart, and samples are now extracted in an ultra-clean laboratory at the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in Burl ington, Ontario. In this talk, an overview of the spatial distribution of dissolved phase organic contaminants will be presented for each of the Great Lakes. The organic compounds include or ganochlorine (OC) pesticides (including PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and certain currently-used pesticides. An overview of spatial trends is provided, and the current levels (2004 2006) are compared to those measured in the past (1988 2001). Keywords: Organic compounds, Water quality, Great Lakes basin. DRAKE, A. 1, MANDRAK, N.E.2, and HARVEY, H.H.1, 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2; 2Centre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment, Great Lake Laboratory for Fisheries a nd Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Quantifying the Spread of Aqua tic Invasive Species, Genes, and Pathogens: The Baitfish Industry in Ontario as a Model Pathway. Aquatic invasive species (AIS), genes and path ogens have negative impacts on the ecological and economic integrity of Canadian freshwaters, particularly within the Laurentia n Great Lakes. Typically, introductions of AIS, genes, and pathogens requ ire an invasion pathway. Determining the risk of introduction and spread through an invasion pathway can be advantageous to resource managers because the process encompasses multiple species of concer n, contrary to traditional single-species risk assessment approaches. Although the shipping industry and associated practice of ba llast-water release is one pathway responsible for the introduction of AI S into Canadian freshwaters (specifically, the Laurentian Great Lakes), additional pathways exit that have the potenti al to transport AIS, genes, and pathogens further inland, to uncolonized waters. Th e baitfish industry in Onta rio is one such pathway. Using a probabilistic, spatially-explicit modeling appr oach, we determine areas at-risk of species, gene, and pathogen introduction based on angler movement metrics, thus determining areas that should by prioritized for AIS prevention management. Keywords: Invasive species, Model studies, Risk assessment. DUCKETT, F. 1, FULLARTON, M.1, LU, Q.1, and GOODYEAR, D.2, 1627 Lyons Lane, Suite 200, Oakville, ON, L6J5Z7; 2Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Newmarket, ON, L3Y4X1. Numerical Modeling in Support of Source Water Protection Zone Delineation on Lake Simcoe. Lake Simcoe is the source of drinking wate r for thousands of people who live in the many communities around the lake. There are six municipal wa ter treatment plants located on Lake Simcoe.

PAGE 43

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 41 The lake is also the recipient of outflows from sewa ge treatment plants, industry, and storm water runoff. In 2006, the Ontario government introduced legislation to protect drinking wa ter. This requires the production of locally developed, science based source water protection plans, in cluding a Surface Water Vulnerability Analysis, in which surface water areas that may be vulnerable to contamination are identified. The delineation of the intake protection z ones provides important insight into the competing and often conflicting uses of this resource. Numerical modeling was used to delineate intake protection zones for the six municipal intakes on Lake Simcoe. In each case, input from the water treatment plant (WTP) operator was used to identify threats, issues, and a time required to shut down the WTP in the event of a spill. The Intake Protection Zones were delineated based on the WTP shut down time and the current velocities in the lake and surrounding tributaries. Current velociti es in the lake were established using DHIs MIKE3, 3-dimens ional numerical model. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Hydrodynamic model, Water quality. DUMOULIN, D. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Water Resources Section, 300 Water St., 5th Floor, S. Tower, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5, Canada. Calculating the Consumptive Use of Water Withdrawals in the Great Lakes Basin Status of Current Methodologies and Recommendations for Enhancement. Since 1985, a variety of coefficien ts and calculations have been us ed to estimate the consumptive loss associated with water withdrawals in the Great Lakes basin, as required by the Great Lakes Charter. In December 2005, the Premiers of Quebec and Ontari o along with the governors of the 8 Great Lake states signed the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement which committed to manage, regulate, and collect and share information on water withdrawals, diversions, and consumptive uses. The consumptive use figures curre ntly used by many jurisdictions are not widely supported and are out of date with improved science and climate change being contributing factors. The government of Ontario hired a consulta nt to conduct a synthesis of curre nt consumptive use practices, and recommend steps for improvement. This presentation will highlight the findings of the research and demonstrate how the parties to the Agreement can work together to refine current mechanisms. Keywords: Measuring instruments, Gr eat Lakes basin, Consumptive water use. DYBLE, J. 1, FAHNENSTIEL, G.L.1, and MILLIE, D.F.2, 1NOAA Great Lakes Envi ronmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Florida Institute of Oceanography, Un iversity of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, 33701. Cyanobacterial HABs in the Great La kes: Environmental Stressors, Genetic Diversity and Impacts on Human Health. There are many potential threats to human health that may result from the proliferation of harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes. These include e xposure through drinking wa ter supplies (e.g., use of untreated water for drinking, chronic exposure through low levels of toxins in tr eated sources), recreation (e.g., inhalation of aerosolized toxins while boating, accidentally swa llowing water while swimming), and food (e.g., bioaccumulation in fish). We will summarize what is currently known about the distribution, abundance and genetic diversity of Microcystis in the lower Great Lakes, as well as environmental factors influencing microcystin production and the potential for accumulation in edible fish tissue. We will

PAGE 44

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 42 discuss the implications of this data on human health in the Great Lakes region and identify areas requiring further investigation. Keywords: Harmful algal bloo ms, Microcystis, Human health. EDGE, T.A. 1, KHAN, I.1, WATSON, S.B.1, BOOTY, W.G.1, YERUBANDI, R.R.1, and MOORE, L.2, 1National Water Research Institute, 867 Lake shore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada; 2Ontario Clean Water Agency, Toronto. Occurrence of Waterborne Pathogens at Offshore Drinking Water Intakes in Lake Ontario. The Collaborative Study to Protect Lake Ontari o Drinking Water began fi eld studies in 2007 to investigate the occurrence of waterb orne pathogens at offshore drinki ng water intakes in Lake Ontario. Preliminary investigations have focused on Campylobacter and Aeromonas species, as well as indicator organisms like E coli Enterococcus Clostridium perfringens and a Bacteroides DNA marker for human fecal pollution. A Lake-wide cruise in August found that bacterial water quality indicators were rarely detected in water samples collected more than about two km offshore. A pilot study near the mouth of the Credit River has found that offshore intake water at four nearby drinking water plants typically has low numbers of E coli (< 5 CFU/100 mL), and only rare occurrence of Campylobacter species and the human Bacteroides DNA marker. However, Campylobacter and the Bacteroides marker were detected at all four intakes, and E coli numbers were above Ontario Provincial recreational water qua lity guidelines (100 CFU/100 mL) several times. Preliminary results raise qu estions about the occurren ce of more persistent waterborne pathogens like enteric viruses and protozoa. They also st ress the importance of maintaining sound water treatment practices. Keywords: Drinking water, Human health, Lake Ontario. EDWARDS, W.J. 1, SOSTER, F.2, MATISOFF, G.3, SCHLOESSER, D.4, and BANTELMAN, A.1, 1DePaul Hall, Niagara Univ ersity, Lewiston, NY, 14109; 2Department of Geosciences, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN, 46135; 3Department of Geological Scie nces, Case Western Reserve University, 112 A.W. Smith Bl dg., 10900 Euclid Ave., OH, 44106; 4USGS Great Lakes Center, 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Oxygen Dynamics within Chironomus spp. Burrows and the Potential Impact on Lake Erie Central Basin Seasonal Hypoxia. Chironomids may contribute to hypoxia in the centra l basin of Lake Erie due to high densities and burrow water pumping activities. We quantified burrow water oxygen concentrations and flow velocities, and the enhanced oxygen transport into the sediment. Chironomids were collected from Lake Erie during summer and 3rd and 4th instars were placed in 2D mesocosms at 9 C and 25 C. We determined oxygen concentrations and flow veloci ties using micro-oxygen electrodes and hot wire anemometry. Burrow dimensions were analyzed via x-radiography. Oxygen de pletion in burrow water correlated with increased pumping events and velocities, incr easing the oxygen flux into the sediment. Enhanced solute exchange between sediments and water was demonstrated by trac ing a bromide spike added to the overlying water. A model that assumes diffusive transport across the se diment-water interface and radial diffusion into the sediment from an irrigated burrow describes bromide data reasonably well. The larvae changed burrows more frequently, had less peak effect on oxygen flux, but had a more regular pumping activity than previously studied mayfly nymphs. Further work s hould include field testing laboratory results with

PAGE 45

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 43 burrows in intact lake sediment cores and macrobe nthos abundance surveys to quantify the effects of chironomids on SOD. Keywords: Oxygen, Biogeochemistry, Benthos. EFFLER, S.W. 1, PENG, F.1, ODONNELL, D.M.1, PERKINS, M.G.1, STRAIT, C.M.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, PO Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laborator y, 2205 Commonwealth Bl vd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Minerogenic Particles and Light Scattering in Lake Ontario and Pursuit of Optical Closure. Light scattering particles are im portant regulators of optical metrics of water quality, such as Secchi disc depth (ZSD), and the signal available for remote sensing. The role of inorganic, or minerogenic, particles in light scat tering in Lake Ontario (seven pela gic sites, August 2007) was evaluated based on the results of individual particle analyses, by scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated x-ray microanalysis and image analysis (SAX), and in situ bulk measurements of particle scattering ( bp) and backscattering ( bbp) coefficients. SAX quantified the li ght scattering features of these particles, including concentration, composition, size distribution, and supported Mie theory estimates of the minerogenic components of bp and bbp. These estimates, added to those obtained for the organic component based on chlorophyll a concentrations, closed well with the bulk measurements. Spatial differences in the minerogenic particle population, with respect to concentr ation and composition, were primarily responsible for the substa ntial spatial stru cture observed for bp, bbp, and ZSD, and MODIS (satellite-based) measurements of normalized water-leaving radiance. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Remote sensing, Underwater optics. EVANS, D.O. 1, SKINNER, A.J.1, YUNKER, G.B.1, WINTER, J.G.2, and LA ROSE, J.K.L.3, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Ro ad, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Ontario Ministry of Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 3Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, LSFAU, 26465 Hedge Ro ad, RR #2, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0. Hypolimnetic Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Lake Simcoe Before and After Invasion by Zebra Mussels and Implications for Lake Trout. Degradation of spawning habitats and hypoxic conditions in the hypolim nion are the suspected primary causes of complete recruitment failure of wild lake trout in Lake Simcoe. The native lake trout has been maintained for several decades by annual stocking. Our object ive is to document hypolimnetic temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions before a nd after establishment of zebra mussels. We also address other interacting factors, including external loading of phosphorus (P), changing predator-prey relationships and climatic variation that are also influencing conditions for lake trout in Lake Simcoe. A significant improvement in water quality occurred following the invasion and establishment of zebra mussels during 1994-96 and a few wild lake trout recru its have been observed each year since 2001. Prior to 1996 mean volume-weighted hypolimnetic disso lved oxygen (MVWHDO) in the central basin, adjusted to September 15, was 2.5 mg/L (n=21 yr) whic h was below the incipient lethal thre shold of 3.0 mg/L for young lake trout. After 1996 MVWHDO on Septem ber 15 increased to 4.6 mg/L (n = 11 yr) and since 2002 has exceeded 5.0 mg/L. Declines in P loading have also accompanied these improvements.

PAGE 46

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 44 Recent changes in water quality and in itial renewed natural recruitment of lake trout provide evidence that ecosystem recovery is possible. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Lake trout, Water quality. EVANS, M.A. and LITCHMAN, E., W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Mi chigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI, 49060. Physical and Biological Controls on Abundance of Microcystis, a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Species. Microcystis and other buoyant, toxin produc ing algae are sensitive to ch anges in lake turbulence and light availability, thus climate change may effect the occurrence of such harmful algal blooms (HABs). Simultaneous changes in la ke nutrient, zebra mussel (ZM), an d transparency status may also effect algal competition. A survey of 28 Michigan lakes, ranging in size from 1.8-830 ha, and containing approximately paired gradients of nutrient le vels with and without ZMs, showed that Microcystis bloomed in low nutrient lakes (TP < 20 g/L) only in the presence of ZMs. Results of this survey, combined with weekly monitoring results from Gu ll Lake, MI (surface area 830 ha, ZMs present, TP 5 g/L), were compared to a previously published mode l of HAB formation based on turbulence and light competition. This model was an insufficient predictor of Microcystis abundance in low nutrient lakes, predicting blooms where none were observed. Moderately strong Microcystis blooms were observed, with particle attached microcystin toxin concentrations reaching 6 g/L in open surface waters and >10x higher concentrations near shore in protected bays. Empirical results indicate that turbulence, light, nutrients, and ZMs must all be included in a Microcystis model for lakes in the Great Lakes region. Keywords: Mathematical models, C limate change, Harmful algal blooms. FAGAN, K.M. 1, KOOPS, M.A.2, ARTS, M.T.3, SUTTON, T.M.4, and POWER, M.1, 1Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 Univers ity Avenue West, Wate rloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 4School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK. The Effects of Trophic Disruption on the Diet and Condition of Lake Whitefish. Lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis a commercially important fish, has experienced declines in condition in some areas of the Gr eat Lakes. It has been hypothesize d that trophic disruption has led to declines in the abundance of high qua lity food resources specifically Diporeia Spawning lake whitefish were sampled in 2004 and 2005 at six stations around Lake Michigan and one station each in Lakes Superior and Erie known to va ry in local abundances of Diporeia Lake whitefish condition was characterized using dorsal muscle total lipid and the he pato-somatic index (HSI). Mean total lipid levels were significantly different between lakes in 2004 and 2005, with high m ean values of 38% and 35% in Lake Erie. Male HSI was found to be significantly different between lakes each year, with high mean values of 0.89 and 0.85 in Lake Superior. Female HS I was significantly different between lakes only in 2004, with a high mean of 1.26 in Lake Erie. The conditi on of lake whitefish was greatest in Lakes Erie and Superior, with low and high Diporeia abundances, respectively. Further research is aimed at

PAGE 47

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 45 establishing the linkage between co ndition and isotope values to unders tand the relative reliance of lake whitefish on Diporeia at the various sites. Keywords: Great Lakes, Lake whitefish, Trophic disruption. FANG, T. CAMPBELL, L.M., WANG, Y.X., COLE, L., a nd CHAN, W.W., School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Biosciences Complex, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada. Assessing Human Exposure from Mercury in Fish from East China Lakes. Because of the rapid industrial development and the importance of freshwater fish in the Chinese diet, the contaminations of mercury and other meta ls is being inceasingly concerned. In May 2005, two species of catfish and two species of carp were sampled at local fish ma rkets near 4 Chinese lakes. Mean total Hg concentrations, in mg/kg, were observed in the following order: Qia ndao Lake (0.688) >Xinshan Lake (0.615) >Dongting Lake (0.173) >T ai Lake (0.071). The total Hg in fish from Qiandao Lake and Xinshan Lake were above the Chinese contamin ation limit (0.300). In May 2006, an deeper study measured the concentration of total Hg and other me tals (Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Rb, Cs) in dorsal samples from two species of wild fish, southern catfish and yellow catfish, and two species of farmed fish, bluegill and channel catfish at Qiandao Lake. All fish are contaminated with mercury but only the total Hg concentrations of southern catfish (1.91 7) and yellow fish (0.629) were above the Chinese contamination limit. At this level of contamination, frequent consumption of these fish could be detrimental to the health of human consumers. Current data have been used to evaluate the human risk for Qiandao Lake. Furthermore, human risks related to fish consumption around the Qiandao Lake will be the focus of our following work since many commercial fish are farmed there. Keywords: Mercury, Fish, Risk assessment. FATHI, M. 1, BLAIS, J.M.1, LEAN, D.R.S.1, and RIDAL, J.J.2, 1Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5; 2St. Lawrence River Institute, Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1. Benthic Flux of Total Mercury (THg) and Methyl Mercury (MeHg) between contaminated Sediments and the Overlying Water Column in the St. Law rence River near Cornwall, Ontario. The toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and flux of mercury depends on its chemical form. Methyl mercury (MeHg) is considered to be the most toxic form and the only form to biomagnify in the aquatic food web. The St. Lawrence River near Cornwa ll, Ontario was designated an Area of Concern by the IJC in 1985 because of its contamination with mercury and other metals by local industry. This study investigated the potential for bent hic flux of mercury between contaminated sediments and overlaying water. It is recognized that some mercury spec ies are more mobile than others. We measured concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MeHg in both the porewater and solid phase of the sediments, and in overlying water to determine whether these sedi ments are acting as a sour ce or sink for Hg and compared values with complimentary redox-sensitive va riables, including sulphate, sulphide, and Fe2+ distributions. We calculated flux rate s of MeHg and THg from sediments to water, and compared these with THg accumulation rates determined from radiom etrically dated sediment cores. Although sediments were a net sink for THg, the flux of MeHg to the overlying water was positive but very low. There was little seasonal variation in MeHg flux rates. Keywords: Mercury, Sediments, St. Lawrence River.

PAGE 48

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 46 FENICHEL, E.F.1, TSAO, J.I. 2, and JONES, M.L.1, 1Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, The Quantitative Fisheries Center, 13 Natura l Resource Bldg., East Lansing, MI, 48864; 2Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, 13 Natural Resources Bldg., East Lansing, MI. Epidemiological Models Can Guide Fish Health Research and Management: Bacterial Kidney Disease in Free-swimming Fish. Mechanistic epidemiological modeling has provided a useful approach to organize knowledge and improve understanding of host-pathogen dynamics in wild terrestrial populations, but has not been applied to freshwater systems. We introduce epid emiological modeling and illustrate how it can aid fishery managers. Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, has been hypothesized to have played a role in the decline of salm onids in Lake Michigan in the '80s, yet little is known about its dynamics outside of hatcheries. We developed a susceptible-exposed-infected-exposed (SEIE) model to simulate disease dynamics in wild and hatchery-spawned Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) among different epidemiological cla sses. We included age-structure, an environmental reservoir and various hatchery management scenarios. Results sugge st that stocking fewer healthier fish can lead to larger harvestable populations versus stocking more infected fish. Also, Rs prevalence patterns may help distinguish outbreaks driven by overall populat ion density versus by stocking infected fish. Model results reveal the need to understand wi ld recruitment patterns in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon, the extent of vertical transmission, and the mechanisms by which exposed fish become infectious. Keywords: Mathematic al models, Fish diseases, Fish populations. FENICHEL, E.F. 1, TSAO, J.I.1, JONES, M.L.1, and HICKLING, G.J.2, 1Michigan State University, Department of Fisheries and W ildlife, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 2University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Knoxville, TN, 37996. How Many Fish to Screen No Easy Answer. Aquatic pathogens have risen to the forefront in Great Lakes Fi shery Policy. Along with this rise, there is increasing recognition of the need to more fully integrate fish health into fisheries management. Nowhere is this more apparent than for the perennia l question of how many fish to screen for pathogens. This question has generally only been addressed base d on statistical concerns without consideration of more fundamental management issues such as object ives and management opportunities. Screening is an investment in information. Therefore, the value of that information is critical in deciding how many fish to screen. This value of that in formation is in turn a function of other management opportunities. We present a conceptual framework that links disease ecology, population dy namics, economics, and statistics for thinking about the screening quest ion within the context of fishery management. Then, we review the underlining statistical concepts behi nd screening design to show how st atistics alone can not tell us how many fish to screen. Finally, we hi ghlight opportunities that we beli eve offer the first steps toward integration of screening for aqua tic pathogens into a systems a pproach to fishery management. Keywords: Fish diseases, Risk assessment. FILATOV, N. 1, RUKHOVETS, L.A.2, TERZHEVIK, A.1, and ASTRAKHANTSEV, G.P.2, 1Northern Water Problems Institute, Karelian Research Cent re, Russian Academy of Sciences, 50 Aleksander

PAGE 49

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 47 Nevsky Ave., Petrozavodsk, Karelia, 185030, Russia; 2Saint-Petersburg Institute for Economics and Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Chaikovskogo St., St.Petersburg, 191187, Russia. Ladoga and Onego--Great European Lakes: Inve stigations of Effects of Global Changes on Ecosystem Dynamics. Lakes Ladoga (surface area = 17,891 km2; volume = 902 km3) and Onego (surface area = 9,600 km2; volume = 292 km3) are the greatest lakes in Europe. La ke Ladoga ranks among the top fifteen worlds freshwater lakes and is comparable with th e surface area of Lake Ontario. The watershed of Lake Ladoga (258,000 km2) extends through northwestern European Russia and the eastern part of Finland, including the large lakes of Ilmen and Saimaa. Lakes Ladoga and Onego are an important link in the Kaspian-Baltic-White Sea waterway system. Their ecological state a ffects the water quality of Neva River, Gulf of Finland, and the Baltic Sea, and is strongly related to drinking, recreational, transportation, and energy uses. It is not surprisi ng that changes in the ecological state of Lakes Ladoga and Onego attract attention of institutions de aling with operational us e, environmental protection, and management of water resources not only in Russia, but also in tr ans-boundary countries. Lake Ladoga preserves its weak mesotrophic status, and Lake Onego can be characterized as oligotr ophic. Economical growth during the last seven years led to the in creasing anthropogenic impact on the ecosystems of these lakes. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Environmental poli cy, Management. FINCH, M. 1, POWER, M.1, and DOKA, S.E.2, 1Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Population Dynamics of Eastern Sand Darter ( Ammocrypta pellucida ) on the Lower Thames River, Ontario. Eastern sand darter ( Ammocrypta pellucida ) is listed as a threaten ed species under Canadas Species at Risk Act (SARA). Habitat destruction th roughout its geographic rang e has made the species vulnerable to population declines an d possible local extinc tion. To help protect eastern sand darter, biological recovery teams mandated by SARA have identified knowledge gaps in scientific understanding of the life-history and population eco logy of the species. Population mode ling has been highlighted as one method that can help determine population fates and id entify critical population habitat and life stages. However, population modeling can be difficult to apply when little is known about population vital rates and life-history variation. Here, I di scuss the calculation of vital rates (e.g., mo rtality, growth, and recruitment) for use in the constr uction of a stage-based population m odel for eastern sand darter on the lower Thames River. Information for vital rates comes from a variety of sources including; field studies, habitat surveys, and aging studies Emphasis has been placed on usi ng non-lethal sampling methodologies due to eastern sand darters SARA classification. Anticipated outcome s of the model include; estimation of population trajectories and identif ication of limiting life-stages. Keywords: Matrix modeling, Population dynamics, Species at risk. FITZGERALD, D.G. 1, ZHU, B.2, HOSKINS, S.B.3, and SCHIEFER, K.4, 1EcoMetrix Incorporated, 6800 Campobello Road, Mississauga, ON, L5N 2L8; 2Finger Lakes Institute, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY, 14456; 3Cornell Institute for Resource Information Sciences, Cornell University,

PAGE 50

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 48 Ithaca, NY, 14853; 4Bluewater Biosciences, 6800 Campobello Road, Mississauga, ON, L5N 2L8. Expansion of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Lakes and Rivers across the Great Lakes Basin: Evidence for Increased Water Clarity and a New Management Challenge. Recent investigations identified that the current watershed management efforts used in the Great Lakes basin have led to an expansion of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) such as rooted plants and filamentous algae across lake and rive r habitats. It is clear that this expansion of SAV across habitats is due to improved water clarity. Inve stigations also revealed that expanded SAV usually involves native species. The expansion of SAV was an expected ou tcome of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement but also represents a major management challenge. Currently, a range of direct and indirect activities are used to manage SAV across habitats. Direct activities include harvest a nd protection of SA V, and indirect activities include detailed monitoring of phosphorus loading and limits on shoreline development to shape SAV communities. This presentation will review the status of SAV expansion across the Great Lakes basin and identify the different management activities currently used in rivers, ponds, and lakes. Case studies will be used to highlight these management activities. Additional mana gement activities for SAV in use for locations beyond the Great Lakes basin will also be considered. Keywords: Management, Benthic flora, Review. FOX, B.M. 120 Bayview Parkway, Box 11, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4W3. Conservation Authorities and the Engagement of the Watershed Community in Canadian AOCs. Conservation Authorities are community-level or ganizations that manage natural resources on a watershed basis across Ontario; eac h Conservation Authority is governed by a Board of Directors whose members are municipally appointed. Th irty-five CAs drain into the Grea t Lakes/St. Lawrence system and, through their mandate for watershed management, th ey are important partners to enhancing and maintaining water quality and overall health of the Great Lakes. Of the seventeen Canadian (includes three bi-national) Areas of Concer n (AOCs), twelve are encompassed within the watershed boundaries of CAs and these CAs, in partnership with others, are implementing remedial actions. Additionally, in five of these twelve AOCs the CAs have a leadership and coordination role for the Remedial Action Plans and associated actions for the Toronto Harbour (Metro Toronto), Hamilton Harbour, Niagara River, Bay of Quinte, and the St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) AOCs Projects utilizing CA expertise have included urban and rural non-point s ource pollution remediation, habitat rest oration, storm water and wastewater management, and community engageme nt. A few projects will be highlighted to demonstrate the role and value of engaging the watershed community in restor ing and delisting the AOCs, as well as to explore potential opportunities. Keywords: Watersheds, Public pa rticipation, Community engagement, Conservation authorities. FOY, H.D. WILSON, H.W., and XENOPOUL OS, M.A., Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Variations in Leaf Litter Decomposition Rates of Riparian and Crop Plants in Streams Along an Agricultural Gradient.

PAGE 51

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 49 The breakdown of leaf litter is a significant part of stream ecosystems because it provides energy to food webs, provides habitat, and is important for pa rticle transport in the stream. We te sted leaf litter decomposition for two riparian (speckled alder and red maple) and two crop (alfalfa hay and wheat straw) plants in ten streams of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin ranging in agricultura l land use from 1.5 to 75%. Decomposition was higher in plants that were rich in nitrogen (alder and maple) compared to crop plants which contained much less nitrogen. Streams with mo re agricultural landuse in the catchment showed faster rates of decomposition, li kely associated with higher nut rients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Preliminary results show that de composition rates of l eaf-litter bundles are pos itively related with invertebrate richness and abundance. Understanding how decomposition rates differ between plant species and between streams with varying agricultural activity is important for understanding the changes to stream functions associated with land use alterations. Keywords: Land use, Leaf litter decomposition, Macroinvertebrates. FREEMAN, A.D. and MONTGOMERY, K.E., 5 Shoreh am Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Involvement in the Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan. Restoring environmental conditions in a place deve loping as fast and growing as large as Toronto and region is a task beyond the scope of one group. Fortunately, in Toronto and region, there are many groups and agencies working to enhance environmen tal conditions. Initial planning for the Toronto and region Remedial Action Plan (TORRAP) involved a P ublic Advisory Committee (PAC). With the plan completed combined with the need to focus on im plementation, and the eras funding cuts, the PAC was dissolved; however, this did not mean the end of public input into the RA P, only the arrangement changed. Watershed advisory committees were established to assist with the development and implementation of watershed plans. Over 200 people participate on these watershed committees which are comprised of residents, government agencies, m unicipalities, industries, and community groups. TORRAP supports these activit ies as they ensure a venture for open input to the RAP while fulfilling the role of the PAC. Functioning in the same manner as a PAC, these committees successfully assist in securing resources, influencing prio rities, and establishing linkages within the community, operating on a watershed scale. Keywords: Urban watersheds, Environm ental policy, Community involvement. FRYE, J.L. 317 Adelaide St. West, Suite 705, Toronto, ON, M6C 2T5. The Blue Flag Canada Program: An Ecosystem Based Approach to Managing the Great Lakes and Coastal Ecosystems. The Blue Flag is a respected international eco-certification program for beaches. Operated internationally by the Foundation for Environmental E ducation, a Blue Flag symbolizes a clean beach which meets strict international standards. Environm ental Defence is an Associate Member of FEE and the Canadian operator of the program. The program is a voluntary certification scheme, proven to be a practical management tool to assist and facilita te the implementation of environmental policies and strengthen their effective implem entation. Certification requires the assessment of a beach against 27 standards categorized as water qua lity, environmental education, environmental management, and safety and services. Local and national stak eholders are involved to ensure a ll facets of the coastal environment are represented. The goal is to empower communiti es to educate community members, improve and

PAGE 52

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 50 sustainably manage their coastal ecosystems. Blue Flag fosters the necessary education and actions required to ensure a sustainable, prosperous future for our Great Lakes/coastal ecosystems.These factors illustrate that the Blue Flag is a unique approach to sustainably managing our coastal ecosystems. The oral presentation will provide an ove rview of the program and how it c ontributes to an ecosystem based approach to managing the Great Lakes. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Lake ecosystems, Education, Human health, Water quality. FUCHSMAN, P. 1, HENNING, M.2, LEIGH, K.1, and WELSH, P.3, 1ENVIRON International Corp., 13801 West Center St., Suite 1, Burton, OH; 2ENVIRON International Corp., 136 Commercial St., Suite 402, Portland, ME, 44021; 3Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, 40 St. Clair Ave. West, 7th Floor Toronto, ON, M4V 1M2. Innovative Evaluation of Risks to Mink from PCBs in Muddy Creek, Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern, Lake Erie, Ontario. Wheatley Harbour is one of 43 Areas of Concern identified in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment and biota of the Muddy Creek portion of Wheatley Harbour are attributed to hi storical discharge of wastewater a nd disposal of fish offal by nearby fish processing plants. An ecological risk asse ssment was conducted for Muddy Creek to determine whether sediment remediation is warranted to mitiga te risks from PCBs to piscivorous wildlife. Of the receptors evaluated, mink are the most toxicologically sensitive to PCBs and offer the greatest opportunity for site-specific, innovative, and accurate evaluation. Local mink survey information was used to select representative foraging ranges, area use factors, and fraction of diet as fish. Dietary concentrations in fish were characterized based on measured and modeled fish tissue concentrations. Exposure and effects were characterized based on dietar y doses, as well as estimated internal doses or body burdens. Because both methods concluded that mink are not likely to be adversely affected by PCBs in Muddy Creek sediment and fish, the ecological risk assessment concluded that sediment remediation in Muddy Creek is not warranted. Keywords: PCBs, Risk assessment, Mink. GEFELL, D.J. and HUGHES, D.J. Onondaga Environmental Inst., 102 W. Division St., 3rd Floor, Syracuse, NY, 13210. An Integrated Assessment of Water Quality in Onondaga Creek, Syracuse, New York. Onondaga Creek, a tributary of Onondaga Lake, has played a centr al role in the history of aboriginal (Onondaga) and west ern cultures in central NY. The creek watershed (~300 km2) progresses from mixed forests, agricultural (e sp. dairy and orchards), to heavily urbanized land. We have undertaken a comprehensive assessment of physical (sed iment loading, temperature), biological (fish, macroinvertebrate, indicator bacteria), surface wate r (diss. oxygen, phosphorus, salinity), and sediment data collected by multiple agencies. Moving along the rural-to-urban gradient, creek habitat generally deteriorates, while fish community health (IBI) and macroinvertebrate scores decrease. The creek continues to be adversely affected by very high sediment loading from ru ral sources; salinity is elevated, due to both natural and human sources; and temperature is inhospitable to native and stocked trout in certain areas. D.O. conditions are generally good. Soluble phosphorus a nd bacteria data both point to leaking sewers as an ongoing source of pollution. I ndicator bacteria generally exceed state guidelines,

PAGE 53

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 51 especially during wet weather. Sediments are chem ically contaminated at multiple locations. This information is being used in a community-based creek revitalization pl an now being developed. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Watersheds, Bioindicators. GERRETSEN, J. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 12th Floor, 135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto, ON, M4V 1P5. Introduction to Lake Simcoe Session. The Hon. John Gerretsen, Minister of the Environm ent, will introduce the session to highlight the work being done by the Province on the Lake Simcoe Protection Strategy. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Watersheds, Ecosystem health. GEWURTZ, S.B. 1, HELM, P.2, CROZIER, P.W.2, REINER, E.2, HOWELL, E.T.2, and MARVIN, C.H.3, 1Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave., St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 3Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Sediments and Surface Waters of the Great Lakes. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), primarily perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in Great Lakes surficial sediment and water and in two Lake Ontario cores, as part of the Ontario Mini stry of the Environment and Environment Canada monitoring programs. Both water an d sediment PFC concentrations ex hibited similar trends, whereby concentrations were highest in La ke Ontario, likely due to the influence of urban areas, and lowest in Lake Superior. Relatively elevated PFC concentrations were also detected in Georgian Bay, which were likely due to pulp and paper mill effluents. Sharp PFC concentration increases were found in the 3 most recent core slices of both Lake Ontario sediment cores and do not yet reflect PFOS usage reductions. Keywords: Perfluorinated com pounds, Water quality, Sediments. GILBERT, J.M. and LOCKE, B., Ontario Ministry of Natura l ResourcesLake Erie Management Unit, 320 Milo Rd., Wheatley, ON, N0P 2P0. Ecological Assessments of Ca nadian Lake Erie Coastal Wetlands Identify Threats and Required Remediation Strategies. Assessments of the ecological health of coastal we tlands located within Rondeau Bay, along the Canadian shore of Lake Erie, were conducted in 2005 and 2006. Of the fifteen individual wetlands identified only one, existing within the boundaries of a provi ncial park, was considered to be relatively intact and healthy. The other 14 wetlands varied in size and diversity depending upon the degree of anthropogenic disturbance and surrounding landscape us age. All of the wetlands were colonized by the invasive alien species Phragmites australis. The presence of this plant has been identified as a major threat to biodiversity and the habitats required by a large number of existing sp ecies at risk. Other major threats to these systems, were poor nutrient management practices occurring throughout the small agriculturally based watershed, outdated septic systems within the residential communities, small buffers surrounding the wetlands, and the lack of connecting corridors. Based upon these and other identified

PAGE 54

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 52 pressures a remediation strategy was developed to guide long-ter m management plans throughout the watershed toward targeted goals In 2007, pilot projects were undertaken which focussed on the Phragmites and nutrient issues. These projects along with key components of the wetland assessments will be discussed. Keywords: Assessments, Ecosys tem health, Coastal wetlands. GILBERTSON, M. 46 James Street West, Gu elph, ON, N1G 1E4, Canada. Effects of Diversionary Reframing on the Selection of GLWQA Indicators. The negotiation and signing of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was based on evidence of injury to health and property caused by polluti on of the boundary waters. Attempted diversionary reframing to transform the purpose into restoration of Great Lakes ecosystem integrity has introduced farreaching confusion into selection of priorities, management of progr ams and preparation of remedial action plans and lakewide management plans for critical pollutants. The reframing has introduced a longterm ambiguity into the Parties process of select ing indicators by which to assess progress in achieving the stated objective of maintaini ng and restoring water quality. The most effective processes for selection of GLWQA indicators have depended on statements of injury to or ganisms, including humans, caused by pollution of the boundary waters. Long-term monito ring of the incidence of injury and of the concentrations of the causal pollutant s has provided reliable measures of Parties progress in maintaining and restoring water quality. The Part ies review of the GLWQA should recognize the long-term utility of these indicator organisms by naming them in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and by committing to continue their monitoring. Keywords: Indicators, Wa ter quality, Pollutants. GOGINENI, P., JANUSKA, B., MINNIEFIELD, C., and SIMOLIUNAS, S. Detroit River Remedial Action Council, 655 W. Warren Ave., Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. The Mirage of Public Involvement. We have been involved as public members sin ce the inception of the Detroit River Remedial Action Binational Public Council and Lake Erie Binational Forum. We were able to see the abolition of the former and the suspension of the latter. The less on learned is that governments pay only lip service to meaningful public partic ipation. The public has to be galvan ized to demand meaningful public participation as outlined by the Binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Detroit River, Public participation. GORMAN, O.T. 1, ROOK, B.J.2, HANSEN, M.J.2, and YULE, D.L.1, 1USGS Lake Superior Biological Station, 2800 Lake Shore Drive East, Ashland, WI, 54806; 2University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, College of Natural Resources, Stevens Point, WI, 54481. Population Trends in Lake Herring ( Coregonus artedi ) in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior, 1974-2007. Lake herring underwent a robust recovery in La ke Superior in the late 1980s, which was well documented for the Apostle Islands region. We exam ined population trends from bottom trawl data collected over a 34-yr time series. From 1974 to 1984, abundance of lake herring was low and marked by recruitment failure. Recovery of la ke herring commenced with the appe arance of a very large 1984 year

PAGE 55

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 53 class and followed by a series of large year cl asses in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Subs equent recruitment and growth of these cohorts led to reco rd levels of density and biomass in the early to mid-1990s followed by a decline to lower levels in the late 1990s that have remained relativel y stable to the present. After a 7year hiatus, a moderate year class was produced in 1998 and another in 2003. De spite the presence of a large adult population since the mid-1990s, no large year classes ha ve appeared. Relative population stability and intermittent recruitmen t since the late 1990s suggest a stat e of relative equilibrium. Factors likely contributing to population changes include : high recruitment variation, rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax ) suppression of recruitment prior to 1980, lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) predation after 1984, and density-dependent moderati on of recruitment by a large a dult population after the mid-1990s. Keywords: Fish populations, Recruitment, Lake Superior. GRABUSKI, J.M.1, CAGAMPAN, S.J.1, STRUGER, J. 1, and RONDEAU, B.2, 1Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Environment Canada, Montreal, QC. Automated Solid Phase Extraction of Sulfonyl Ureas and Related Herbicides in Fortified Water and Natural Water Samples Using LCESI/MS/MS. The identification and determination of sulfonyl ur eas and other related herbicides have presented a challenge, both in specificity and sensitivity, when using conventional analytical techniques. Recent advances in solid phase extraction (SPE) technol ogy combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) have greatly improved this process. Hence, we developed a sensitive and robust analytical technique with supporting method dete ction limits (MDLs) using fortified Type I water. The applicability of the analytical method was th en investigated on approximately 100 natural water samples from urban and agricultural watersheds in Ontario and Quebec Canada. Nine sulfonyl ureas and six related herbicides in water were simultaneously extracted by an automated Autotrace SPE Workstation. Recoveries in the spiked Type I water samples were 96% or higher for all compounds except rimsulfuron, which was recovered at 60% (n= 12). Instrument and MD limits ranged from 0.33 to 9.88 pg/uL and 0.7 to 22.0 ng/L, respectively. Maximum observed concentrati ons in natural water samples in 2007 were 858 ng/L for linuron and 873 ng/L for formesafen. Keywords: Pesticides, Watersheds. GRETZ, M.R. 1 and DOMOZYCH, D.S.2, 1Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931; 2Department of Biology, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, 12866. Its Only a Matter of Time: When Will the Diatom Didymosphenia geminata Become a Nuisance Alga in the Great Lakes Basin? The pennate diatom Didymosphenia geminata has been historically noted as a low abundance species from alpine and boreal regi ons of the Northern Hemisphere. In recent years, streams in New Zealand, North America, Europe, and Asia have been disrupted by unprecedented blooms of this alga. Significant blooms have been reported from Victoria Island to Quebec in North America, and Biosecurity New Zealand is waging war on this invasive species which has significantly impacted streams of the south island. Didymo mats cover up to 100% of surfaces with thickness up to 30 cm, for reaches of several kilometers, greatly altering physical and biological conditions within streams and along lake

PAGE 56

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 54 shorelines. The bulk of D. geminata biomass consists of extracellular stalks extruded through an apical pore field in the silica frustule. When cells grow and divide within a ma t, the stalks bifurcate repeatedly, resulting in an aggregate woven fa bric mat that traps algae, macr oinvertebrates, detritus and other stream debris. These mats have been likened to raw sewage, complete with toilet paper. D. geminata stalks are primarily sulfated xyl ogalactan and we are investigati ng carbohydrate metabolism and glycan synthase activity to ascertain the causes of the dramatic upsurge in stalk production in recent years. Keywords: Invasive species, Benthic flora, Algae. GUILDFORD, S.J. 1, DEPEW, D.C.2, HOUBEN, A.2, OZERSKY, T.2, and HECKY, R.E.1, 1University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55821; 2University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Seasonal and Spatial Trends in TP and Chlorophyll in Lake Simcoe: Impact of Dreissenids? Lake Simcoe is Ontarios largest inland la ke. Phosphorus removal from wastewater has significantly reduced earlie r problems of eutrophication; however it is now experiencing the impact of exotic dreissenid mussels. Lake Simcoe has three distinctive basins. Cooks Bay, historically very eutrophic, receives agricultural dr ainage from Holland Marsh and c ontinues to support high macrophytes biomass. Kempenfelt Bay is an urbanized deep narrow basin. The remainder of th e lake is a uniform open basin. In 2006 and 2007 we sampled the three basins including several shallow sites with extensive dreissenid coverage. Total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl) were higher in Cooks Bay than elsewhere in the lake. TP declined from May through August in all basins. Chl declined from May to July and then increased to a seasonal hi gh at all locations in August. Th e shallow sites had significantly less chlorophyll that the other lo cations. Other measures related to part iculate biomass (C, N, Si) including total suspended solids were all significantly lower at the shallow sites. Dissolved nutrients in contrast were relatively uniform around the lake. Our data s uggest that in areas of Lake Simcoe impacted by dreissenids the expected coupling between nutrients and chlorophyll has been disrupted by dreissenid grazing. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Phosphorus, Dreissena. GUNGOR, E. 1, ROBERTS, P.1, MCCORMICK, M.J.2, and SCHWAB, D.J.2, 1School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Dynamics of the Grand Ri ver Plume Entering Lake Michigan. Contaminants and fecal pollution from the Grand River may pose health risks to recreationers at the Grand Haven beaches and may major cause beach closing. This study focuses on the near field hydrodynamics of the Grand River plume as it enters la ke Michigan. We develop a near field model to determine the fate and probability of beach contamination and to aid forecasting water quality along the beaches. Four intensive field experiments on the plume dynamics were carried out in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Artificial tracers (SF6 a nd Rhodamine WT) were added to the river upstream and profiles of plume properties were obtained by boats in the lake. In addition, currents, winds and waves were continuously measured and aerial p hotographs of the plume were obtai ned. It was found that the river plume forms a buoyant surface jet. In this paper, the field data are discussed and experiments are proposed using three-dimensional laser-induced fluores cence (3DLIF) to investigate the characteristics of

PAGE 57

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 55 the river plume and its mixing and transport mechanisms. The results of this research will improve simulations of water quality in nearshore areas and aid in predicting beach closures. Keywords: Human health, Hydrodynamics, Mathematical models. GUTOWSKY, L.F.G. GAN, S., and FOX, M.G., Environm ental & Resource Studies Program and Department of Biology, Pe terborough, ON, K9J 7B8. The Distribution, Moveme nt and Life History of Round Gobies in the Trent River: A Dynamic Invasive Population in Its Expansion Phase. The round goby ( Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive fish that is rapidly expanding its range in the Great Lakes watershed. The species life history and mode of range expansion is poorly understood, and has not been quantitatively investigated in ne wly invaded environments. Knowledge of life history traits is necessary to better understand how the round goby adapts and manages to spread rapidly. Round gobies were collected in the center and edge of their distribution in the Trent River over the 2006 and 2007 breeding seasons. The samples were then used to compare reproductive energy allocation between established and expanding aggregates of the population. Preliminary resu lts indicate that round gobies on the edge of expansion allocate more energy to re production than those collected from the site of introduction. These results suggest that a high level of phenotypic plasticity in life history traits may be an important biological trait in invasi ve fishes. While it is unlikely that the round goby can be eradicated from North American sites where it is already establ ished, its spread may be slowed by focusing removal efforts on segments of the population at the edges of expansion where the highest levels of reproductive allocation are occurring. Keywords: Round goby, Invasive species, Life history studies. HAGAR, J. REDISKE, R.R., OKEEFE, J.P., and HONG, Y.E., Annis Wate r Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441. Detection and Quantification of Cyanobacteria and Microcystin in Recreational Waters of Two West Mi chigan Lakes: Muskegon Lake and Bear Lake Using Three Different Methodologies. Microcystins are among the most frequently occurring and widely distributed cyanobacterial toxins found in freshwater lakes. They form a fa mily of hepatotoxins that can be potent protein phosphatase inhibitors and have been implicated in human and animal poisonings. In the summer of 2006, microcystin concentrations were investigated in Bear Lake and Muskegon Lake. The performance of three analytical techniques: ELISA, PPIA, and HPLC/MS also was evaluated. In Bear Lake, mean microcystin concentrations were 1.74 gL-1, 3.06 gL-1, 1.66 gL-1 when measured by ELISA, PPIA, and HPLC/MS, respectively. PPIA microcystin activity was significantly higher than ELISA microcystin LR equivalent concentrations (p<0.001) and HPLC/MS-Total microc ystin concentration (p<0.001). ELISA results were moderately significantly higher than HPLC/MS-Total concentrations (p=0.043). In Muskegon Lake, mean microcystin concentrations were 0.42 gL-1, 0.55 gL-1, 0.52 gL-1 when measured by ELISA, PPIA, and HPLC/MS, respectively. PPIA microcystin activities we re significantly higher than ELISA microcystin LR equivalent concentra tions (p<0.001) but not si gnificantly different than HPLC/MS-Total microcystins concentrations (p=0.265). ELISA re sults were significantly lower than HPLC/MS-Total microcystin concentrations(p=0.002).

PAGE 58

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 56 HALL, E.1, BOEGMAN, L. 1, YERUBANDI, Y.2, and PATURI, S.1, 1Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6; 2National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Modeling Lake Ontario Hydrodynamic s: Performance of Basin-scale and Nearshore Simulations. Reynolds averaged hydrodynamic computational models are now capable of simulating the offshore three-dimensional circulation in the Great Lakes on coarse grids (km scale) over seasonal timescales. Their performance in n earshore regions has not been well documented, yet these basin-scale models are increasingly being used to specify the open boundary forcing condition for high-resolution nearshore models. In this study, we test the ability of the three-dime nsional Estuary and Lake Computer Model (ELCOM) to simulate Lake Ontario hydrodynami cs at both nearshore and offshore field stations. The model accurately reproduces the offshore thermal structure. To correctly simulate nearshore water levels, the Niagara and St. Lawrence River flows are not sufficient; all major tributary flows must be included. Nearshore current profiles are not well modeled. Preliminary results from a high-resolution nearshore model (100 m scale) of the eastern Lake Ontario and upper St. Lawr ence River hydrodynamics will be presented with particular emphasis on the sensitivity of this model to the open-lake boundary condition. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Lake Ontario, Model testing. HAN, H. and ALLAN, D., University of Michigan School of Natural Re sources and Environment, Dana Building, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1041, US. Phosphorus Loading to Lake Erie Watersheds: A Mass Balance Approach. Mass balance estimates of nutrient inputs to and exports from entire watersheds provide insight into nutrient loss or sequestration and the influence of agricultural and urban land use. We quantified mass balance of phosphorus for the entire 25 Lake Erie watersheds in the Unite d States and Canada for 2002, and extended historical P budgeting only for the watersheds located in the United States from 1987 to 2002 at 5 yr intervals. We 1) quantified P inputs to all waters heds from atmospheric deposition, fertilizer use, and net import of P in food and feed, 2) analyzed the relationship be tween trends in total net P inputs and land use; and 3) determined P input-expor t relationships. The magnitude of P inputs to each watershed and importance of the rela tive P inputs varies greatly over spac e but not over the 15-year time interval. P inputs to watersheds are well correlat ed with land use composition, showing a positive correlation with land in agriculture and a negative correlation with land in forest. On average, over all watersheds, fertilizer use is the largest single P input, fo llowed by net import of P in food and feed, and atmospheric P deposition. Keywords: Phosphorus, Mass balance, Lake Erie. HANSEN, D.L.1, ISHII, S.2, SADOWSKY, M.J.2, and HICKS, R.E. 1, 1Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812; 2Department of Soil, Water & Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108. Waterfowl Abundance is Not a Relia ble Predictor of the Dominant Avian Source or Levels of Fecal Indica tor Bacteria at Lake Superior Beaches.

PAGE 59

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 57 The HFERP DNA fingerprinting technique wa s used to identify potential sources of E. coli at two beaches in the Duluth-Superior Harbor during May, July, and September 2006. Waterfowl were the largest source of E. coli that could be identified in water (55100%), sand (59-100%), and sediment (92100%) at both beaches throughout the study. Although ri ng-billed gulls were more abundant in this harbor, Canada geese were usually the dominant source of waterfowl E. coli found at these beaches. The percentage of E. coli identified as coming from treated wastewater was always less than the percentage of E. coli originating from waterfowl. At both beaches, the percentage of E. coli found in water and contributed by treated wastewater was higher in May compared to Ju ly and September. The larger proportion of wastewater-derived E. coli seen in May was probably more reflective of the smaller contribution of E. coli from geese when they were less abunda nt rather than an absolute increase in E. coli from treated wastewater. Microbial source analysis a nd bird census data both indicated that waterfowl were a major source of E. coli at these beaches. Our data, however, also indicate it is risky to assume that the most abundant waterfowl species pr esent in waterways will also be th e largest source of avian-derived E. coli at beaches. Keywords: Bioindicators, Water quality, Microbiological studies. HANSEN, G.J.A. and JONES, M.L., Michigan State Univers ity, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and Quantitative Fisheries Center, 13 Natu ral Resources Building, East Lansing, MI, 48824. A Comparison of Two Methods of Larval Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) Assessment in the Great Lakes: How Much Information Is Needed to Effectively Rank Streams for Treatment? Sea lampreys ( Petromyzon marinus ) are invasive to the Great Lakes and are managed largely through the use of lampricides that target the non-parasitic, stream-dwelling larval stage. A resourceintensive larval assessment process (Quantitative Assessment Sampling, QAS) is currently used to determine which streams to treat in a given year. We developed an alternative assessment procedure known as Rapid Assessment (RA) that required fe wer resources to carry out, and assumed that any savings resulting from the use of RA would be used to treat additional streams with lampricide. We implemented both assessment methods basin wide from 2005-2007 and compared the costs (assessment expenditures) and benefits (sea lampreys killed) of each approach. Population estimates generated from these assessments as well as mark-recapture studies in dicate that basing stream treatment decisions on RA results in at least as many, if not more, sea lampre ys killed than basing decisions on QAS. RA does not appear to perform as well as QAS when assessment savings are not used to trea t additional streams. These results have led to a decision by the Great Lake s Fishery Commission to change larval assessment protocols to more cost-effectively mana ge sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Assessments, Sea lamprey, Comparison studies, Decision making. HANSON, A.M. YOUNG, E.B., and BERGES, J.A., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3209 N. Maryland Ave., Milwaukee, WI, 53211. Viruses in Lake Michigan: Examining the Virus Community and the Role of Viruses in the Phosphorus Cycle. Viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and especially important in nutrient cycling through lysis of phytoplankton and bacteria. The role of viral lysis in carbon cycli ng is well established in marine microbial food webs, but less is known for other elem ents or for freshwaters. We examined the viral

PAGE 60

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 58 community in Lake Michigan and assessed its contri bution to cycling of the limiting nutrient phosphorus. Surface water samples from nearshore (<100 m and <10 m depth) and offshore (>2 km and >10 m depth) were characterized using epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 48.6% of viruses had icosahedral head and tails, s uggesting that phages are numerically dominant. Using tangential flow filtration and spot plaque assays, a virus that lysed cultures of Pseudomonas sp. (cultured from Lake Michigan) was isolated from nearshore surface water a nd purified. To examine the significance of viruses to P cycling, we are currently comparing dissolved and particulate P fractions measured in Pseudomonas sp. cultures with and without viral lysis. Quantifying th e potential for P release du e to viral lysis will help determine the significance of viruse s in the Lake Michigan P cycle. Keywords: Microbiological studies, Viruses, Phosphorus, Lake Michigan. HAPONSKI, A.E. and STEPIEN, C.A., 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. Molecular and Biogeographic Resolution of Cryptic Taxa in the Greenside Darter Etheostoma blennioides Complex. DNA sequencing offers new tools to discern and distinguish among cryptic taxa. Our study tests the systematic identity and ge netic divergence distinguishing me mbers of the greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides complex, including cryptic taxa and subspecies, in areas of sympatry and allopatry. DNA sequences (1,497 bp) from the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and control region and the nuclear S7 intron 1 are compared from 294 individuals across 18 locati ons in the lower Great Lakes and Ohio River watersheds. MtDNA results define four taxa; E. b. blennioides E. b. newmanii and E. b. pholidotum and a new clade in the Meramec River, which are distinguished by pr onounced divergences (ST = 0.92-0.97; p-distance = 0.025-0.039), many synapomorphies, and reciprocal monophyly. The nuclear sequences clearly resolve the Meramec River clade. The four ge netic taxa of the greenside darter complex likely diverged during the early Pleisto cene Epoch based on a molecular clock calibration for the cytochrome b gene in darters of 2% per million years. The four cryptic taxa thus should be evaluated further for potential elevation to species level. Keywords: Biodiversity, Fish populations, Genetics. HEBERT, C.E. 1, WESELOH, D.V.2, and GAUTHIER, L.1, 1Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ot tawa, ON, K1A 0H3; 2Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4. Ecological Tracers Reveal Pathways of Contaminant Transfer to Avian Predators. Food web structure regulates the flow of energy, nutrients, and persistent organic contaminants (POPs) to top predators. Pathways of contaminan t transfer can be underst ood by measuring ecological tracers in predator tissues. Ecol ogical tracers are stable chemical or biochemical compounds, such as stable nitrogen isotopes and fatty acids. In this st udy, we use these tracers to track contaminant flow to herring gulls (Larus argentatus) br eeding on the Great Lakes. Pathwa ys of exposure to both legacy contaminants (e.g., Hg, PCBs) and emerging contamin ants (i.e., PBDEs) are assessed. Analysis of individual eggs within particular years indicated that birds consuming more aquatic prey occupied higher trophic positions and exhibited greater levels of Hg and legacy POPs. However, pathways of PBDE exposure were different. Greatest PB DE levels appeared to be asso ciated with birds utlizing prey associated with terrestrial food webs. These birds had the highest PBDE levels yet reported anywhere in

PAGE 61

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 59 the world (e.g., sum PBDE 12.5 ppm we t wt., 143 ppm lipid wt.). Ecologi cal tracer "fingerprints" in wildlife can provide insights into rout es of transfer of both legacy and emerging contaminants leading to an improved understanding of contaminant sources. Keywords: Food chains, Environmental contaminants, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers. HEDGES, K.J. MANDRAK, N.E., KOOPS, M.A., and JOHA NNSSON, O.E., Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Aquatic Protected Areas in the Great Lakes: Inventory, Evaluation and GAP Analysis. Aquatic protected areas (APAs) have become a popular tool for fish eries management and conservation. APAs protect fish or habitats from exploitation and pert urbations, potentially increasing the resilience of natural populations, enhancing fisheries and facilit ating the persistence of native populations. The purpose of this project is to understand the role that APAs have and should play in the management and conservation of Great Lakes fish populations. An inventory of pa st and present Great Lakes APAs (GL-APAs) has illustrated various reasons and methods for APA crea tion. GL-APAs ha ve occasionally been created as fisheries management tools, however, the majority of si tes have arisen indirectly through the creation of shoreline parks or de facto protected areas that occu r when human activities are locally restricted because of hazardous f acilities or military installations and activities. Currently, all known evaluations of the effectiveness of GL-APAs are being summarized to determine their successes and failures. A standardized evaluation of the effec tiveness of GL-APAs will be undertaken and a GAP analysis will be used to determine fish species and habitats that are not protected by current APAs; the combined results will be used to provide recommendations for future APAs and identify research priorities. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Refugia, Fish. HELM, P. 1, BHAVSAR, S.1, HAYTON, A.1, REINER, E.1, GEWURTZ, S.B.1, FURDUI, V.1, ISMAIL, N.3, PLESKACH, K.3, CROZIER, P.W.1, MABURY, S.4, MARVIN, C.H.5, and TOMY, G.3, 1Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON; 2Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON; 3Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB; 4University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; 5Environment Canada, Burlington, ON. Concentration Trends of Pastand Current-use POPs in Lake Trout from the Great Lakes. Assessment of long-term concentration trends in sport fish such as lake trout is important for evaluating progress toward the goal of reducing harmful pollutants entering the Great Lakes, achieving fish concentrations that are free of consumption restrictions, and prioritizing management actions to prevent accumulation of current-use persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to leve ls of concern. Here we summarize recent observations in polychlorinated biphe nyl (PCB) concentration trends Great Lakes sport fish through the Ontario Ministry of the Environments sport fish mon itoring program, and concentration trends of several pastand current-use POPs in archiv ed Lake Ontario lake trou t from Fisheries & Oceans Canada/Environment Canada monitoring. PCB concentra tions continue to decline in Lakes Huron and Ontario, while recent trends in Lake Superior remain unchanged and Lake Erie concentrations are again increasing. In Lake Ontario lake trout, concentr ations of Dechlorane Plus and polychlorinated naphthalenes declined similarly to PCBs and polychlorinated dioxins and furans since the late 1970s. However, brominated flame retardants such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and

PAGE 62

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 60 fluorinated chemicals such as the perfluorinated su lfonates and carboxylates, have increased or exhibited more variable trends over this time. Keywords: PCBs, Lake trout, PBDEs. HENSHEL, D.S. 1 and DA SILVA, A.F.2, 1Indiana University, 1315 E 10th St, #340, Bloomington, IN, 47405; 2Northern Illinois University, Department of Political Science, Dekalb, IL, 60115. Using Landscape Scale Modeling as a Tool to Assess Potential Health Indicators. We have been working to develop new tools that can be used to screen for potential human health indicators of the population level impacts of expo sures to environmental stressors. These techniques enable investigators to screen large areas for potential public health impa cts that are linked to exposure to environmental contaminants. Using available database s of health effects and indicators of potential exposure to environmental contaminants, we have used a number of statistical methods and other modeling tools to identify linkage s between public health parameters and indices of environmental exposure. We shall demonstrate a number of the mo st useful methods by pres enting several case studies drawn from Indiana and the Great Lakes. We shall clarify how these tools can be most useful in indicating needs for more detailed studies, and identify sp ecific shortcomings in both the techniques and the problems associated with data availability. Finally we shall present a series of recommendations for improving both environmental monitoring and public health databases to make them more useful for such landscape scale screening evaluations. Keywords: Bioindicators, Endoc rine disruption, Environmental health. HENSHEL, D.S. 1 and SPARKS, D.W.2, 1Indiana University, 1315 E 10th St. #340, Bloomington, IN, 47401; 2U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 620 S. Walker St., Bloomington, IN, 47403. Developing Avian Delisting Criteria for the Great Lakes AOCs. At this time there are no specifi c delisting criteria developed fo r insectivorous avian wildlife in any RAP. Within the USFWS and the CWS, swallows ha ve been identified as critical indicator species for the insectivorous avian portion of affected food webs and ecosystems. We have been working with tree swallow populations in the southern part of I ndiana and barn swallow populations from the Great Lakes region to assess and develop a more complete set of avian health indicat ors in order to identify specific delisting criteria for ins ectivorous avian wildlife for the G CR RAP. Most contaminant-related effects that had been previously quantified for swallows have included standard ecological monitoring parameters such as productivity and behavior. Analysis of the data (standardized in the tree swallow population, and quantified in the barn swallow population) indicates that whereas these parameters may be affected in a contaminated population, developmental deformities and changes in growth parameters in both timed embryos and nestlings provide much more se nsitive indicators of individual effects, and are much more likely to indicate whether the animal is lik ely to survive and be able to reproduce in the long term. Keywords: Lake Michi gan, Bioindicators, PCBs.

PAGE 63

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 61 HENSLER, S.R. JUDE, D.J., and OMAIR, M., University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Documentation of the Incidences of Herniations in Great Lakes Copepods. Herniations in Great Lakes z ooplankton were first documented in 1999, but detailed information about spatial and temporal incidence rates among la kes and species has not yet been presented. Such information may prove useful to guide future rese arch efforts and help de termine potential causes and implications of this phenomenon. Zooplankton used for this analysis were coll ected at offshore sites during April and August 2007 as part of the U. S. EPA GLNPO Biological Monitoring Program on the Great Lakes. During standard zooplankton identification counts, herniation incidences were recorded for both immature and adult copepods. Adu lt incidence rates were recorded by sex. Analyses to date indicate that 8.5%, 3%, 1%, and <1% of all copepods are affected in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Ontario, and Superior, respectively. Males are 5.7 times more likely to be affected than females. Copepods in the genus Diaptomus are most susceptible, with incidence rate s as high as 51% for some species in individual samples. Since herniation incidence rates vary am ong lakes, species, and sexes, they may be caused by environmental factors (e.g., toxic substances, en docrine disrupting compounds) and exacerbated by the physiology or ecology of certain specie s. Perhaps, herniations could prov e useful as biological indicators of ecosystem health. Keywords: Great Lakes basi n, Biomonitoring, Zooplankton. HODGINS, B. 1, TRYON, K.1, and LUSH, D.L.2, 1Town of Ajax, 65 Harwood Ave., Ajax, ON, L1S 2H9; 2P.O. Box 70, Palgrave, ON, L7E 3S9. Challenges of Developing Adaptive Environmental Regulatory Policy. The Lake Ontario basin is bearing the brunt of factors driving changes in water quality, quantity and ecosystem structure. It is government policy to rapidly increase the populati on of the basin over the next few decades. This population increase will further urbanize the Basin, resulting in more intensive land use, necessitating massive investments in municipal infrastructure. Climate change will likely result in changes in precipitation, flows and water levels changing hydraulic resi dent times and flushing rates. Current policies and regulations ba sed on observed past ecosystem respons e are unlikely to be appropriate for future conditions. Future policies and associated legislation and regula tions will have to recognize this uncertainty. With this will come an associate short term societal cost, but paying this short-term cost will almost certainly be less expensive in dollar costs, if not political cost, than the costs our children will have to pay to remediate the problems caused by ex ceedence of the long term carrying capacity of the Basin. Keywords: Decision making, Economic impact, Phosphorus. HOLLENHORST, T.P. 1, JOHNSON, L.B.1, CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H.2, HOST, G.E.1, and DANZ, N.P.1, 1Center for Water and the Environment, Natural Res ources Research Institute, University of Minnesota, 5013 Miller Trunk Highway, Duluth, MN, 55811; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. An Integrated, Watershed Ba sed, Anthropogenic Stressor Gradient for the Great Lakes.

PAGE 64

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 62 Watersheds represent spatially explicit areas with in which terrestrial stressors can be quantified and linked to measures of aquatic ecosystem condition. Using elevation data, we de lineated a set of nearly 6,000 high resolution coastal watersheds covering the entire Great Lakes basin. These watersheds were ordered (numbered sequentially ), along the coastline to allow agglomeration into larger basins for specific regions of interest (e.g., stretches of high energy shor eline or embayments). Using these watersheds, we summarized U.S. and Canadian maps of land cover, population density, road density, agricultural land use and point sources to characterize va rious types of anthropogenic stress likely to affect each watershed. These measures were transformed, normalized and st andardized, converting each stressor metric to a common scale. To incorporate information from the di fferent stressors we combined the stressor metrics in three different ways: 1) for each watershed the maximum scaled stressor metric was identified MaxRel; 2) the scaled stressor metrics were summed S um-Rel; and 3) the stress or metrics were processed using principal component analysis PC. Analyzing the spatial distributi on of these scores allows us to make an a priori identification of the least di sturbed (reference) and most disturbed areas. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Indicators, Watersheds. HOLSEN, T.M. CRIMMINS, B., and MAYER, M., Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699, USA. Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program: Mercury. The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLF MP) began in 1980 as a cooperative effort to track the trends of selected organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Currently, two facets of this program assess the fishery contaminant burde n (Open Lakes Trend Monitoring Program) and human exposure (Game Fish Fillet Monitoring Program) usi ng whole fish composites and game fish fillets, respectively. In this paper mercury concentrations obtained using a direct analysis method (thermal decomposition technique) in open water whole fish samples will be presented. In addition a direct comparison between this relatively new technique and mo re traditional digestions/analysis techniques will be presented Keywords: Mercury, Fish toxins, Chemical analysis. HOOD, J.L.A. and TAYLOR, W.D., Universi ty of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Significance of Riverine Macrophytes as a Sink for Watershed Derived Phosphorus Loading to Lake Erie. The Grand River is the largest Canadian tribut ary to Lake Erie, and a significant source of dissolved and particulate phosphorus. During the summer, when loading is low but important to nearshore eutrophication, a significant portion of P is retained within watershed sediments and biota and not exported to the lake. Submersed macrophytes are a conspicuous part of th e riverine community, particularly in the middle reaches of rivers aff ected by sewage and agricultural run off. Seasonal development of high macrophyte biomass is common and is thought to contribu te to hypoxia through night-time respiration. However, riverine macrophyt es may represent a large temporary sink for P destined for lake Erie. The retain ed P eventually enters the lake at the end of the growing season, seasonally shifting the load and pos sibly aiding in the reduction of su mmer nearshore algal blooms. Here we present the results of a multiple year study of ri verine macrophyte biomass and tissue P content at the reach scale in the Grand River wate rshed. We make estimates of the importance of macrophytes as a P

PAGE 65

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 63 sink for the entire watershed by extrapolation. We compare the m acrophyte P pool with dissolved and particulate P exported seasonally an d annually to show that macrophytes can represent a significant sink for watershed derived bioavailable phosphorus. Keywords: Phosphorus, Macrophytes, Watersheds. HK, T.O. 1, BELETSKY, D.1, MASON, D.M.2, RUTHERFORD, E.S.3, and SCHWAB, D.J.2, 1U. Michigan, CILER, 2205 Commonwea lth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 3U. Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Institute for Fisheries Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. A Linked Hydrodynamic and Individual-based Mo del to Simulate Alewife Recruitment in Lake Michigan. Recent studies suggest that alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus) year-class strength in Lake Michigan is influenced by summer temperatures and salmonine predation. As lake currents have the potential to rapidly transport fish larvae to both favorable and unfavorable nursery habitats, we hypothesize that variable lake currents also play a role in determin ing alewife recruitment succe ss. To consider how annual variation in lake currents and temperatures may jo intly influence year-class strength, we linked a 3-D particle transport model with an individual-based model of early life alewife growth and survival. Transport processes influence the foraging success of larvae by determining i ndividuals thermal and foraging environments, thereby affecti ng growth rate and the length of ti me individuals are susceptible to size-selective predators. Results suggest that the extent to which variable lake currents influence alewife year-class strength is dependent on the spatial distri butions of alewife predators and prey. When foraging opportunities and predation pressure do not vary spatially, simulati ons suggest that while local recruitment success (i.e., survival of individuals emanating from a sma ll region of the lake) can be highly variable, inter-annual vari ation in lake-wide year-class strength is low. Keywords: Alewife, Recruitment, Water currents. HORNBUCKLE, K.C. and MARTINEZ, A. 4105 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, 52242. PCBs in Surficial Sediments in East Chicago, Indiana. East Chicago is a heavily i ndustrialized urban community on the southern shore of Lake Michigan. Penetrating the city center is the Indian a Harbor and Shipping Canal, an Area of Concern designated by the International Jo int Commission due to contamination by many environmental pollutants including polychlorinate d biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs are known to contaminate the harbor and canal, although there is little published data describing the spatial exte nt and concentration magnitude. Therefore, we have conducted a sampling expedition designed to allow a multimedia comparison of PCB concentrations and fluxes in the harbor system. We collected surficial sediment, water, and air samples from the harbor and connected canal. The surficial sediment samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. The extracts were analyzed fo r all 209 PCB congeners by tandem mass spectrometry. Preliminary results, which are presen ted in this paper, indicate an enri chment of PCBs in the canal in comparison to the harbor, as well as the open lake. Con centrations of total PCB in the samples range from 50 to 27,000 ng/g (dry weight). Average % recovery for surrogate standard PCB 166 was 86% and

PAGE 66

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 64 standard deviation of 16%, with a range from 58 to 114%. Keywords: Spatial analysis, Sediment quality, PCBs. HOUBEN, A. 1, DEPEW, D.1, OZERSKY, T.1, GUILDFORD, S.J.2, and HECKY, R.E.2, 1200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1; 21035 Kirby Dr., Duluth, MN, 55812. Benthic Algal Nutrient Dynamics within Lake Simcoe. Surveys of Lake Simcoe were performed in 2006-2007 to observe the progression of the nearshore phosphorus shunt. Dreissenid mussels had established themselves on all hard substrates and the benthic nuisance alga, Cladophora glomerata, was expected to follow. However, during the study we paradoxically observed extremely low presence of C. glomerata while measuring higher concentrations of total phosphorus (10.0 g*L-1), soluble reactive phosphorus (1.4 g*L-1), and C. glomerata internal phosphorus concentrations (2.1 g P*mg dw-1), with respect to Lakes Erie and Ontario. Similar shorelines within these two Great Lakes were measured to have SRP concentrations as low as detection limit (< 0.35 g*L-1) and C. glomerata internal P concentrations below P-limitation (< 1.6 g P*mg dw-1) throughout the period of peak biomass while vi rtually all sampling stations had C. glomerata presence. This talk will analyze the deeper effects of Lake Simcoe physical dynamics and the potential for nitrogen limitation in relation to the nearshore phosphorus shunt in hopes to determine why C. glomerata has not exploited this system. Keywords: Cladophora, Lake Simcoe, Nutrients. HOWELL, E.T. 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Influence of a Small Agriculturallydominated Watershed on the Ne arshore of SE Lake Huron. Eighteen Mile River shares features with many s horeline tributaries to SE Lake Huron. Much of the drainage area is deforested and in agricultural use. The shoreline is developed as reside ntial properties with an abundance of beaches. Concurrent monitoring of Eighteen Mile River with surveys of nearshore water quality was used to examine effects of the rive r on the nearshore. Nitrate levels in the nearshore were elevated at times of seasona lly high river discharge and strongl y correlated with conductivity and depth. Conductivity and nitrate were us ed as indicators of runoff to track the spatial extent of shoreline inputs on nearshore water quality which ranged from broad to non-detectable. Levels of the fecal pollution indicator E. coli in the nearshore did not consistently covary with indicators of runoff. The pronounced decline in nitrate concentrations during the drier summer months was not evident in E. coli counts. Despite wide variations in total phosphorus levels near the sh oreline, oligotrophic conditions prevailed as inferred from chroni cally low levels of chlorophyll a. At times, erosion contributed to high levels of suspended solids in the nearshore and to the variability in to tal phosphorus. The diverse conditions observed over 19 months highlight the need for integrative monitoring stradiegies. Keywords: Lake Huron, Coastal ecosystems, Tributaries. HOYLE, J.A. 1, CHRISTIE, G.C.1, BOWLBY, J.N.1, MORRISON, B.J.2, and WRIGHT, M.E.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural

PAGE 67

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 65 Resources, 300 Water St., North Tower, 5th Floor, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Response of Freshwater Drum to a Disease Outbreak in Lake Ontario. Freshwater drum ( Aplodinotus grunniens) is an abundant, large-bodied, native species in the nearshore waters of eastern Lake Ontario. The drum population in this region endured an extraordinary mortality event in the spring of 2005. Samples of dying and dead drum were determined to be infected with Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS)the first identified case of this internationally reportable disease in Canadian fresh water. The large number of drum observed dying and dead along with concern about the spread VHS to other species and waterbodies generated significa nt public and government concern. We assess drum relative abundance, before and after the die-off, us ing gillnet, trapnet and trawling surveys designed to monitor the fish comm unity, and incidental catch rates in a recreational walleye fishery. The abundance of dr um age-1 yr and older did not decl ine after the die-off. Either the number of drum that died was insi gnificant relative to the total population or deaths caused by the disease replaced deaths that would have occurred due to other causes. We suggest that the rapid and visual accumulation of dead fish may have caused an initial over-estimation of the die-offs effect on the drum population. Paradoxically, there was a significant increase in young-of-year drum abundance after the disease outbreak. Keywords: Fish diseases, Freshwater drum, Lake Ontario. HU, D. JUST, C.L., and HORNBUCKLE, K.C., Department of Civil a nd Environmental Engineering, IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242. Prevalence and Distribution of Atmospheric Poly chlorinated Biphenyls in Chicago. The magnitude, spatial extent and variation of PCBs in urban air were inves tigated in the cities of Chicago, Illinois and East Chicago, Indiana. The concen trations of PCBs in ai r were measured at two schools and the former Energy Coopera tive Incorporation (ECI) site in East Chicago and 44 schools in Chicago. For the Chicago sites, a no vel sampling strategy was developed to facilitate co llection of air samples throughout the city. The device consists of a high-volume air sampler (Hi-Vol, Tisch Environmental) mounted on a movable frame that attach es to a recreactional vehi cle. We have installed two of these devices on health c linic vans operated by Mobile C.A. R.E. Foundation of Chicago. An air sample is collected when each van serves one loca tion, typically an elementary school, each school day. The air samples consist of a quartz fi ber filter to collect pa rticles and an XAD resin to collect PCB in the gas phase. All samples were measured for a suite of 209 congeners by GC/M S/MS. The average amount of PCBs in field blanks and solvent blanks were both less than 5% of the total mass in the sample. The recovery of PCB 166 surrogate standard was 67 19%. The preliminary results fr om the first season of a four-year project showed that the concentration of atmospheric PCBs in Chicago ranged from 50 to 1,600 pg/m3 in the winter. Keywords: PCBs, Air, Environmental contaminants. HUDSON, J.D. Bay Area Restoration Council, McMaster Univ. LSB-B130F, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. From Toxic Soup to Sleeping with the Enemy: How a Stakeholder Approach Helped Hamilton Harbour Become a Model for Community Engagement.

PAGE 68

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 66 Hamilton Harbour was the most polluted Area of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes. Its industrial legacy, includ ing steel-making and war-time coal gasification plants, left behind a nasty collection of coal tar that ranks second only to the Sydney Ta r Ponds. This nasty toxic soup was matched by nasty toxic mistrust among industry, citizens, government, and yachters who accused each other of elitism, misinformation, greed and other unprin table epithets. What happened? Some wise people opted for a community stakeholder or community engagement model as a foundation for progress. This approach has worked with environm ent-related issues across North Am erica, from polluted rivers to disputes about ski hill expansion. Comparative reference will be ma de to such seemingly unrelated disputes. How did the Hamilton Harbour Remedial Ac tion Plan (HHRAP) work from the perspective of this model? How did the community engage and why? What lessons can be learned? What can community groups do effectively? What now? Speaker Jim Hudson is Executive Director of the Bay Area Restoration Council, the community group at the center of efforts to restore Hamilton Harbour. He has studied environmental disput es across North America. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Cleanup, Nongovernmental organizations. HUNTER, T.S. 1, HE, C.2, CROLEY, T.E.1, and DEMARCHI, C.3, 1NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593; 2Department of Geography, Western Michigan Universit y, 3234 Wood Hall, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008-5424; 3School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593. Forecasting Grand River (Michigan) Discharge and Pollution Loads. As part of the Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health (CEGLHH) suite of models for forecasting water quality, beach closures, and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms, we are developing a short-term forecasting system of discharge and pollutant loads for major watersheds of Lake Michigan. Discharge is forecasted by feeding 1-2 da y weather forecast from the National Weather Service to GLERLs Distributed Large Basi n Runoff Model (DLBRM). A dual appr oach is taken for forecasting pollutant loads: initially we will predict water qu ality parameters from discharge and meteorological forecasts by using locally calibrated regression models In parallel, we are introducing transport models into the DLBRM for the most important pollutants. Together with a detailed mapping of point and nonpoint pollution sources in the watershed, these m odels will eventually allow better short-term forecasts of pollutant loads and the evaluation of land use changes and pollution prevention policies on water quality. An application of th e forecasting system to the Grand River watershed in Michigan is shown. Keywords: Beach closure forecasti ng, Watershed hydrology, Water quality. HURLEY, T. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univers ity, Dept. of Biology, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Fish Community Changes Associat ed with Water-level Decline in Wetlands of Severn Sound, Georgian Bay. Near-shore fish habitat is cri tically important to many Great La kes fishes and currently faces threats from anthropogenic disturba nce and water level fluctuations. In Severn Sound (Georgian Bay), there has been substantial shoreline alteration and a drop in water level of 80 cm over the past 25 years. We investigated how muskellunge nursery habi tat have changed between 1981 and 2007, based on a

PAGE 69

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 67 survey of fish and plant communitie s at 10 sites in Severn Sound. The sampling protocol used in the 1981 survey were duplicated in 2007. Despite the shoreline modifications, there has been no significant change in water-quality conditions between the two sampling ye ars. However, deep-water emergent species have decreased in prominence, while early successiona l and shoreline species have increased. More pronounced changes were seen in the fish community. Young-of-year muskellunge and black crappie, both present in 1981, were completely absent in 2007. Also, yellow perch and largemouth bass represented a significantly lower proportion of the total catch in 2007 than in 1981, with a concomitant increase in the proportion of small minnow species. GI S spatial analysis reveal ed that a considerable amount of fish habitat has been lost over the 26 years, and this is most likely the result of the large drop in water levels. Keywords: Wetlands, Lake Huron, Fish. JACKSON, J.A. 17 Major St., Kitchener, ON, N2H 4R1. The Experience of Ontario Activists in the RAP Process. In this paper, we explore the experience of citi zens in Ontario in participating in the Remedial Action Planning process over the past twenty years. The report explores the ro les of public advisory councils and the barriers that PACs encounter when trying to achieve these goals. Ways for overcoming these barriers are explored. This survey of RAP experience was pr epared through the Ontario Public Advisory Council, which is made up of a representative from each PAC in Ontario. Keywords: Public participation, Areas of concer n cleanup, Environmental policy. JAMES, L.A.H. ARNOTT, S.E., and CASSELMAN, J.M., Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. Effect of the Invasive Predator, Bythotrephes longimanus on Growth of Fishes in Ontario Shield Lakes. The introduction of invasive spec ies is among the most significant dr ivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. One invader, Bythotrephes longimanus is a predatory invertebra te from Eurasia that was introduced into the Great Lakes in the 1980s and has since spread into inland lakes. Bythotrephes is an important exotic because at certai n times of the year, it can consum e a large proportion of the total zooplankton production and may impact food availability to other pred ators (e.g., forage fish). These changes at lower trophic levels may affect energy flow up the foodweb. Despite this, we know very little about how Bythotrephes might affect fish communities. Here, we examine the effect of Bythotrephes on various metrics including catch per unit effort, condition, scale inferred growth and diet of lake herring ( Coregonus arterii ) collected from invaded and reference lakes in the Muskoka area. Preliminary analyses indicate no significant difference in abundance and condition of lake he rring in invaded and reference lakes (P>0.05). We expect the effect of Bythotrephes on growth patterns and diet of lake herring to be large. Increased knowledge regarding the effect of Bythotrephes on growth of forage fish is pertinent to furthering our understanding of its impact on food web dynamics. Keywords: Bythotrephes cederstroemii, Trophic interactions, Invasive species, Lake herring, Diets, Age and growth.

PAGE 70

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 68 JANTUNEN, L.M. WRIGGLESWORTH, S., a nd BIDLEMAN, T.F., Environment Canada, 6248 8th Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0, Canada. HCHs in Lake Superior: Air-water Gas Exchange in 2005 Versus 1996-97. Parallel air and water samples we re collected in the eastern half of Lake Superior in August 2005. Concentrations of and -HCH in surface water aver aged 1.45 and 0.42 ng/L, respectively. Compared to levels measured in 1996-1997, there was a factor of two decline in -HCH and ~30% decline in -HCH. HCHs in the air ranged from 34-70 pg/m3 for -HCH and 9.9-15 pg/m3 for -HCH, and were about a factor of two below air concentrations in August 1996. The enantiomeric fractions, EF = (+)/[(+)+(-)], of -HCH in surface water and air averaged 0.431 and 0.450 respectively, both showing depletion of the (+) enantiomer. The EF of -HCH in water was significantly lower than the EF in 1996-97 (0.450), suggesting an increase in enantiose lective degradation over time. Wate r/air fugacity ratios ranged from 2.7-7.1 for -HCH and 3.4-9.2 for -HCH, indicating net vola tilization from the lake for both HCHs. In 1996-1997, fugacity ratios indicated cl ose to equilibrium conditions for -HCH and net deposition for HCH. EFs in water and air allowed estimation of the fraction of -HCH in the air boundary layer due to volatilization. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Pesticides, Environmental contaminants. JESSEN, S. 1 and FERRARI, E.2, 1Oceans and Great Freshwater Lakes Program, CPAWS Wildlands League, 410-698 Seymour St., Vancouver, BC, V6B 3K6; 2Parks and Protected Areas Program, CPAWS Wildlands League, 380-401 Richmond St. West, Toronto, ON, M5W 3E8. Establishing an Aquatic Protected Areas Networ k in the Great Lakes. Globally, ocean and freshwater ecosystems and species are among the most threatened in the world and yet the establishment of protected areas to protect biodiversity in these ecosystems lags far behind terrestrial efforts. The vast inland freshwater seas of the Great Lakes are under increasing threat. Despite many commitments to establish aquatic protected areas to ensure long term habitat and species protection, progress on these commitments has been lacking to date. While Ontario was the first jurisdiction in Canada to create an underwater Provincial Park decades ago, it has since lagged far behind in the protection of aqua tic ecosystems. The proclamation of the new Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act in September 2007 has br ought a new focus on Aquatic Protected Areas. The Canada Ontario agreement respecting the Great Lake s ecosystem and Parks Canadas national marine conservation areas program are among the commitment s and programs that provide the policy context for aquatic protected areas in the Great Lakes. These existing commitments at the federal and provincial level are described with a focus on the opportunities they provi de to launch a major effort to secure significant protection of aquatic ecosystems in Ontario. Keywords: Great Lakes bas in, Conservation, Habitats. JOHANNSSON, O.E. 1, DERMOTT, R.M.1, BOWEN, K.L.1, ARTS, M.T.2, and GERLOFSMA, J.1, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakes hore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Large Lake Monitoring: Assessment of Key Links in the Food Web.

PAGE 71

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 69 The optimum strategy for monitoring lakes is a combination of key sites sampled for the lower trophic levels throughout the season, a nd large-scale, spatial surveys fo r all trophic levels sampled on relevant time scales. Such endeavors are expensive and require the combined efforts of multiple agencies. One alternate strategy is to assess key links or positions in the food web. Dominant planktivores/benthivores, top carni vores (contaminants), and energeti c bottlenecks are all key linkages. Fisheries and Oceans, Canada monitors Mysis relicta and Diporeia, an energetic bottleneck in the offshore community of Lake Ontario. These two speci es have traditionally moved the majority of planktonic production to the fish community in the offshore of the Great Lakes. We track changes in whole-lake biomass, abundance, cohort structure, f ecundity and spatial pattern s. Associated zooplankton sampling provides information on food levels, zo oplankton community stru cture and potential interactions with Bythotrephes and Cercopagis. In addition, we are developi ng nucleic acid and essential fatty acid (EFA) indices to assess the health of thes e populations. We concluded th at there is significant inter-annual variability in these variables and that high nucleic acid levels correlate with high EFA concentrations. Keywords: Crustaceans, Monitoring. JOHENGEN, T.H.1, DEMARCHI, C. 1, CROLEY, T.E.2, and HE, C.3, 1School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-1593; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laborat ory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 481051593; 3Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, 3234 Wood Hall, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008-5424. Sediment and Nutrient Load Si mulation for the Saginaw Bay AIF. As part of a comprehensive study of the state of Saginaw Bay ecosystem and its possible evolution (MultiStress 07, Adaptive Integrated Framework), we are developing a sediment and nutri ent load model of the Saginaw Bay watershed. The model will be based on GLERLs Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) and include simulation of point and nonpoint source nutrients generation and transport at daily and 1 km resolution. Land us e has already been mapped (at 1 km2 resolution) in the four watersheds that drain into Sagi naw Bay using soil parameters, topogr aphy, historical daily meteorology (1948). Nutrient inputs from animal manure, fertilizers, and point sources have been mapped over the same area to estimate areal distributions of nutrients. Calibration and va lidation of the hydrologic component of the model was also completed for 1950-1964 and 1997-2006. Calibra tion and validation of the nutrients model will be accomplished by supplementi ng the regularly monitored data with an ad-hoc sampling effort which will span two years and meas ure sediments and nutrien ts under a variety of hydrological conditions. Keywords: Watershed hydrology, Nutrients load, Water quality. JOHNS, C. Environmental Studies Dept., St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY, 13617. Total Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Zebra Mussels of the Upper St. Lawrence River, 1994 through 2005. This study assesses trends in bi oaccumulation of Cd, Cu and Zn by zebra mussels at six littoral sites along the international sec tion of the St. Lawrence River from 1994 through 2005. If contaminant loads from Lake Ontarios outflow have been decrea sing, mussels should show decreasing concentrations over time. Specific objectives include: (1) evaluati on of size-specific bio-accumulation, (2) examination

PAGE 72

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 70 of temporal and spatial variability of metal concentrations in musse ls, and (3) comparison with other studies using zebra mussels in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Mussels were collected in fall, depurated, sorted by size, digested in concentrated nitric acid, and analyzed by flame AAS along with NIST SRMs. Generally, animal size was not significantly correlat ed to total cadmium or zinc concentration in tissues, but was corr elated with copper concentration. Le vels of all three metals varied among sites and years. Highest concentrations occurred in 1994 with steep declin es to relatively stable levels in subsequent years for Cd and Cu. Observed le vels are consistent with decreasing loads from Lake Ontario after the mid-1990s, but concentrations remain elevated. These data provid e a base from which to assess future changes in metal cycling due to global warming, lowered lake levels or seaway expansion. Keywords: Biomonitoring, Metals, Dreissena. JOHNSON, T.B. 1, WANG, L.2, CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H.2, and BROWNSON, B.3, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Glenora Fisher ies Station, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 2University of Windsor, Department of Biological Sciences, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 3Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Biodiversity Section, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Nearshore, Small Fish Monitoring in the Great Lakes Basin. The vast majority of fishes use the nearshore re gion of lakes for spawning nursery, and/or feeding at some point in their lives. The n earshore also contains the highest fish biodiversity and is the most frequent habitat reporting new aquatic invasive fishes. We developed an online survey to assess intensity and design of nearshore, small fish monitoring in the Great Lakes basin. Over 200 individuals from all regions of the Great Lakes responded. Almost half indicated that <15% of their agency resources addressed nearshore, small fish assessment. Beach se ines, electrofishing and gillnets were the preferred gears. Most programs aimed to describe species composition and abundance; 15% were directed at detection of NIS or species-at-risk (SAR). Forty-one percent felt their progra m had a low likelihood of detecting SAR, but only 18% inability to detect NIS, primarily due to insufficient effort (72%) devoted to suitable habitats (58%). If present, only 55% felt they would detect the NIS or SAR in the catch over 80% of the time; over 80% would ask an expert to confirm the identification. Th irty-eight percent felt programs would be modified or new programs devel oped (32%) to address biodiversity and invasive species issues. However, the nearshore, small fish community remains under represented in most fishery monitoring programs. Keywords: Fish populations Assessments, Monitoring. JOHNSTON, J.W. 1, BAEDKE, S.J.2, THOMPSON, T.A.3, ARGYILAN, E.P.4, and WILCOX, D.A.5, 1Department of Geography and Environmental Studies Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5; 2Department of Geology and Environmental Scie nces, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, 22807; 3Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana Universi ty, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN, 47405-2208; 4Department of Geosciences, Indiana Univer sity Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN, 46408; 5United States Geological Surve y, Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2807. How Do Ancient Shorelines Help in Regu lation Efforts of the Upper Great Lakes? For 17 years our research group has conducted fieldw ork in remote coastal areas to build the most complete and accurate geologic framework of natural la ke-level variability in the upper Great Lakes. Our work has concentrated on embayments filled with b each ridges and intervening wetlands (strandplains)

PAGE 73

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 71 because they provide a unique lateral chronosequence. Elevations and ages are us ed to interpret glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) specific to each site and a common lake-level signal within each basin through time. A five-millennial record with multi-decadal resolu tion is constructed for the Lake Michigan basin and is imminent for lakes Superior and Huron. Cu rrent major findings exceed previous studies by defining natural patterns and trends within a record that extends beyond instru mental records and can place historical events into context and help predict future possible scenarios. Three superimposed lakelevel fluctuations (multi-decadal, centennial and mille nnial) occurred during the past five millennia that are coupled to natural climatic va riability. Higher calculate d rates of GIA from st randplains relative to instrumental gauge records raise concerns over possible biases crea ted by not properly accounting for natural water-level variab ility. In addition, redefining the modern phase of the UGLs has numerous implications. Keywords: Water level, Coasts, Paleolimnology. JONES, E.L. 1, LEON, L.F.1, SMITH, R.E.H.1, CRAIG, J.R.2, and CARRICK, H.J.3, 1Dept. of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, ON; 3Pennsylvania State University School of Forest Resources, 434 Forest Resources Building, University Park, PA, 16802. Three-dimensional Modeling of Lake-wide Nutrient and Chlorophyll Dynamics in Lake Erie Using ELCOM-CAEDYM. Coupled three-dimensional biophysical modeling can be used as a tool for understanding the relevant hydrodynamic and biological processes that c ontribute to a lakes wa ter quality. The aim is to predict the effect of changing c onditions and to simulate the input and dispersion of water quality parameters. The hydrodynamic model, ELCOM, was coupl ed with the ecological model, CAEDYM, to describe the processes within Lake Erie. While pr evious work with this model has shown success in hydrodynamic and oxygen predictions this presentation ex tends the validation and analysis to include nutrients (N and P) and chlorophyl l. We present lake-wide water qua lity validation results from the coupled 2002 model showing that measured values for chlorophyll a, TP, SRP, nitrate, TN, and DO agree reasonably well with computed resu lts. Animations present the tempor al and spatial variation of the simulated water quality parameters between April 11 and October 31, 2002. The model can be used to conduct numerical experiments for many different applicat ions such as predicting lake response to climate change, assessing the ecological imp acts of exotic Dreissenid mussels, and isolating the causes of hypoxia in the central basin. Keywords: Lake Erie, Hydrodynamic model, Ecosystem modeling. JONES, M.L. 1, BRENDEN, T.O.1, WAGNER, T.J.1, EBENER, M.P.2, ARTS, M.T.3, and FAISAL, M.4, 1Quantitative Fisheries Center, Mich igan State University, 13 Natural Resources Bldg., East Lansing, MI, 48824; 2Chippewa/Ottawa Resource Authority, 179 W. Thr ee Mile Road, Sault Ste. Marie, MI, 49783; 3NWRI Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 4Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Bldg., East Lansing, MI, 48824. Natural Mortality Patterns in Lake Huron and Michigan Lake Whitefish Populations.

PAGE 74

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 72 The commercial fishery for lake whitefish in th e 1836 treaty waters of the upper Great Lakes is managed through a quota setting process that relies on statistical stock assessmen t models. These models assume constant values for non-fishing mortality rates based on an empirical relationship developed from a global, multi-species data set. We conducted a three-year tagging study on four lake whitefish populations in northern Lakes Michigan and Huron to directly estimate mortality rates and simultaneously collected seasonal data on a range of fish heath i ndicators, including lipids a nd water content in whole fish, fatty acid profiles for three tissues, and several pathological indicators (e.g., parasites, bacteria, external and internal clinical signs of disease). Non-fishing mortality rate estimates differed among populations and deviated from the em pirical estimates used in the stock assessments. Measures of fish health did not show a clear relationship with non-fishing mortality rates although lipid and fatty acid levels were generally lower, and pathogen and pa rasite loads generally higher in the Lake Huron populations, which also exhibited higher non-fishing mortality, particularly the Detour Village population. Keywords: Fish tagging, Fish diseases, Lake whitefish. JOOSSE, P.J. Ontario Ministry of Agricult ure, Food and Rural Affairs, 1 Stone Road, 3SE, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2. Agri-environmental Research for Water Protection. The Ontario Ministry of Agricu lture, Food and Rural Affairs has a long history of funding nutrient management and other agri-environmental research in the province. Evolving provincial priorities and regulations have spurred further inve stigations particularly in the ar ea of nutrient management and water protection. This presentation will highlight applied research proj ects being undertaken through two OMAFRA funded programs and point to where future opportunities for agri-e nvironmental and water protection research may lie. Keywords: Nutrients, Agriculture, Research. JUDE, D.J. HENSLER, S.R., and MINER, M.E., School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Synergistic Effects of Po nto-Caspian Invasive Species on Warm-water Stream Fish Fauna in Southern Michigan. Since zebra mussels became established on the Flin t River, MI, but not at a control site upriver, we designed this study to identify whether introduction of zebra mussels led to round goby or darter diet or density alterations. Our results were based on data obtained prior to zebra mussel introductions (Carman et al. 2006). Fishes were collected by seining in Augu st prior to establishment of zebra mussels (1998-1999) and after their invasion (2002). For round gobies, aquatic in sects dominated the pre-zebra mussel diet (49% by number), followed by hydropsychid s (7%). After zebra mussels were established, chironomids became less important in the diet (35% by volume), while hydropsychids and gastropods became more important (9% each). Zebra mussels composed 5% of the goby diet. Round gobies also consumed small fishes. At the control site, da rters consumed mostly chironomids (52%) and hydropsychids (17%). Reliance on chironomids may have compromised the ability of native darters to coexist with gobies. Mussels increa sed water clarity and fostered hi gher densities of macrophytes, which was reflected in diets by the presence of large numbers of odonates. Zebra mussel-mediated ecosystem changes may have decreased interspecific competiti on for food with blackside darters and enhanced the ability of darters to coexist with gobies. Keywords: Lake Huron, Zebra mussels, Round goby.

PAGE 75

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 73 KAMINSKI, L.E. CRANE, T.R., and PEARSON, R.A., 280 5 S. Industrial Hwy., Ann Arbor, MI, 48104. Case Studies of Successful Public Sector Water Conservation Strategies: Technologies and Practices for Conserving Water. Governments around the world are beginning to feel the effects of reduced water availability and the challenge of balancing needs fo r public water supply, agriculture, an d other water uses. In response, new practices and innovative technologies are being utilized to conser ve and reuse existing sources of water, with a common objective for society and individuals to function and meet specific goals with less water. Improving water efficiency at the municipal leve l can also lead to other benefits, including lower wastewater treatment costs, reductions in greenho use gas emissions, and lower energy costs. This presentation will highlight some of the best availabl e technologies and practices for water conservation in the public water sector, and draws upon a 2004 repor t by the Great Lakes Co mmission, titled Public Sector Water Conservation: Technology and Practices outside the Great Lake s-St. Lawrence Region. This body of research includes seven case studies of successful water conservati on strategies at various levels of government from across the United Stat es, Canada, and around the world. Initiatives and practices that will be discussed can inform the Great Lakes states and provinces as they begin to implement the provisions of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement. Keywords: Conservation, Water use, BMP. KAMINSKI, L.E. CRANE, T.R., and OVERMIER, G.L., 2805 S. Industrial Hwy., Ann Arbor, MI, 48104. Potential Impacts of Increased Corn Production for Ethanol in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Region. Within the United States and Canada, a rising demand for alternative fuels has been spurred by high fossil fuel prices, political support and policy decisions, high corn prices, and technology improvements. Current trends have shown that the rapid expansion of biofuel production and the associated increased production of corn in the Midwest has had and will continue to have numerous and profound agricultural, e nvironmental, and economic impacts. Th ese impacts may be positive in some cases, neutral in others, and possibly negative in so me instances if decisions and approaches lack foresight. Some landscape-level impacts that are al ready occurring may have negative consequences depending on geographic, hydrologic, climatic, and tem poral factors. These include the loss or reduction of conservation lands, increased agricultural chemical applications, and increased soil erosion from conventional tillage practices. Unders tanding the potential impacts of bi omass for biofuels production will help in the development of appropriate policy tools, as well as technology and management regimes to promote its positive impacts and mitigate its potential ne gative impacts. This poster is based on a research paper, entitled The Potential Impacts of Increase d Corn Production for Ethanol in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Region. Keywords: Biofuels, Environmental effects, Energy.

PAGE 76

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 74 KAO, Y. DE MARCHI, C., ADLERSTEIN, S.A., and WILEY, M.J., School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michiga n, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, US. Comparison of Two Hydrological Models Used in the Great Lakes Basin. Two hydrological models, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) and the Muskegon River Ecological Modeling System (MREMS), were compared in their accuracy in estimating water discharge across the Muskegon watershed. We addressed issues asso ciated with model structure and data spatial resolution. We first compared the meteor ological forcing used by the two models and then their outputs with discharges measured at five USGS gauges in the Muskegon watershed for the period 1996 to 2005. Results showed that the DLBRM overestimates average discharge, substantially in upper watershed and at a lower extent in the downstream area, but be tter correlates with daily flow variation. On the other hand, MREMS estimates are better at simu lating long-term water balance, but they are less correlated with downstream gauges than DLBRM estimates. Difference in discharge simulation between the two models partially results from the discre pancy between pr ecipitation forcing and simulated potential evapotranspiration. However, it is more likely derived by the different structures and calibration philosophies of the two models. More effort and inter-agency collaboration are needed to improve model robustness. Keywords: Lake Michigan, M odel studies, Watersheds. KARATAYEV, A.Y. 1, BURLAKOVA, L.E.1, PADILLA, D.K.2, MASTITSKY, S.E.3, and OLENIN, S.4, 1Great Lakes Center, Buffalo St ate College, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 2Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794; 3General Ecology Department, Biology Faculty, Belarusian State University, Minsk, 220030, Belarus; 4Coastal Research and Planning Institut, Klaipeda University, Klaipeda, Lithuania. How Freshwater Macroinvertebrate Invaders Differ from Native Species. In order to succeed in a new environment an introduced species must pass through a series of filters, including biogeographic (transport to a new locale), physiological (tolerance to local abiotic conditions), and biotic ba rriers (interactions with species in the local community). Although many species have the potential to be introduced, only a few pass all filters and estab lish populations in a new environment, suggesting that invade rs may not be a random selection of species. To examine the role of species characteristics in invasi on, we assembled information on 119 freshwater macroinvertebrate invaders and compared them to native species. We f ound that invaders are gene rally more tolerant to organic pollution than many native species, have high percentage of suspension feeders and are over represented by molluscs and crustaceans. Native comm unities are dominated by insects, which are rarely found as aquatic invaders. We suggest ed that the current spread of i nvaders could be facilitated by a reduction in water quality, which may reduce the biodive rsity of native communities due to the extirpation of species that require high water quality. Because th ese patterns and processes are very similar in the New and Old World, we suggest that the obs erved patterns are likely to hold globally. Keywords: Invasive species, Macroinvertebrates, Pollution. KAYLE, K.A. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, 1190 High St., Fairport Harbor, OH, 44077. Population Dynamics of Steelhead in Lake Erie.

PAGE 77

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 75 Life history characteristics of steelhead stocked in Lake Erie are not well understood. Biologists examined steelhead from private sport and charte r catches in cleaning sta tions from June through September, 2002-2005. Age information was gathered fr om scales and otoliths. During the study, we analyzed 225 length-weight samples and 301 hard part samples for determining ages. I determined that fish spending their third summer in the lake were the greatest contributors to the fishery, followed by those spending their second and fourth summers. Fish residing up to seven summers in the lake were sampled. From the age and growth data, a signifi cant length:weight relationship for steelhead was determined. With logistic growth data, I estimate d annual natural mortality (M) at 0.74-0.77. I developed a population estimator based on estimates of total mo rtality (Z) and survival (S) from catch-curve analysis, the number of fish stoc ked and estimates of natural reproduc tion. These initial model estimates place the Lake Erie steelhead population aged one su mmer and older at around 1.1 million fish (range 0.52.8 million), depending on the survival estimates used in the model. This studys information will assist Lake Erie task groups in bioenerg etics modeling and examining spatio temporal overlap and consumptive demand for forage. Keywords: Lake Erie, Trout, Fish populations. KELCH, D.O. and SNYDER, F.L., Ohio Sea Grant College Program, Ohio State University Extension, 1314 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH, 43212-1194. Twenty Years Post-invasion: Overview of Impacts from Dreissenids on Recreational Users in Lake Erie. Since their discovery in the Great La kes during 1988, zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.. ) have had numerous impacts on water based recreational activities; some positive, most negative. Being filter feeders of phytoplankton and z ooplankton, zebra mussels disrupt aqua tic food chains for larval and juvenile sport fishes. Lake Erie sportfishery a ssessment data indicate 20 years of both population and angler catch rate change, some of which can be attributed to dreissenid food chain impacts. Dreissenid filtering has also increased visibility; in some areas as much as 600 percent. Increased light penetration has resulted in new grow of submerged aquatic m acrophytes, changing habitats in nearshore areas and marinas. It has also impacted the feeding habits of the light sensitive walleye, resulting in changes to traditional angling practices. Boaters and scuba divers realize impacts from dreissenids. Boat hull and water intake fouling has resulted in increased prevention and repair co st to boaters. Heavy knee pads are now standard gear for scuba divers in preventing both injury and wetsuit damage. Increased visibility benefits divers, yet heavy concentrations of dreiss enids covering shipwrecks, in addition to potential deterioration of wreck structures, may ne gate the benefit of increased visibility. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Lake Erie, Recreational. KENDALL, S.T. 1, RUBERG, S.A.2, and BIDDANDA, B.A.1, 1Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, 740 W. Shoreline Dr., Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Grea t Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Physicalchemical Characterization of a Nearshore Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystem in Lake Huron.

PAGE 78

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 76 We conducted field surveys in 2006 and 2007 to ma p the unique features of a submerged karst sinkhole ecosystem located 4 km offshore near Rockport, MI in Lake Huron where groundwater (GW) is venting and purple cyanobacterial mats dominate the lake floor. Aerial and bathymetric surveys revealed a ~23 m deep and ~90 m wide sinkhole (arena). A smaller collapse area (alcove) exists as a pocket into the arena wall separated by a 4.3 m rock wall. Di ver/ROV surveys showed GW forming a dense shimmering layer overlain by lake water. Continu ous time-series data from sondes during mid-summer showed arena GW, relative to lake wate r, to be lower in temperature (10 v 18 C), pH (7.3 v 8.3), DO (4 v >11 mg/L), and ORP (150 v 500 mV), and higher in specific conductance (1.7 v 0.3 mS/cm). Temperature probes deployed 1 m and 4 m from the bo ttom in spring during isot hermal conditions shows arena GW to be warmer relati ve to lake water (7.4 v 5.0 C). Warmer arena temperatures at 1m typical of GW were observed during upwelling ev ents. Arena GW layer was ~1 m th ick and gradually thinned to the open lake area. Alcove GW DO was much lower (<0.4 mg/L) and specific conductance higher (2.3 mS/cm). Alcove GW fills the alc ove bowl and spills over into the arena. The distribution of purple cyanobacterial benthic mats was limite d to the extent of GW influence. Keywords: Benthic flora, Bathymetry, Biogeochemistry, Karst sink holes, Coastal ecosystems, Lake Huron. KING, J.W. 1, SHUMCHENIA, E.J.1, MOE, H.1, LEWIS, C.F.M.1, SLATTERY, S.R.2, GOODYEAR, D.R.2, and KILGOUR, B.3, 1University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, South Ferry Rd., Narragansett, RI, 2882; 2Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Box 282, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1; 3Stantec Consulting, 1505 Laperriere Ave., Ottowa, ON, K1Z 7T1. Characterizing Habitat in Kempenfelt Bay, Lake Simcoe. A habitat mapping study was undertaken using a Be nthos C3D interferometric sonar system that simultaneously acquired 3D bathymetry and side scan sonar data. The sidescan sonar data were used to identify different acoustic signature s of bottom types. A preliminary map of polygons of different bottom types was then produced. The bathymetry data we re processed using CARIS HIPS to create a 3D bathymetry model. To delineate habitat types, we ground-truthed the acoustic data with grab samples, sediment profile images (SPI), and underwater vide o. Grab samples provided a description of sediment grain size and the types of infauna and epifauna. Tr aditional benthic analyses of the grabs provided identification and counts of benthic organisms. SPI was used to determine the amount of oxidized sediment and degree of bioturbation. The underwater video camera was used to evaluate the surface activity of the benthos and their percent cover. These data were combined to create maps of sediment type, and distribution of dominant organisms. This was a feas ibility study to evaluate methods and develop a protocol for habitat mapping in Lake Simcoe. Keywords: Acoustics, Benthos, Habitats. KLINE, W.T. 413 McGilvrey Hall, Kent, OH, 44242. Rapid Shifts in the Great Lakes Region's Cloud Cover Associated with the Approach of Winter. The Great Lakes region of the United States is an area of great climatic diversity. Research analyzing diurnal temperature range ha s noted that in late autumn and early winter there is an abrupt decrease in the temperature rang e for stations near the Great Lakes. One underlying reason for this increase is low-level cloud cover due to the lake effect , although little research has evaluated this

PAGE 79

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 77 decrease and its variabil ity in time and magnitude. Through determining the timing of late autumn and early winter cloud cover th roughout the Great Lakes, it will be possi ble to better understand this dramatic drop in diurnal temperature range and help determine a time window for its arrival. In order to assess this variability, a few measures have b een used. Frequencies of spatial s ynoptic classification weather types (SSC) for greater than three dozen stations will be analyzed. In addi tion, cloud cover data for low-level clouds (LLC) have been utilized from first order stations in the Great Lakes region in order to compare timing of low-level cloud days in re lation to present weather types. Vari ability of cloud cover by phase of PNA and NAO is also addressed. Keywords: Climate trends, Cl oud cover, Synoptic climatology. KLING, H.J. 1, WATSON, S.B.2, STAINTON, M.P.3, and MCCULLOUGH, G.K.4, 1Algal Taxonomy and Ecology Inc, 31 Laval Dr., Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2X8; 2Aquatic Ecosystem Management Research, National Water Research Institute, Envi ronment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Fisheries and Oceans, Freshwater Institute, 501 Univer sity Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6; 4Dept. of Geology, University of Manitoba, Ft. Garry Campus, Winnipeg, MB. Succession of Phytoplankton in Lake Winnipeg 2003-2007. Lake Winnipeg is the 10th larges t lake in North America, 11th in the world by surface area, and constitutes a valuable freshwater resource for the pr ovince of Manitoba. It supports a large commercial fishery and is a drinking water sour ce for several First Nations commun ities near the lake. In past 10-15 years, cyanobacterial blooms have increased in si ze and magnitude, composed of various morphological species in the Aphanizomenon flos aquae complex (mainly morphotypes comparable to A. flos aquae, A. klebahnii, A. yesoense, A. cf flexuosum, and A. hungaricum ), as well as other heterocystous types such as Anabaena lemmermannii, A. spiroides, A. mendotae, A. flos-aquae More recently (post 2003), there has been an increased occurrence of Microcystis species such as M. botrys, M. flos aquae, M. novacekii as well as the oscillatoriales Pseudanabaena catenata and epiphytic Pseudanabaena species in the lake. In addition to this increased cyanobacterial presence, species changes have been noticed in other algal classes (especially diatoms) with considerable y ear-to-year variability. Th is paper describes the succession of some of the species or species comple xes currently dominant in Lake Winnipeg, and recent changes which have occurred in re lation to water quality issues. Keywords: Lake Winnipeg, Phytoplankton, Cyanophyta. KOCOVSKY, P.M. 1, STAPANIAN, M.A.1, and KNIGHT, C.T.2, 1USGS Lake Erie Biological Station, 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH, 44870; 2ODNR Fairport Fisheries Res earch Station, 1190 High St., Fairport Harbor, OH, 44077. Evaluating Sampling Regimens for Indices of Yellow Perch Abundance in Lake Erie. We examined catches of YOY and age-1 yellow pe rch sampled at three depths and three times of day in summer and autumn 1986-2006 in western Lake Er ie to determine if sampling at some depths or times of day could be eliminated while not affect ing the management value of abundance indices. We calculated r2 and estimated abundance (Nest) from regression models that project abundance of age-2 yellow perch using indices calculated from the full sampling regimen (i.e., sampling all times of day and all three depths) and from 48 reduced regimens for four indices of abundance: summer YOY, summer age

PAGE 80

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 78 1, autumn YOY, autumn age 1. We calculated r2 and Nest between the full regimen and each reduced regimen and tested whether either differed from zer o. Eliminating night sampli ng, alone or in conjunction with morning or afternoon, always resulted in r2 < 0, suggesting poorer perf ormance using all four indices. There were no trends in Nest for the reduced regimens. Of the 10 reduced regimens for which r2>0 for at least 3 of 4 indices, gr eatest cost savings occurred for sampling only at night. We recommend night sampling for monitoring programs for yellow perch. Keywords: Lake Erie, Yellow perch, Sampling. KOOPS, M.A. 1, SUTTON, T.M.2, ARTS, M.T.3, MUIR, A.M.4, CLARAMUNT, R.M.5, EBENER, M.P.6, FITZSIMONS, J.D.1, JOHNSON, T.B.7, and KINNUNEN, R.E.8, 1Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON; 2School of Fisheries and Oceans Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK; 3National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON; 4Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; 5Charlevoix Fisheries Research Stati on, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Charlevoix, MI; 6Inter-Tribal Fisheries and Assessment Program, Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority, Sault Ste. Marie, MI; 7Glenora Fisheries Station, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Picton, ON; 8Michigan Sea Grant Extension, Michigan State University, Marquette, MI. Implications of Ecosystem Change for the Life History of Lake Whitefish. Recent ecological changes in the Great Lake s, starting with invasion by dreissenids ( Dreissena polymoprha and D. buggensis ) and subsequent declines in Diporeia (an important, ab undant, lipid rich amphipod) have resulted in poorer condition lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). We examine the influence that condition has on the life history of lake whitefish, specifically examining growth and reproduction. We found that condition, as measured by essential fatty acids, had an influence on the growth and reproductive investment of female lake whitefish; with fe males in poorer c ondition exhibiting slower growth but investing relatively more in re production. This increased re productive investment was observed in both the number and size of eggs produ ced. We conclude that female lake whitefish are trading off current and future reproductive opportuniti es and that recent environmental changes in the Great Lakes are decreasing the value of the future and increasing the re lative value of current reproductive opportunities. Keywords: Life history studies, Lake whitefish, Great Lakes basin. KOVALCIK, P.K. Biohabitats, Inc., 2081 Clipper Park Road, Baltimore, MD, 21211. Muskegon Lake, Ruddiman Creek and Nearby Shore line Ecological Restoration Ma ster Plan: Using Stakeholder Involvement to Derive the Goals and Objectives fo r Addressing Beneficial Use Impairments in an Area of Concern. USEPA and Biohabitats, Inc. in collaboration with multiple stakeholders have created a restoration master plan for Ruddi man Creek and the nearby shoreline of Muskegon Lake, in Muskegon Michigan. The area has been degraded as a result of shoreline fill, sediment contamination, and unregulated stormwater runoff. It is part of the Muskegon Lake Area of Concern and is listed as having Beneficial Use Impairments including loss of fish and wildlife habitat, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and degradation of bent hos. A sediment remediation effort was completed in Ruddiman Creek in 2006; however, additional re storation is necessary to address the Beneficial Use Impairments.

PAGE 81

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 79 The Ecological Restoration Master Pl an provides actions for the restor ation of fish, wildlife, benthic habitats, water quality and human uses. These actions are intended to create ecosystem resiliency, diversity, and attract repr oducing populations of desirable native species. Stakeholder collaboration and community involvement were essential in the plan process. Their particip ation is critical when balancing private interests with restoration and conservation objectives. This pl an is the outline for addressing Beneficial Use Impairments within this Area of Concern and ultimately, a template for restoring degraded habitats in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Habitats, Lake Michigan, Planning. KRAMKOWSKI-EPNER, V. 1 and CULOTTI, J.2, 1Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto; 2Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institut e, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto. Is C. elegans a Promising Bioindicator for Water Quality Studies? Examining Its Use in Toronto River Systems. Caenorhabditis elegans, a microscopic nematode widely used in genetics, also holds potential for water quality testing. Yet while many studies examine contaminant con centration-response relationships in liquid media, few studies use C. elegans as a bioindicator in field samp les. A common protocol has also not been established for raising worms in aquatic media. The C. elegans strain CL2070 was used to monitor water quality in the Humber and Don Rive rs in Toronto. CL2070 expresses Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) in contact with heavy metals. C ounting both mortality and GFP expression provided a more sensitive assay than mortality alone. Water sa mples were collected at each site and time point, filtered, and worms were raised in samples for 96 hour s. Current protocols were improved by the use of alternate control media such as doubl e-distilled water and various concen trations of M9 buffer, presenting a fairer control than liquid media. CL2070 expressed G FP erratically between sites and samples. Mortality was also variable in samples and controls and did not usually correspond w ith GFP expression. While these indicators were sometimes consistent within the same sample, variability in control mortality raises doubts about past studies that suggest C. elegans is an ideal water quality bioindicator. Keywords: Bioindicators, Expe rimental design, Water quality. KRANTZBERG, G. McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L2S 4K1. Civic Engagement in Delisting Areas of Concern. This analysis of local capacity to achieve consensus and sustain momentum to complete RAP implementation is based on the cleanup that led to Collingwood Harbour being de listed in 1994, the first of then 43 locations to achieve this milestone. RAP implementation and progress toward watershed management can thrive with strong local leadership. In this case, governments ac ted as facilitators and partnership builders of the RAP a nd provide resources and technical assistance to leverage local and private sector resources. The people th at participated in improving their harbor were integral to success. Keys to delisting included the participation of the community leaders, the development of a mutually agreed upon decision making process, common object ives and purpose, disput e resolution mechanisms, political support, participatory decision making and funding. This case study will de monstrate the role of civic engagement in successful delisting of an Ar ea of Concern, central to making the lakes great. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Environmental policy, Remediation.

PAGE 82

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 80 KRAUS, D.T.1 and KLEIN, D.F. 2, 15420 Highway 6 N, RR No. 5, Guelph, ON, NiH 6J2; 21048 University Ave., Rochester, NY, 14607. A Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Lake Ontario. In support of the Lake Ontario Lakewide Manage ment Plan, a bi-national partnership involving 27 public and private agencies and organizations from Ontario and New York has held four workshops to develop a bi-national biodiversity conservation strate gy for the lake and upper St. Lawrence River. This process has identified conservation targets (species-guilds and natu ral systems that represent the biodiversity of the lake ecosystem), assessed target viability, clarified th reats to the continued viability of targets, and proposed place-based and ba sin-wide strategies to abate key threats and enhance the health of biodiversity targets. Target natura l systems and species include the be nthic and pelagic zones, nearshore zone and embayments, coastal wetlands, coastal terres trial communities, migratory fish, tributaries, and islands. Draft strategies will be presented, including priorities for land protection and best management within watersheds and coastal sub-units. Keywords: Biodiversity Conservation, Planning. KREMENS, R.L. 1, DRAKE, R.2, HOVEY, A.3, BOVE, G.E.4, and TOMKINS-TINCH, C.H.1, 1Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Me morial Dr., Rochester, NY, 14623; 2Buffalo Niagra RiverKeepers, Buffalo, NY; 3Buffalo City School System, Buffalo, NY; 4State Univeristy of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY. Inexpensive Buoys for Environmental Education and River Water Quality Assessment. We have developed a multi-purpose buoy system to monitor the gross physical char acteristics (water temperature, turbidity, and color) related to water quality in the Buffalo River system. These buoys are inexpensive, easy to deploy from a small craft and have a short range telemetry system that allows continuous, real time, Web-based observation of measured parameters. The custom electronics package is powered for up to 4 weeks by dry cells which are easil y replaced during sensor servicing. The buoys serve several purposes; high time resolutio n monitoring of the physical charac teristics of the river; as an episodic trigger for remote airborne or ground based data collections (w hich provide synoptic and detailed data, respectively) duri ng industrial release, sewage overf low or other pollution generating events; and as a source of real ti me environmental data for educatio nal use by the Buffalo city public school system. Triggered by buoy data, we can deploy one of several aircra ft equipped with multi-spectral sensors and/or request that a volunte er field crew (organized by the Bu ffalo-Niagara Riverkeepers) collect water samples for laboratory analysis. We will show results from the buoy including overhead imagery of the river, time histories of phys ical parameters from the buoys, a nd the Web-based data interface. Keywords: Buoys, Remote se nsing, Environmental education. KRIEGER, K.A. 1, BUR, M.T.2, STEARNS, A.M.1, and EDWARDS, W.H.2, 1National Center for Water Quality Research, Heidelberg College, Tiffin, OH, 44883; 2U.S. Geological Survey, Lake Erie Biological Station, Sandusky, OH, 44870. Nearshore Hypoxia in Lake Eries Central Basin: A Proposed Lake Quality Indicator.

PAGE 83

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 81 The quality of the benthic invertebrate commun ity, which serves as a food base for Lake Erie fishes, continues to be degraded in the central ba sin. We hypothesize that hypoxia is the primary factor preventing development of a healthy zoobenthic co mmunity in relatively shallow nearshore areas. During thermal stratification in 2006 and 2007, we recorded rapid ( hours to days) appearance and disappearance of anoxia (<1 mg/L) within 1 m of the bottom at fixed stations as shallow as 10 m along two transects that extended from 1 km near shore to 12 km off shore (7.5 m to 17.5 m deep) near Lorain, Ohio. The areas of anoxia appeared to be localized and physically uncoupled from the primary zone of anoxia (dead zone), which is farther offshore in deep er water. The relatively brief intervals of anoxia were of sufficient duration to prev ent survival of various zoobenthic taxa of value in fish diets. We propose a new nearshore anoxia indicator for the central basin of Lake Er ie. It would be defined as the frequency of finding anoxia within 1 m of the lake bottom in shallow (<15 m) nearshore areas during the midto late-summer period of thermal stratification. St rategies for selecting number of stations, station locations, and sampling frequency would depend on scientific and management objectives. Keywords: Oxygen, Anoxia, Ecosystem health, Zoobenthos, Monitoring, Hypoxia. KURT-KARAKUS, P.B.1, BIDLEMAN, T.F. 1, MUIR, D.C.G.2, STRUGER, J.2, CAGAMPAN, S.J.2, SVERKO, E.2, BACKUS, S.2, DOVE, A.E.2, JANTUNEN, L.M.1, and SMALL, J.2, 1Center for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0; 2National Water Research Institut e, Environment Canada, 867 Lake shore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Chiral Current Used Pesticides in Ontario Streams and the Great Lakes. The objective of this study wa s to determine chiral herbicid es mecoprop, dichlorprop, and metolachlor in Ontario streams and the Great Lakes. In samples above the detection limit, (+) mecoprop was preferentially depleted in 50% of the samples, () mecoprop in 43%, and racemic mecoprop occurred in 7% (n=72). Depletion of (+) dich lorprop was favored in 90% of the samples and (-) enantiomer in 10% (n=10). No samples contained racemic dichlorprop. Metolachlor stereoisomers were detected in 167 stream water, 51 Great Lake surface water and 9 precipitation samples. Average S/R ratios (ratio of herbicidally active/inactive stereoisomers; sum of tw o S-stereoisomers to sum of two R-stereoisomers) were 8.65.22, 6.86.23, and 2.99.24 for precipitation, stream water, and lake water, respectively. It is interesting that the S/R ratio in precipitation was similar to that in commercial S-metolachlor (S/R ~ 9) whereas the S/R ratios in stream water and lake water differed from commercial S-metolachlor in displaying lower enrichments of active C*S,aR and C*S, aS diastereomers. At this point, we do not know whether the observed S/R prof iles in stream water and lake water are due a mixture of S-metolachlor and formerly used (before 2001) racemic metolachlor, or if some stereoselective de gradation has taken place. Keywords: Pesticides, Mecoprop, Dichlorprop, Meto lachlor, Great Lakes basin, Great Lakes rivers, Chiral signatures. LA ROSE, J.K.L. 1, METCALFE, B.W.1, and WILLOX, C.C.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 Hedge Road, RR #2, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aquatic Science Unit, 26465 Hedge Road, RR #2, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0. Historical Trends and Current Status of the Lake Simcoe Coldwater Fish Community.

PAGE 84

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 82 The diverse fish community which inhabits La ke Simcoe is of considerable ecological and economic significance. The lake is the focus of one of Ontario, Canadas most intensive inland sport fisheries, with a large proportion of angling effort directed at the coldwater fish community. Lake Simcoes coldwater fish community has undergone dram atic changes over the past few decades, attributed to accelerated eutrophication and coldwater habitat de gradation. Long-term fisher ies monitoring projects conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Re sources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit (LSFAU), have documented recruitment failures in lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) during the 1950s, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) during the 1960s, and lake herring ( Coregonus artedi ) in the 1980s. Each event was followed by drastic declines in abundance for these species and their scarcity has persisted into the early 2000s. Lake Simcoes lake trout and lake whitefis h populations have been maintained through supplemental stocking. Monitori ng conducted since 2001 has confirmed a limited amount of natural reproduction and survival by wild lake trout and suggests some successful reproduction by lake whitefish. We will review historical change s in Lake Simcoes coldwater fish community and report on its current status. Keywords: Fish populations, Lake Simcoe, Recruitment. LABENCKI, T.L. and BOYD, D., Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Monitoring & Reporting Branch, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. PCB Contributions to Hamilton Harbour. The Hamilton Harbour Area of Concern (AOC) has a number of Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), including restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption which is driven by elevated levels of PCBs in sport fish. In order to further understand the role of current versus hi storical PCB loadings in Hamilton Harbours foodweb, event-based sampling at major tributaries and the wastewater treatment plants was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Envi ronment in 2007; water samples were also collected from two locations within the harbor. Preliminary resu lts are not indicative of a large, locally-controllable PCB source to the harbor as PCB concentrations in in flow waters that were sampled are consistent with urban background concentrations. In a ddition, as PCB concentrations in the harbor were generally equal to or greater than concentrations in inflow waters, existing accumulati ons of PCB in harbor sediments are likely playing a large role in keeping PCB concentra tions relatively high in har bor waters. This suggests historical loadings remain important in the P CB dynamics of limnologically-unique Hamilton Harbour, which has implications for de listing the associated BUI. Keywords: PCBs, Urban watersheds, Hamilton Harbour, Fish consumption restrictions. LAKFARD, S. 1 and FRASER, G.S.2, 1Biology Department, York Univ ersity, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3; 2Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3. Nesting Ecology of Common Terns at To mmy Thompson Park, Toronto, Ontario. During the summer 2007 we conducted a behavioral ecology study of common terns, Sterna hirundo, at Tommy Thompson Park (TTP), Toronto, Ontario. Common terns at TTP nest on small islands in embayments and floating platforms (n= 96 nests). The purpose of our study was to identify significant sources of disturbance and quantify various breeding behaviors such as feeding rates to mates and chicks

PAGE 85

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 83 and nesting productivity for the two nesting substrates (2 islands, 2 pl atforms). Fish identification was done through opportunistic photographs. Sources of disturbance included birds flying over the nest sites (mallards, egrets, and herons) and human disturbances (visiting people, vehicles, especially big trucks and small airplanes). Courtship and chick feeding rates for the platforms was 0.15 and 0.29 per hour, respectively. For the islands, cour tship and chick feeding rates was 0.13 and 0.06 per hour respectively. Productivity rate for the observed pl atforms was 0.7 chicks per nest a nd for the islands 0.46 chicks per nest. The common terns diet consisted of 25.7% Notropis atherinoides, 10% Alosa pseudoharengus 10% Neogobius melanostomus 2.1% Osmerus mordax 1.4% Perca flavescens, 0.7 % Ameiurus nebulosus 0.7% Notropis hudsonius 0.7 % Lepomis gibbosus 7.1% from genus Notropis and 41.4% of unknown fish species. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Avian ecology. LANTRY, B.F. 1, WALSH, M.G.1, OGORMAN, R.1, JOHNSON, J.H.2, and MCKENNA, JR., J.E.2, 1USGS Lake Ontario Biological St ation, 17 Lake St., Oswego, NY, 13126; 2USGS Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science, 3075 Gracie Road, Cortland, NY, 13045. Occurrence of the Great Lakes Most Recent Invader, Hemimysis anomala in the Diet of Fishes in Southeastern Lake Ontario. Hemimysis anomala is a small mysid similar to the Great Lakes only native mysid, Mysis relicta Originally native to freshwater areas of the Black, Azov, and Caspia n Seas, in 2006, it was first reported from the Great Lakes at two widely separated locations, east-central Lake Michigan and southeastern Lake Ontario. In Europe, Hemimysis are normally found in lakes, but have colonized some rivers and canals. Similar to M. relicta, Hemimysis are photonegative omnivores th at migrate from near bottom during the day to near the surface at night In 2007, we caught a large number of Hemimysis in southeastern Lake Ontario by towing a 1-m square net at night. During the summer and fall of 2007 we used gill nets and seines to catch potential fish predators of Hemimysis at sites along the southeastern and eastern shores. Stomachs were collected from yello w perch, rock bass, smallmouth bass, round gobies, alewives, and spottail shiners. Alewives yellow perch, and rock bass consumed Hemimysis and stomachs of alewives were often full of the new invader. Herein we briefly overview our Hemimysis sampling efforts and the diet composition of fish predators from our samples. Keywords: Invasive species, Food chains, Lake Ontario. LASHAWAY, A.R. and CARRICK, H.J., School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802. Diatom Rejuvenation and Hypoxia in Lake Erie. Rapid sedimentation of phytoplankton cells following surface blooms is common in the Great Lakes, yet their fate is uncertain, particularly in Lake Erie, where hypoxia occurs seasonally. Our previous work shows planktonic diatom species dominating the benthic assemblage in the central basin. The objectives are two-fold: 1) evaluate and compare the cytological c ondition of diatoms through the water column and on the bottom of the lake, and 2) determ ine rejuvenation rates for dominant diatoms present in the sediments. Seasonal sampling was done for both water column and benthos at stations inside and outside of the hypoxic area in the central basin of La ke Erie (May to Octobe r). Variation in diatom abundance, cytological condition (vegetative, resti ng, dead), and rejuvenati on rates (from enclosure experiments) were examined. The density of planktonic diatoms on the bottom of the lake declined from

PAGE 86

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 84 June through September (thermally stratified period) and the proportion of resting and dead cells became more prevalent. Further, we anticipate the rate of di atom rejuvenation (resting to vegetative state) will be most swift in the spring and the fa ll periods. If diatoms are able to withstand low oxygen concentrations and ultimately rejuvenate into fully operating vegetative cells, they ma y not be the main culprit to hypoxic conditions. Keywords: Diatoms, Lake Erie, Benthos, Resting cells. LAVOIE, R.A. 1, HILL, L.1, YUMVIHOZE, E.1, RAIL, J.F.2, and LEAN, D.R.S.1, 1University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie, P.O. Box 450, Station A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5; 2Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1141 route de l'glise, P.O. Box 10 100, Qubec, QC, G1V 4H5. Insights on the Distribution of Mercury in a Gulf of St. Lawren ce Food Web from Stable Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Analysis. Mercury (Hg) is a chemical of concern because of its persistence, toxicity, and biomagnification potential in the environment. Deta ils of its distribution and pathways in food chains are still poorly understood, especially in estuarine eco systems. The general objective of this study is to determine the main variables of the feeding ecology that are driving the concentration of total (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a Gulf of St. Lawrence estuarin e food web. THg and MeHg levels were measured in representative species from prim ary consumers (zooplankton and mo lluscs) to top-level predators (seabirds). Stable nitrogen and carbo n isotope analyses were used to provide information on the trophic level and the source of the organic matter (benthic vs. pelagic), respective ly. We found that the source of the organic matter was a minor but significant contribu tor to Hg concentrations with higher values found in organisms feeding in the bent hic zone. Trophic level was found to be the main contributor. This suggests that elevated Hg concentrations are more lik ely to be associated with high trophic level species that feed in the benthic zone. This study will help to identify the mech anisms of Hg accumulation in the Gulf of St. Lawrence food web and to develop predictions on the influence of environmental perturbations. Keywords: Isotope studies Mercury, Food chains. LAWRENCE, P.L. Department of Geography & Planning, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606. Twenty Years Later: Reflection s on the Great Lakes RAP Experience for Watershed Planning in the Maumee Area of Concern 1987 to 2007. In October 2007 the Maumee Remedial Action Plan (RAP) Committee observed the twenty year anniversary of the designation of the Maumee Area of Concern (AOC) located in NW Ohio. The two decades have seen significant progress and continue d challenges toward resolving the Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) initially identified in the Ma umee AOC. This paper will pr ovide a review of the progress by the Maumee RAP within the Maumee AOC and assess the accomplishments and activities toward delisting. Recent events incl ude the creation of Partners for Clean Streams Inc. (PCS) as the new 501c3 non-profit entity for water planning and merg er of the Maumee RAP Advisory Committee into PCS. In 2007 PCS was awarded a grant of $588,000 from the Joyce Foundation to undertake three urban watershed restoration projects within the Maumee AOC A ten step program is outlined to evaluate watershed planning efforts within the Maumee AOC as a guide to a continued success and to provide

PAGE 87

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 85 suggestions to other Great Lakes Areas of Concern a nd watershed planning initiatives within the basin. Keywords: Watersheds, Environmental policy, Lake Erie. LEBLOND, S.S. HAMILTON, K., RUTTER, A., and CA MPBELL, L.M., Queen's University, Bioscience Complex, Queen's Un iversity, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. Metal Contamination Sources and Fate within the Rideau River Waterway. The Rideau River Waterway is comprised of a se ries of lakes connecting the Ottawa River to the Cataraqui River in Kingston. In 2006, a preliminary study evaluated the sediment and water metal concentrations, grain size (GS) and organic content (OC) of nine lakes south of Smith Falls. Within Upper Rideau (UR) and Indian Lake (IL), Pb was found to exceed CCME Sediment Guidelines, while Co and Zn were found to exceed CCME Freshwater Guidelines. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Rb (0.003 to 0.073 ppm) were found in waters, but were not correlated with sediment concentrations or GS (in all but one instance). Significant regressions between sediment OC and metal concentrations were found only for Cu, Co, and Rb (p-values 0.0290, 0.0095, a nd 0.0013 respectively). There were significant correlations between Hg and Cr and between Cd, Pb, a nd Zn sediment concentrations across locations (p < 0.001). While Hg was not detected in tested waters, it ranged between 0.067 and 0.253 ppm in sediments. The OME records for UR and IL indicate th at average Hg concentrations in sport fish exceed recommended guidelines for at-risk groups (0.789 and 0.356 g/g respectively). This study examines the distribution of metals within tw o highly utilized lake systems and seeks to identify potential contamination sources and management options. Keywords: Biomagnification, Environmental contaminants, Metals. LEKKI, J.L. 1, LESHKEVICH, G.2, NGUYEN, Q.V.1, FLATICO, F.3, PROKOP, N.1, ANDERSON, R.1, DEMERS, J.1, KOJIMA, J.3, KRASOWSKI, M.1, and OO, O.1, 1NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Brookpark, OH, 44135; 2NOAA Great Lakes Env. Res. Lab., 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 3Ohio Aerospace Institute, 22800 Cedar Point Rd., Brookpark, OH, 44142. Update on Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Qualit y Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms. NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Envir onmental Research Lab have continued their collabo ration to utilize an airbor ne hyperspectral imaging sens or suite to monitor algal blooms in the western basin of Lake Erie and Sa ginaw Bay. The development of a bloom is a very dynamic event because the bloom can form, spread, and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human healt h, fish, and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. This situation is well suited for aircraft-based monitoring because the blooms are such a dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. A second generation custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted in a Lear 25 aircraft have been used to obtain data of multiple areas in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2007. Water sa mples have been taken of these same areas concurrently by NOAA and the EPA. The correlation of the water samples with the hyperspectral measurements will help to determine the efficacy of hyperspectral monitoring of harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary

PAGE 88

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 86 hyperspectral data of this event will be presented. Keywords: Remote sensing, Microcystis, Harmful algal blooms. LEMBCKE, D. MCCONNELL, C.J., and ANSELL, A., Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1. Use of Semi Permeable Membrane Devices to Measure the Bioconcentration Potential of Dichlo rodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the Holland Marsh, Lake Simcoe. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was primar ily used as a pesticide in Canada from the 1940s through to the 1970s until it was banned in 1985 due to the bioaccumulative nature of the chemical. The Holland Marsh is an area of intensive crop farm ing in Southern Ontario. DDT monitoring completed on fish tissues collected from th e Holland Marsh in the 1970s detected concentrations of DDT that exceeded 5,000 g/kg. High concentrations were also noted in water and soil samples obtained in the Marsh during the same time period. In 2006/07 Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) were deployed for 1 month to assess the bioconcentration potential of DDT in the Holland Marsh canals and surrounding watercourses. In order to interpret the severity of the results on aquatic biota a method was developed to compare SPMD values with federal fi sh tissue guidelines. Resulting SPMD values were corrected for the density of the triolein medium used in each device and correct ed for the difference in uptake rates of DDT by SPMDs over fish tissues. DDT was detected at all locations with a greater number of guideline exceedences in the 2006 data as compar ed to 2007. The use of SPMDs prove to be an effective technique to monitor the bioconcentration of DDT without the need to sample aquatic biota. Keywords: SPMDs, Pesticides, DDT, Monitoring. LENTERS, J.D. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, School of Natural Resources, Lincoln, NE, 68583. Long-term Trends in the Seasonal Water Balance of Lakes Erie and Michigan-Huron: Is There a Disconnect at the St. Clair River? Previous studies of Great Lakes water levels have identified shifts in the seasonal rise and fall of the lakes, from Lake Superior on down to Lake Onta rio. In general, the Great Lakes region has shown a trend toward earlier (and dr ier) springs and wetter autumns, leading to an earlier rise and fall of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Lakes Superior and Michigan-H uron, on the other hand, show a reduction in the amplitude of the annual cycle, rather than a shift earl ier in time. For Lake Michigan-Huron, this is partly due to changes in connecting-channel flow through the St. Clair River. The changes are also found in the Detroit River, thereby impacting the water balance of Lake Erie. In th is study, an analys is of the water budgets of Lakes Michigan-H uron and Erie are presented to unders tand the mechanisms responsible for the observed changes in seasonality over the past 60+ years. Changes in precip itation and runoff in each basin are found to lead to many of th e observed long-term shifts in seas onal lake level. Variations in connecting-channel flow through the St. Clair and De troit Rivers, however, cont ribute greatly to the earlier rise and fall of Lake Erie. Due to the loss of water from Lake Michigan-Huron, the effect upstream is reversed, resulting in a disconnec t between the upper and lower lakes. Keywords: Climate change, Hydrologic cycle, Water level fluctuations.

PAGE 89

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 87 LEON, L.F. 1, HIGGINS, S.1, SMITH, R.E.H.1, LAM, D.C.2, and HIPSEY, M.3, 1University of Waterloo, 200 University West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Center for Water Research, Universi ty of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia. Simulating Water Quality in Eastern Lake Erie for Coupled Modeling. A project with OPG for the vicinity of the Picker ing nuclear plant to study algal growth, transport and detachment, calls for the use of a hydrodynamic m odel coupled to a water quality component. Current research involves the use of ELCOM (3D-hydrodynami cs) coupled to CAEDYM (water quality) to simulate the input conditions for modeling Cladophora growth, detachment, and transport in the coastal zone of Lake Erie. This model suite has been applied in the eastern basin of Lake Erie to simulate nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen ) dynamics and other water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and suspended solids. In order to capture the nearshore dynamics in detail, a highresolution grid has been developed and nested within coarse grid simulations. This means that the output from a coarse grid (2 km) is used to force the bounda ries of a smaller, higher resolution domain (200 m). This work presents the fine tuning and validati on of the output from the ELCOM-CAEDYM simulations for the main parameters that the CGM requires as input. Keywords: Model studies, Lake Erie, Hydrodynamics. LESHKEVICH, G. 1 and LIU, S.2, 1NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2U. of Michigan/CILER, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. CoastWatch Great Lakes Program Update: 2008. CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) func tions as the CoastWatch Great Lakes regional node. In this capacity, GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers environmental data and products for near real-time mon itoring of the Great Lakes to suppor t environmental science, decision making, and supporting research. This is achieved by pr oviding Internet access to near real-time and retrospective satellite ob servations, in-situ data, and derived pr oducts to Federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and the public via the CoastWatch Great Lakes web site ( http://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov ). New utilities such as JAVA GIS an d Google Earth allow interactive retrieval of physical parameters such as surface te mperature, ice cover, and surface winds at a given location and enhance the accessibilit y and utility of Great Lakes CoastWatch data. Plans include enhancing the present product suite with new near real-time image products such as an improved temperature composite chart, satellite derived wi nd fields, ice type mapping, turbidity, and chlorophyll images derived from satellite sensors such as Synthe tic Aperture Radar (SAR), scatterometer, and ocean color sensors. Keywords: Remote sensing, Satellite technology, Monitoring. LEWIS, C.F.M. 1, KING, J.W.2, HEIL JR., C.W.2, HUBENY, J.B.3, MACDONALD, R.A.4, SHUMCHENIA, E.J.2, GOODYEAR, D.R.5, SLATTERY, S.R.5, and TODD, B.J.1, 1Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2; 2Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI, 2882; 3Department of Geological Sciences, Salem State

PAGE 90

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 88 College, Salem, MA, 1970; 4Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7; 5Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, Box 282, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1. Lake Simcoe Sediment Architecture: Evid ence for a Lowstand During Early Holocene Dry Climate. Seismic reflection profiles from the 1990s have delineated a sediment and hydrogeological stratigraphy up to 50 m in places beneath the lake floor that relate to the paleoenvironmental history of the basin through glaciation, subglacial meltwater eros ion, glacial lake depositi on, and postglacial lake sedimentation. In zones 10 to 25 m below lake leve l, but not deeper, reflec tions in the lowermost postglacial lake (Lake Simcoe) sediments and uppe rmost glacial lake (Lake Algonquin) sediments are truncated, indicating a period of erosi on. The erosion is interpreted to have resulted from wave abrasion in an early Holocene lowstand of the lake. Wave-base cal culations for storm conditi ons indicate that the water surface at the time could have been 13 m above the level of deepest erosion. This level appears to have been about 7 m below the overflow outlet n ear Orillia, suggesting the lake was closed hydrologically, a result that is consistent with the drie r-than-present early Holoce ne climate. The acoustic evidence for the lowstand was confirmed in 2007 when sediment cores for further testing of the lowstand hypothesis were recovered. Keywords: Paleolimnology, Holocene, Climate change. LI, H. 1, METCALFE, C.D.1, and HELM, P.2, 1Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6, Canada. Monitoring Nearshore Contamination in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Using Polar Passive (POCIS) Samplers. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPC Ps) and endocrine disruptor substances (EDS) are contaminants of emerging concern that are discha rged into the Great Lake s by municipal wastewater treatment plants. The recently developed POCIS technology may provide an effective means of monitoring for hydrophilic polar contaminants of emergi ng concern in the aquatic environment. In this study, POCIS samplers were deployed in the nearshore zo ne in Lake Ontario and in Lake Erie to monitor a range of PPCPs and EDS, including neutral drugs, beta-blocker drugs, sulfona mide antibiotics, acidic drugs, triclosan and triclocarban, sel ective serotonin re uptake inhibitor (SSRI) an ti-depressants, estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. The POCIS were deployed for 1 month at several stations in western Lake Ontario in the summer of 2006, and in Lake Erie near Port Stanley in the summer of 2007. Most of the classes of PPCPs and EDS were detected by liq uid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) in the POCIS extracts. The neutral drugs, caffeine and carbamazepine, and the SSRI drug, venlafaxine were the compounds det ected at the highest concentra tions, ranging from 9.0 to 181.5 ng per POCIS. Spatial trends in the distribution of contaminants in the POCIS reflected the wastewater sources of these compounds. Keywords: Environmental contaminants, Chemical analysis, LC-MS/MS, PPCPs and EDS. LIAO, Q. 1, BOOTSMA, H.A.2, XIAO, J.E.1, and KLAMP, V.J.2, 1Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, University of Wiscons in-Milwaukee, Milw aukee, WI, 53092; 2Great Lakes WATER Institute,

PAGE 91

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 89 University of Wisconsin-Milw aukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53204. In-Situ PIV Measurement of Turbulent Flow Structures over a Mussel Bed in Lake Michigan. A low-cost non-tethered submersi ble PIV system has been develope d to measure small-scale flow structures in turbulent environm ental flows. The system consists of a CW DPSS laser (532 nm), a scanning mirror (galvanometer), a CCD camera with GigE interface, an ultra-compact PC for data acquisition and a USB signal-generati ng device that controls and sync hronizes all com ponents. All the components are battery-power ed and can be fitted into a small underwater housing. The capability of the underwater PIV system has been de monstrated through a couple of fiel d deployments in Lake Michigan. 2D turbulent velocity field (20 by 20 cm) is resolved on a plane perpendicular to the lake bottom, which is covered by Dreissenid mussels. Measurement results, in cluding the vertical prof iles of mean velocity, Reynolds stress, dissipation rate and the turbulent flux of particles (phy toplankton and sediment particles), will be presented and discussed. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Turbulence, Waves, Lake Michigan. LICHTKOPPLER, F. 1, SNYDER, F.L.2, and RIESEN, K.3, 1The Ohio State University, Ohio Sea Grant, 99 East Erie St., Painesville, OH, 44077-3907; 2The Ohio State University, Ohio Sea Grant, Camp Perry, Port Clinton, OH, 43452; 3The Ohio State University, Ohio Sea Grant, 28728 Wolf Road, Bay Village, OH, 44140. Results of the 2006 Ohio Lake Erie Charter Captains Survey. The Lake Erie charter fishing i ndustry provides important angler a ccess to Lake Erie sport fishing and is economically important to local recreationa l harbor communities. Economic data on the charter industry is useful in helping to provide an econo mic rationale for harbor dredging. In early 2007, we conducted a mail survey of 517 randomly selected Oh io charter boat captains and received usable information from 249 captains. In 2006, there were 786 Oh io licensed charter guides This is a decline of nine percent from the 861 licensed captains in 2002. Charter firms in 2006 made on average 2.6 more trips per firm (44.7) than in 2002 (42.1). These capta ins made an estimated 28,519 charter trips in 2006 of which almost 87 % were full day and just over 13% were half-day trips. About 76% of the charter clientele were repeat customers. Almost 81% of Oh io charter customers come from over 50 miles or further away from the charter firms homeport bringi ng nature based tourism dollars into local lakefront communities. This is the sixth survey conducted by Ohio Sea Grant of the Ohio charter industry dating back to 1985. Keywords: Lake Erie, Fishing, Economic evaluation. LIEBIG, J.R. 1, VANDERPLOEG, H.A.1, POTHOVEN, S.A.1, CAVALETTO, J.F.1, KRUEGER, D.2, MASON, D.M.1, LANG, G.A.1, PANGLE, K.3, PICHLOV, R.4, and PEACOR, S.3, 1NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 3Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 4Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway. Interactions of the Invasive Predatory Cladocerans, Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi with Zooplankton and Fish along an Onshore-offs hore Transect in Southern Lake Michigan. Diel patterns of vertical dist ribution of fish and of zooplankton along with estimated consumption determined from bioenergetics models were used to determine predat ory interactions among Bythotrephes

PAGE 92

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 90 longimanus, Cercopagis pengoi fishes, and zooplankton along an o ffshore-onshore transect in southern Lake Michigan. Vertical spatial overlap between alewives, th eir preferred prey Bythotrephes and zooplankton were strongly driven by thermal structure, however the pa ttern of vertical distribution was not consistent or stable during the day or night. Bythotrephes and Cercopagis were usually found concentrated in the epilimnion and to a lesser degr ee in the metalimnion, while adult alewives were generally found lower in the water colum n. By migrating deeply during the day, Daphnia mostly avoided the visually feeding Bythotrephes but generally had a higher spatial overlap with fish. The low abundance of alewives and their lower positio n in the water column relative to Bythotrephes allowed Bythotrephes to be abundant offshore, wher e they likely controlled Cercopagis abundance through predation. Estimates of consumption of zooplankton showed that Bythotrephes dominated the offshore while Cercopagis and fish dominated consumption inshore. Keywords: Lake Michigan, Bythotre phes cederstroemii, Predation. LIVERSEDGE, L.K. Michigan Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Court, Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Turbidity Mapping and Prediction in Glacial Lakes. Lakes associated with glacial environments t ypically contain large amo unts of rock flower suspended sediment originating from glacial rock weathering. This rock flower is discerna ble in satellite images and is easily measured in situ. Turbidity mapping and prediction using remote sensing has had limited success in the past due to the type of aquatic system under inve stigation, remote sensing platform used, and geographical area of study. Using an au tonomous robot buoy and a multiple linear regression analysis, an accurate and repeatable algorithm to pr edict turbidity in northern, glacial lakes has been developed. The algorithm utilizes Landsat 7 ETM+ Band 3 and Band 4 data to predict turbidity concentrations. The algorithm was de veloped specifically for Vitus Lake, a lake approximately the size of Lake St. Clair located in coastal s outh-central Alaska at the terminus of the Bering Glacier, but is also applicable to other glacially-influen ced lakes. The success of the algori thm is attributable to the highly oligotrophic status of glacial lakes, and it was found that deli neation of turbidity c oncentrations in these environments is more straightforward and accurate than similar efforts in temper ate or tropical climates where biology typically drives aquatic systems and strongly affects the remotely sensed optical signal. Keywords: Turbidity, Remote sensing, GIS. LOFGREN, B.M. NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Res earch Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Atmospheric and Hydrologic Impacts of Increased Greenhouse Gases on the Great Lakes Simulated Using CHARM2. The new version of the Coupled Hydros phere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) incorporates several new features There is spectral nudging in the interior of the model domain in addition to lateral boundary nudging. Surface heat flux ad justment is calibrated and applied on the Great Lakes in order to bring their surface temperatures into agreement with observations during the historical time period. Preliminary results will be presented of comparisons between runs at different times driven by output from the National Center for Atmospheri c Research's Community Climate System Model version 3.0 (CCSM 3.0). Output variab les will include air and water temperatures, wind, precipitation,

PAGE 93

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 91 evapotranspiration, ice cover, and runoff. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake in teraction, Hydrologic budget, Climate change. LONGSTAFFE, F.J. 1, LEWIS, C.F.M.2, KING, J.W.3, HEIL JR., C.W.3, HUBENY, J.B.4, GOODYEAR, D.R.5, SLATTERY, S.R.5, and MACDONALD, R.A.1, 1Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7; 2Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2; 3Graduate School of Oceanography, Univer sity of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI, 2882; 4Department of Geological Sciences, Sa lem State College, Salem, MA, 1970; 5Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Box 282, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1. Stable Isotope Evidence for Groundwater Seepage into Kempenfelt Bay, Lake Simcoe. Porewater was extracted at 10 cm intervals from two piston cores collected from Lake Simcoe, and its oxygenand hydrogen-isotope compositions measured. The first core (44.38N, 079.67W; water depth, 24 m; core length, 5.12 m) was taken near the head of Kempenfelt Bay, where groundwater seepage into Lake Simcoe has been suggested from seismic reflection data. The second core (44.49N, 079.42W; water depth, 21 m; core length, 7.61 m) was ta ken from the main basin of Lake Simcoe. The 18O and D values of porewater from the second core range from -7.8 to -6.9 and -61 to -52, respectively, decreasing gradually toward the bottom of the core. The isotopic compositions cluster slightly to the right of the Gr eat Lakes Regional Meteoric Water Line, reflecting the evaporative enrichment known for Lake Huron and La ke Simcoe. A much wider range of 18O (-11.9 to -7.6) and D (-85 to -57) values was obtained for porewater from the Kempenfelt Bay core. These results describe a mixing line betw een regional groundwater ( 18O = -11.3, D = -81) and porewater from the main basin of Lake Simcoe. Groundwater dominate s the porewater above 3 m. The interval between 3 and 4 m is dominated by lake water. Below that mixing has occurred between the two reservoirs. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Lake Simcoe, Groundwater. LOWES, C.I. and YOUNG, E.B., 2200 E. Kenwood Blvd., Milwaukee, WI, 53201. Alternative Sources of Phosphorus for Freshwater Cyanobact eria and Lake Michigan Phytoplankton. Phosphorus (P) is often the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the Great Lakes. P is mostly readily available to phytopl ankton as phosphate (Pi) but cells can use monophosphate esters which are cleaved by alkaline phosphatase activity (APA). Recent research su ggests marine cyanobacteria can also use phosphonates, which were previously considered unavai lable for phytoplankton. To examine phosphonate use by Great Lakes cyanobacteria, we conducte d growth trials using isolated cyanobacterial strains, and a range of P compounds includ ing the phosphonates 1-aminoethylphosphonic acid, phosphonoacetic acid and glyphosate. Growth of cells wa s monitored over 2 weeks by chl a fluorescence changes. Pi concentration and APA were also measured. Strains showed APA and a marked ability to cleave Pi from monophosphate ester glycerol-Pi. Relative to the grow th rate when supplied with Pi, growth rate ranges were 14-36% with glycerol-Pi, and 17-35% w ith phosphonates. A bioassay with P sources was also carried out with na tural Lake Michigan water, which showed similar results to cultures phosphonates stimulated more growth than in samp les with no added P. Great Lakes cyanobacterial

PAGE 94

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 92 communities can clearly utilize phosphona tes as a P source which has important implications for runoff of agricultural phosphonates in to lake catchments. Keywords: Lake Michigan, Phytoplankton, Phosphorus. LU, Q. 1, DUCKETT, F.1, NAIRN, R.B.1, and TAYLOR, S.2, 1Baird & Associates, 627 Lyons Lane, Suite 200, Oakville, ON, L6J 5Z7; 2Essex Region Conservation Authority, 360 Fairview Avenue West, Suite 311, Essex, ON, N8M 1Y6. 3D Hydrodynamic Modeling in Huron and Erie Corridor (HEC). A three dimensional model for the Huron and Er ie Corridor has been developed using the MISED model. The MISED model is a 3D hydrodynamic and sedi ment transport model using a modern numerical method developed by Dr. Lu (1998). The method was proved to be unconditionally stable and computationally efficient. The model domain covers the southern part of Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, the western part of Lake Erie, and includes the major tributaries. The grid resolution ranges from 10 m to 2000 m. The developed model was linked to the POM models in NOAA Great Lakes Operation Forecast System (GLO FS) in both Lakes Huron and Erie and filled the gaps of the GLOFS. The spatially and temporally vary ing wind was used to simulate the impacts of storm surges on the currents in the Detroit River. Compared with the ADCP data measured in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, the model predicts the currents well. Th e reverse flow in the Detr oit River and the St. Clair Delta were well simulated by the model. The model has been used for Canadian source water protection studies. Keywords: Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, Lake Huron, Hydrodynamic model, Detroit River, Lake Erie. LUDEWIG, B.G. 1 and AUSTIN, J.A.2, 1Water Resources Science, Univ ersity of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812; 2Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota-Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812. Upwelling in Idealized Stratified Lakes. Wind driven circulation in lakes is expected to respond variably to rotational effects depending on lake size and shape. We use numerical modeling techniques to characterize th ese effects in idealized, thermally stratified fresh water la kes. Length and width are both im portant in determining rotational effects: length scales must be sufficient for significan t deflections to occur, while width must not be so small as to constrain transverse ci rculation. Rotational effects become im portant at length scales of a few times the internal radius of deformation. Circulati on, specifically the location and magnitude of upwelling events, affects nutrient distribution and biological ac tivity, and ultimately the sedimentation patterns in a lake. An understanding of the effects of lake size and shape can lead to an improved ability to infer wind direction and to make other interpretations of paleor ecords in the sediments of the worlds ancient lakes. Keywords: Paleolimnology, Co mputer models, Hydrodynamics. LUDSIN, S.A. 1, HK, T.O.2, RUCINSKI, D.K.3, DEPINTO, J.V.4, and SCAVIA, D.5, 1Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Dept. of Evolution, Ecology, & Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212; 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research, University of Michigan and NOAA-GLERL, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 3Limno-Tech, Inc., School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 4Limno-Tech, Inc., 501 Avis Dr., Ann

PAGE 95

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 93 Arbor, MI, 48108; 5School of Natural Resources & Environmen t, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Historical Exploration of Hypoxia Effects on Fish Recruitment and Production in Lake Erie. Hypolimnetic hypoxia (< 4 mg O2/L) is a natural phenomenon in La ke Eries central basin during late summer; however, its magnitude, extent, and durat ion can vary inter-annually. While it is plausible that fish populations will respond to such annual va riation in hypoxia, the effect of hypoxia on Lake Eries recreational and co mmercial fisheries remains poorly underst ood. Herein, we charac terize historical relationships between hypoxia and gr owth, recruitment, and harvest le vels of central Lake Eries dominant piscivore (walleye Sander vitreus), benthivore (yellow perch Perca flavescens ), and planktivore (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax ), using both statistical and computer modeling approaches. Specifically, we use a regression approach to quantify the historical (1987-2007) relationship between 1) annual indices of growth (length at age), recruitment, and population biomass for these species and 2) indices of the magnitude, spatial extent, and duration of bottom hypoxia, generated from empirical field observations and output from a one-dimensional water qu ality model. Based on results from our analyses, we discuss how hypoxia may influence our ability to understand (and hence forecast) both past and future dynamics of these three recreationally and commercially importan t fish populations. Keywords: Oxygen, Yellow perch, Fish populations, Rainbow smelt, Recruitment, Walleye. LUDWIG, J.P. ERRC, Ltd., 607 Canard St., Port Williams, NS, B0P 1T0. Evidence for Source Sink Regions in the Great Lakes Casp ian Tern Population 1966 1995. Caspian terns nesting in the Great Lakes since World War II have been subject to a significant organohalogen contamination gradient across their breeding distribution. Recapture of 1,065 terns banded as chicks showed a recruitment pa ttern after 1966, inversely correlated to exposures to total PCBs and TCDD-EQs in a dose-dependant manner. Similarly, band ing mortality series of terns banded as chicks and terns banded as adults indicated much lower survival with high contaminant exposures during nesting. A tern chick raised in the cleaner regions of Lake Huron was 2.5 times more likely to mature and return to nest than a chick from Green Bay and 5.9 times more likely than a chick from Saginaw Bay. Rapid post-fledgling mortality of chicks in areas of greater exposure was probably related to changes in brain dopamine neurotransmitter concentrations and severe immune suppression in fledglings. Other traditional habitat factors were not correlated to recruitment. The cause -effect hypothesis that recruitment was not related to contaminant exposures was reject ed in favor of a conclusion that recruitment was driven primarily by contaminant exposures, not ot her physical habitat factors, between 1966 and 1995. Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Recruitment, PCBs. LUDWIG, J.P. ERRC, Ltd., 607 Canard St., Port Williams, NS, B0P 1T0. Survival and Recruitment in Double-crested Cormorants from the Upp er Great Lakes 1977-2007: Relationships with Contaminants. The survival and recruitment of adult double-cres ted cormorants was measured through recoveries in a mortality series of 1,758 cormorants banded between 1978 and 1995 when a total of about 72,000

PAGE 96

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 94 cormorant chicks were banded in the upper Great La kes. Recruitment and survival to breeding age correlated inversely to co ntaminant exposures of embryos. Areas of intense contamination, especially Saginaw Bay, Thunder Bay of Lake Huron, and Green Ba y of Lake Michigan produced fewer birds that matured to adult ages similar to Caspian terns acro ss the same geographic dist ribution and contamination gradient. Banding data indicate the lower Great Lakes colonies in La kes Erie and Ontario were less productive of birds reaching adult ag es than those of the cleaner ar eas of Lakes Huron and Superior; northern Lake Michigan colonies had productivity greater than the more contaminated areas, but less than the cleaner areas of northern Lake Huron, the North Channel, Georgian Bay and Lake Superior. As with lake trout and Caspian terns, contaminants, particular ly total PCBs and TCDD-EQs appear to have driven survival and recruitment in this population. Keywords: Cormorants, Recruitment, PCBs. LUMB, C.E. 1, FRANZIN, W.G.2, and WATKINSON, D.A.2, 1Manitoba Water Stewardship, Fisheries Branch, 200 Saulteaux Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3J 3W3; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, 501 University Cr escent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6. Distribution and Abundance of Smallbodied Fishes in Lake Winnipeg. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth largest freshwater lake in the world, by surface area, and the third largest lake completely within Canada. It is a sha llow, turbid lake that does not typically thermally stratify. The lake is divided into tw o distinct basins: the North Basin has a larger surface area and greater mean depth (13.3 m) than the South Basin (9.7 m). The lake supports important subsistence, recreational and commercial fisheries. Despite ecological, soci al and economic importance, dynamics of the fish community are not well understood. To describe distributi on and abundance of small-bodied fishes in open waters of Lake Winnipeg, trawling was conduc ted near long term monitoring stations during seasonal research cruises using a 3-mete r square beam trawl. Rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax ) dominated catches from the North Basin, while emerald shiners ( Notropis atherinoides ) were most abundant in the South Basin. Emerald shiners, cisco ( Coregonus artedi ) and walleye ( Sander vitreus) contributed to catches from both ba sins, but were more abundant in th e South Basin. Rainbow smelt were almost absent from catches in the South Basin. Data will be used to describe distribution and abundance of forage and commercially important sp ecies, like juvenile walleye/sauger (Sander canadensis ). Keywords: Species composition, Fish, Lake Winnipeg. MACISAAC, H.J. Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4. Developments in Invasion Ecology. The modern field of invasion ecology began with pub lication of Charles Elton's seminal book in 1958, though the field did not experience growth until the early 1990s. Since that time, there has been an exponential increase in publication of papers pert aining to invasions of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During the late 1980s, concern in the Great Lakes focused on invasion by the Eurasian ruffe, although subsequent invasions by dreissenid mussels quickly changed academic, government and industrial interests. Global publicat ions on dreissenids have increased from a background level of <10/yr (1972-1990) to current levels of ~150 paper/yr. Total Dreissena citations have increased from <100/yr to ~3,500/year during this time. While st udies on dreissenid mussels have cl early expanded, they parallel a

PAGE 97

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 95 global trend that applies to many other taxa and highlight the grow ing importance of this new global stressor. The widespread impact of dreissend musse ls has fostered development of numerous invasion concepts including human-mediated dispersal models, and facilitative inter actions amongst invaders. Efforts to curtail invasions must begin with ar guably the most important step, vector control. Keywords: Dreissena, Biologica l invasions, Invasive species. MACKEY, S.D. 1, MACDOUGALL, T.M.2, and MARKHAM, J.L.3, 137045 N. Ganster Road, Habitat Solutions NA, Beach Park, IL, 60087; 2Box 429, 1 Passmore Ave., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Port Dove r, ON, N0A 1N0; 3178 Point Drive North, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, Dunkirk, NY, 14048. Preliminary Assessment of Lake Trout Spawning Habitat in the Eastern Basin of Lake Erie. More than 615 line km of sidescan sonar and underwater video data were collected from seven potential lake trout spawning area s identified by GIS during the summer of 2007. Six of these areas were located along the Canadian north shore between Port Ma itland and Nanticoke in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. The seventh area was located over Brocton Shoal near Dunkirk, New York. These data were processed, mosaicked, and used to identify, characterize, and map subs trate types and bottom characteristics analogous to known lake trout spawning ar eas in the eastern basin of Lake Erie and other Great Lakes. The Canadian north shore can be char acterized by broad bedrock platforms intersected by incised sand-filled paleochannels. Boulder-cobble deposits comprised of eroded bedrock material are commonly found on the edges of these platforms, whic h are adjacent to potential deeper-water nursery areas. Glacially-derived co arse-grained deposits are locally dist ributed across many of these bedrock features in Canada and at Brocton Shoal. Unde rwater video shows multiple sites with habitat characteristics similar to other lake trout spawning sites. However, th e dominant presence of dressenids, round gobies, and Cladophora on these substrates may significan tly reduce lake trout spawning and recruitment potential at these sites. Keywords: Habitats, Sidescan sonar, Lake trout, Lake Erie. MANNING, N.F. University of Toledo Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Dr., Oregon, OH. Hydrology and Plant Community Alterati ons in Wetlands of the Cu yahoga Valley National Park. The hydrology of wetlands is a key abiotic factor in the determination of the type of wetland and the maintenance of these important ecosystems. By understanding the typical hydrologic and ecological response of these systems at a landscape scale it may be possible to predict how groups of similar wetlands will behave when large scale impacts are planned. This research was conducted in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), within the Lake Erie watershed in northern Summit and southern Cuyahoga counties in northeastern Ohio. Sixteen wetlands were select ed for this project. Monitoring wells were used to monitor water levels within the sites as well as determining the variance and range of water level for each site. A modified Vegetative Index of Biotic Integrity (VIBI) protocol was used to collect plant community data. Analysis of Cova riance (ANCOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to determine the in teractions of several different envi ronmental factors in disturbed and undisturbed wetlands. The results of this study show th at there is a strong interaction effect between disturbance and environmental factors such as wetland and watershed size, and wetland type. This

PAGE 98

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 96 interaction makes it possible to begin to predict the r eaction of different wetland types when human impacts encroach on natural area. Keywords: Wetlands, Lake Erie, Urban watersheds. MANNO, J.P. 1 and KRANTZBERG, G.2, 1State University of New York ESF, 211A Marshall Hall, Syracuse, NY, 13210; 2McMaster University, School of Engin eering Practice, Hamilton, ON, ON, L8S 4L7. Toward a Management and Accountab ility Structure for the GL Ecosystem. In the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreemen t (GLWQA) the Canadian and U.S. governments agreed to adopt an ecosystem approach to managing the Great Lakes. Such an approach at the minimum requires an understanding of ecosystem dynamics and an ability to carry out coordinated, ecologically rational policy interventions to accomplish ecosyst em-based goals. Currently the governments are considering a range of options for improving Great La kes management including, potentially, revisions to the GLWQA. We will report on the preliminary result s of our project involving interviews, expert workshops and analysis of in ternational water regimes cente red on questions of governance, accountability, representation, political will, financing and others. We focused on a range of functions required for effective ecosystem based management: leadership, community bu ilding and maintenance, accountability, education, problem scoping and frami ng, and organizational management. We will report on options for improving the functioning of the Great La kes regime and its capacity to manage the Great Lakes ecosystem. Keywords: Ecosystems, Policy making, Management. MANNO, J.P.1, DEPINTO, J.V.2, SMARDON, R.1, CLOYD, E.T.3, and DEL GRANADO, S.M. 1, 1Forestry Drive #1, Syracuse, NY, 13210, US; 2501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108, US; 31717 Pennsylvania Ave. Suite 250, Washington, DC, 20006, US. The Development and Use of Predictive Models in Great Lakes Decision Maki ng: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis. The Great Lakes basin is one of the most m odeled systems in the world. Computer simulation models have been used since the 1970s in several areas including po llution control, fi sh stocking, and water level regulation, and their uses range from increasing the understanding of a system to serving as decision support tools. To examine how computer simulation models were used in decision-making processes, thirty-five interviews were conducted and documents were reviewed in relation to four cases in the Great Lakes in which models were an important feature: Phosphorus loadings (1970s); Mass BalancePCBs (1980s); Lake Ontario Fish Stocking (1990s); a nd Water Level Regulation in Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River (2000s). We found that envi ronmental decision making could be improved by technological advances in modeling and its increasing availability. Sp ecific findings include: planning and managing the modeling process is as important as fo cusing on decreasing outputs uncertainty; managers need to provide clear direction, while modelers mu st be careful not to promise more than can be delivered; model objectives and complexity should be decided and agreed upon; ambiguity at the beginning of a process can undermine chances for succes s; and models should and could constitute spaces for participants deliberation and education. Keywords: Policy making, D ecision making, Model studies.

PAGE 99

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 97 MARCARELLO, K.T. CLEVINGER, C.C., BADE, D.L., and HEATH, R.T., Kent State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent, OH, 44242. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity as an Indicator of P-Limitation in Sandusky Bay/Subbasin. Alkaline phosphatase is an exolytic enzyme ge nerally secreted by bacteria during periods of phosphorus starvation to generate free phosphate groups from dissolv ed organic phosphorus compounds. Thus alkaline phosphatase activity is a good indicator of phosphorus limitation. The purpose of this study was to address the question of P-limitation in th e Sandusky Bay/ Sub-basin ecosystem. Samples were taken from six sites starting upstream (on the Sandusky River) and ending offshore (in Sandusky Subbasin) during the summers of 2006-2007. The sample s were then analyzed for whole water alkaline phosphatase activity using the 4-methylumbellifer yl phosphate method. Generally APA activity was higher earlier in the season, and d eclined later in the season. The 2007 season showed much higher APA activity than did the 200 6 season. The offshore site showed the highest APA activity and could be considered P-Limited, while the bay and river sample s where often not P-limited. From the data collected, no strong correlations could be di scerned with regard to dissolv ed organic phosphorus, or total phosphorus concentrations. Keywords: Phosphorus, Nutrients, Alkaline phosphatase. MARCUS, M.A. and FROST, P.C., Trent University, De partment of Biology, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Suitability of Urban Pond Ecosystems for Zooplankton Growth. Stormwater management ponds (SWMPs) are typical ly built into urban developments to slow the movement of water and to sequester sediments and an thropogenic contaminants coming out of residential areas. These ponds also provide a pote ntially-rich wetland-like habitat for aquatic fauna and flora. We examined the capability of urban ponds to support h ealthy zooplankton populations by measuring growth rates of laboratory Daphnia reared in whole-water samples taken from 38 SWMPs located across southern Ontario, Canada. To assess the po tential drivers of variable Daphnia growth rate, we also measured an array of food parameters and water chemistry variables including total su spended C, chlorophyll a, elemental composition (C:N:P ratios) of suspended materials, the quantity of suspended sediments, temperature, pH, dissolv ed oxygen, and conductivity. Daphnia growth rates varied considerably depending upon the SWMPs providing the whole wa ter. As we found no relationship between Daphnia growth rate and any aspect of food or water chemistry, we are una ble to determine the detrimental agent(s) slowing Daphnia growth. Nevertheless, it does appear that SWMPs should be capable of supporting zooplankton populations as Daphnia grew 50% or greater of their maximum in approximately two thirds of the sampled SWMPs. Keywords: Zooplankton, Urbanization, Stormwater management ponds. MAREK, R.F. 1, MARTINEZ, A.1, NORSTROM, A.K.2, JUST, C.L.1, and HORNBUCKLE, K.C.1, 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineeri ng, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242; 2The Department of Applied Environmental Scie nce, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Assessment of Surficial Sedime nt Hydroxylated PCBs in the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal.

PAGE 100

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 98 Centered in heavily-industrialized East Chicago is the Indiana Harbor a nd Ship Canal. Branching off of the southwestern edge of Lake Michigan, the waterway is known to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and is designated as an Area of Concern by the International Joint Commission. PCBs can be metabolized to the h ydroxylated form (OH-P CBs) by humans and other organisms, and it is probable that PCBs in the se diment are metabolized by microbial activity. This may be a removal mechanism for PCBs in sediment. Alternatively, OH-PCBs ma y come from exogenous sources. Yet OH-PCBs in sediment have not been re ported. We hypothesize that OH-PCBs are present in the contaminated canal and harbor sediment. A method for the extraction and analysis of these OH-PCBs was developed. Herein we present preliminary results of OH-PCB congeners in surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. Keywords: Hydroxylated PCBs, Sediment, Urban areas. MARKLEVITZ, S.A.C. 1, MORBEY, Y.E.1, and FRYER, B.J.2, 1Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON, N6A 5B7; 2Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 40 1 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. The Differentiation of Chinook Salmon in Natal Streams of Lake Huron: The Use of Otolith Microchemistry as a Natural Tag. Chinook salmon were introduced to the Laurentian Great lakes to increase the diversity of angling opportunities in 1873, and have been extensively stocked since 1967. In Lake Huron, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission has supported large scale Ch inook salmon stocking programs since 1968, and the population now consists of wild stream-reared and hatchery-reared fish. Tracking of hatchery salmon traditionally utilized the labor inte nsive method of fin clipping and/or tagging. However, the use of fin clips and tag release studies are not practical met hods of tracking wild populations which spawn in streams throughout the watershed. The obj ective of our study is to differen tiate the stream of origin in Lake Huron Chinook salmon by examining the microche mistry of otoliths. Recent studies have shown relationships between the elemental composition of ot oliths in teleost fish and the environment. The biologically inert and archival properties of the ot olith allow for the analysis of the environmental conditions throughout the life history of an individual fish. We will examine fry collected from various streams of different geological and geographical regions and relate otolith microchemistry to elemental composition of the local water. The information gathered will be used to determine the stream origin of adult Chinook salmon. Keywords: Lake Huron, Salmon, Geochemistry. MARSDEN, J. 1 and ELSTER, M.2, 1Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4, Canada; 2G-17J USEPA Region 5, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL, 60604-3507, US. Remedial Action Plans for Great Lakes Areas of Concer n: Status, Current Issues, and Delisting Outlook. With the most recent signing of the revised Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) in 1987, the governments of Canada and the United Stat es committed to develop and implement Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) for Great Lakes Areas of Con cern (AOCs). Of the forty remaining AOCs, twentyfive are in the U.S., ten are in Canada, and five ar e shared binationally. As de scribed in Annex 2 of the GLWQA, environmental problems in AOCs are addr essed using an ecosystem approach. Restoring impaired Beneficial Uses and delisting an AOC is a process that includes problem definition,

PAGE 101

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 99 development and implementation of remedial actions and monitoring to confirm restoration. Using the same process, RAPs have necessarily evolved to engage state and provincial government agencies and local communities, while the development and imple mentation of the RAPs has occurred in a manner unique to each AOC. RAPs have made significant progr ess, are currently addres sing a variety of issues, and present a range of outlooks for delisting. Keywords: Remediation, Cleanup, Decision making. MARSDEN, J.E. 1, SMITH, S.J.2, and HATT, J.1, 1University of Vermont, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Re sources, Burlington, VT, 5405; 2Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Resources Office, 11 Lincol n St., Essex Junction, VT, 5452. Lake Whitefish and Zebra Mussels in Lake Champlain: One Up, One Down, No Connection? Lake whitefish populations in the Great Lakes ha ve declined recently, in part due to loss of Diporeia and diet shifts to dressenids. The U.S. whitefish commercial fishery in Lake Champlain closed in 1912, but commercial fishing in Quebec waters (M issisquoi Bay) continued until 2004. However, no scientific studies of whitefis h have been conducted since 1931. Diporeia is rare in Lake Champlain, and zebra mussels invaded in 1993. We compiled historic da ta and sampled lake whitefish to assess their population status and examine changes in diet. Commer cial harvest declined st eadily in Missisquoi Bay since the late 1980s; lamprey wounding was high. We samp led adult whitefish in fall using gillnets, and larval whitefish were sampled in spring with an ichthyoplankton net. We found no whitefish adults or larvae at traditional fall commercial fishing sites. Spaw ners and larvae were sampled in high densities at one site; only one adult was found elsewhere. The ag e structure of sampled adults was broad, condition factor was good (mean K = 1.2), and mean GSI was 16% Diets were primarily small gastropods, similar to diets in the 1930s; zebra mussels were consumed very rarely. Whitefish have not apparently been affected by changes in the benthos in Lake Champlain, but spawning stocks appear to have been depleted. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Whitefish, Diets. MARTIN, P. 1, MCDANIEL, T.1, and WILLIAMS, N.2, 1Box 505, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Walpole Heritage Centre, Rural Route 3, Wallaceburg, ON, N8A 4K9. Assessment of Beneficial Use Impairments in a Model Amphibian, Northern Leopard Frogs, in the St. Clair Area of Concern. The St. Clair River between Sarnia and Lake St. Clair and the territory of the Walpole Island First Nation (WIFN) has been designated by the International Joint Commission as an Area of Concern (AOC), due to high levels of contamination in the sediments from present day and histor ical industrial activity, raising questions about potential imp acts to wildlife health. Potential be neficial use impairments (BUIs) to wildlife in the St. Clair AOC incl ude wildlife deformities and reproductive impairments and degradation of wildlife populations as measured by contaminant body burdens. Northern leopard frogs were used as a representative amphibian species to assess these BUIs at sites within a nd upstream of the St. Clair AOC in 2006 and 2007. Survivorship was high and deformity rates were low in leopard frog eggs raised in water from both AOC and upstream sites. Rates of deformitie s of young-of-year frogs exceeded 10% at one site within the AOC. Contaminant body burdens or mercur y, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides were relatively low and were below guideline levels for the pr otection of fish eating wildlife. Testicular ovarian

PAGE 102

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 100 follicles TOFs were found in the testes of some male frogs both within the AOC and upstream sites. Rates of TOFs were significantly higher in AOC sites, and were present in over 50% of frogs at some sites. Keywords: Amphibians, Pollutants, St. Clair River. MARTIN, P. SVERKO, E., and BARRETT, G., Environmen t Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Current-use Flame Retardants in the Eggs and Plasma of American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ) from Southern Ontario. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic compounds that bi oaccumulate through to the highest levels of the food chain. Many studies of PBDE concentrations have focused on fish-eating species of the aquatic food web, howev er eggs of wild peregrine falc ons in Sweden contain among the highest concentrations of PBDEs measured in wildlife. Eggs of Am erican kestrels were collected from nest boxes from the Niagara region to southwestern Ontario. Subsequently, serum samples of sibling hatchlings were collected. Samples were analysed for 8 current-use flame retardants including dechlorane plus (DP). The PBDEs were the hi ghest in total concentration in both egg and plasma, 0.6-15.2 ng/g and 0.08-1.1 ng/mL, respectively. BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 138 and 183 were detected in the eggs, however we did not detect BDEs 138 and 183 in the pl asma. Similarily, no BTBPE was detected in the plasma but measured in the eggs at 0.02.9 ng/g. Both the syn and anti stereois omers of the chlorinated flame retardant, DP, were detected in eggs ra nging from 0.01-0.25 ng/g. The highest egg concentration was measured in the Niagara region, nearest the manufacturer of DP. The spatial pattern for the plasma samples were similar, however only anti-DP was detected. Keywords: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Avian ecology, Terrestrial. MASON, K. 1 and EVANS, D.O.2, 1Golder Associates, 940-6th Ave. SW, Calgary, AB, T2P 3T1; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, 2140 East Ba nk Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. The Influence of Predation by Crayfish on Ov er-wintering Lake Trout Eggs and Recruitment Success in Lake Simcoe. Failure of natural recruitment of lake trout in Lake Simcoe during the past half century has been attributed to deteriorating water quality associated with intensive development of the watershed. Our objective was to evaluate an alternative hypothesis involving changes in the crayfish community and possible consequences for survival of over-wintering lake trout eggs. This hypothesis is not independent of water quality changes because of interactions between habitat qua lity, egg production and predation risk. In laboratory experiments we ev aluated predation by the native crayfish Orconectes virilis (OV) and the presumptive invader O. propinquus (OP). We also tested the in fluence of substrate depth and temperature for predation interact ion effects with OV and OP. Field sampling determined lake wide distributions of OV and OP and densities at well known lake trout spawning sites. OP has largely displaced OV from preferred rocky habitats. In laborat ory tests the much smaller OP was a superior egg predator, especially in deeper substrates and at co lder temperatures. Modeling based on observed densities of OP at spawning sites, observed egg predation rates and known field temperatures, revealed that the entire egg deposition could potentially be cons umed by OP within a fe w weeks after spawning. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Lake trout, Recruitment.

PAGE 103

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 101 MASSON, C. FreshWater Consulting, 341-2 Laird Dr., Toronto, ON, M4G 3T0. The Great Lakes Gordian Knot: Governance for Aquatic Ecosyste m Health, Integrity, and Risk Management. The Parties to the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 hold equal and similar usufructuary rights to the waters of the Great Lakes system; and theref ore share management responsibilities for aquatic ecosystem health, integrity and risk in accordance w ith the 1987 Protocol to the GLWQA. Canada and the United States must act now to formalize a framew ork for agreement accountability, grounded in a public Statement of ethical principles and practices. The Boundary Waters regime is supported by large storage capacities and restricted outflows. The lakes are exhibiting sy mptoms of distur bance precluding a complete understanding of resilien ce. Concomitant loss of ecological goods, services and management options is encouraging a basin-wi de evaluation of ecosystem integrity and socio-economic values. If ecosystem integrity is the ability to self-organise st ructurally when confronted with multiple stressors, then future Great Lakes ecology is uncertain, due to the potential tippi ng point to a less valued, weaklyintegrated state. Managing multiple stresses requires flexible goals, stakeholder intervention guidance and appropriate uses of remaining lowe r quality resources so to avoid catastrophes and irreversible, negative effects. Unequivocal accountability for agreement implementation may sever this Great Lakes Gordian Knot of governance. Keywords: Governance, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Ecosystem integrity. MAY, J.C. 1 and BERTRAM, P.E.2, 1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Associate placed at, U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Pr ogram Office, Chicago, IL, 60604; 2U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL, 60604. Total Areal Extent of Anoxia within the Central Basin of Lake Erie 1997-2007: A Geographic Informat ion System (GIS) Based Analysis. The total areal extent of anoxic conditions within the central basin of Lake Erie was determined for the period between 1997 and 2007. Dissolved oxygen information from the U.S EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office and Environment Canada was us ed to generate a series of GIS maps based on the lowest integrated hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentration for each year. The total area affected by decreased oxygen levels ranged fr om 0% (2004) to 100% (2003) of th e study area, with an average of 68% (S.D.). Annual hypolimnetic volume-correct ed oxygen depletion (HVOD) rates ranged from 2.95 mg/L/mo to 4.10 mg/L/mo, and averaged 3.41 mg/L/m o .32 (S.D.). Individual survey-based maps also illustrate the HVOD progression throughout the summer stratification season. Keywords: Anaerobic conditions, Lake Erie, GIS. MAYER, A. 1, ZIMMERMAN, J.2, MIHELCIC, J.1, OLMSTEAD, S.3, WATKINS, D.1, and ZHANG, J.1, 1Department of Geological & Mining Engineering & Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI; 2Environmental Engineering Program and School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT; 3Department of Civil and Envir onmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI. Modeling and Analyzing the Use, Efficiency, Value, and Governance of Water in the Great Lakes Region Through an Integrated Approach.

PAGE 104

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 102 The objective of the proposed proj ect is to determine the impact of direct and indirect drivers on water quality, quantity, and availabi lity in the Great Lakes (GL) re gion. The project will emphasize quantifying the stocks and flows of fresh water, analyzing the underlying factors affecting water use and allocation decisions, and developing cost frameworks for capturing the value of having a specific amount of water available at a given purity, time, and loca tion. This project will re sult in several advances, including (1)development of modeling approaches to simulate qua ntity and quality in the GL region; (2)creation and testing empirical models of the energy embodied in water delivery and treatment for the GL context;(3)prescription of data and methods required for economic valuation of water resources in major sectors of water use in the GL basin; (4)identification of the most significant current and future withdrawals and consumptive uses of water in the basi n; (5)collection of data on the prices, benefits, and costs of water consumption in major water use sector s; (6)estimates of opport unity costs to determine where water use minimization and elimination will have the most significant and sustainable benefits; and (7)identifying policy innovations to address vulnerabilities in the GL system under future scenarios. Keywords: Regional analysis, Gr eat Lakes basin, Model studies. MCCULLOCH, R.D. 1, DEKKER, T.J.1, BRADLEY, D.1, REDDER, T.M.1, LORD, B.D.1, and KUZIS, K.2, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Environ, 3219 Camrose Lane, Boise, ID, 83706. Innovative Methods in Riverbank Stability Characterization: Classification of the Tittabawassee and Saginaw River Banks. LimnoTech designed and conducted a bank classifi cation survey of 44 mile s of the Saginaw and Tittabawassee Rivers in Michigan to evaluate current bank stability and support the design and implementation, if appropriate, of stabilization technologies that may improve or promote long-term river bank stability. Surveys were design ed to capture significant attri butes, including degree of undercutting and mass wasting, vegetation and other surface cover, st abilizing structures, and physical characteristics such as surface material composition and bank geometry. Over 700 locations were surveyed using handheld GPS data recorders. In additi on, continuous video was shot along both banks of the entire 44 miles of river. The video was linked to a GPS record to allo w rapid, map-driven viewing of any point along the river banks. The data gathered in th e survey will be combined with ex isting information on shear stresses imposed by daily and seasonal chan ges in river flow velocity, river geomorphology, land use and other factors. Survey results will be used to develop a system of scoring er osion potential of river banks. This can be used to extrapolate measurements of bank erosion rate to locations exhibiting similar bank characteristics and as a basis for identifying sites for application of bank st abilization technologies. Keywords: Sediment transport, Watersheds, Great Lakes basin. MCCULLOUGH, G.K. 1, KLING, H.J.2, STAINTON, M.P.3, and BARBER, D.G.1, 1Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Geography, Un iversity of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2; 2Algal Taxonomy and Ecology Inc ., 31 Laval Dr., Winnipeg, MB; 3Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Freshwater Institute, 501 Univer sity Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6. Using Ship-borne Spectral Remote Sensing Reflectance Data to Compa re Accuracy of Chlorophyll Determinations by

PAGE 105

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 103 MODIS, MERIS, and VIIRS Satellite-borne Sensors over a Highly Eutrophic Lake, Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Algal blooms have become of increasing concern to both users and managers of Lake Winnipeg. Chlorophyll (chl) concentrations frequently range up to 70 mg m-3 and are occasionally much higher in surface blooms. Remote sensing offers one means of mapping algal concentrations to monitor lakewide response to planned watershed mana gement action. Here, we use shipborne remote sensing reflectance spectra collected on Lake Winnipeg to simulate MODIS, MERIS and V IIRS data to test algorithms for determination of chl. Blue/green band ratios traditi onally used in chl mapping of Case I waters are very poor predictors of chl in the Case II waters ch aracterizing Lake Winnipeg. MERIS MCI (maximum chl index) and FLH (fluorescence line height ) are the best predictors of chl (r2=0.84 & 0.75 respectively). MERIS FLH is less well-correlated with chl because in cyanobacteria the expected fluorescence peak at 685 nm is frequently overwhelmed by the combined e ffect of phycoeritherin ab sorption near 675 nm and red edge reflectance peak beginning near 700 nm. Consequently the correlation with chl in cyanobacteria is inverse, although it remains (weakly) positive in other algal a ssemblages. Chl in Lake Winnipeg is only weakly predicted by MODIS FLH (r2=0.48) and less well by VIIRS band combinations tested. Keywords: Remote sensing, Phytoplankton, Cyanophyta. MCDONALD, E.A.1, MCNAUGHT, A.S. 1, and ROSEMAN, E.F.2, 1Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859; 2U.S. Geological Survey, Gr eat Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Susceptibility of Larval Fish to Entrainment in the Detroit River. Industrial facilities that withdraw water from surface water bodies may also entrain larval fish. In some cases, data exist on the type and number of larval fish entrained by such facilities and those present in the source water body within the vi cinity of the intake. Our objective wa s to evaluate if susceptibility to entrainment varied among species and over time. Entrainment sample s were collected weekly during April-July 2006 from a facility with a cooling water intake on the Detroit River. Surface and bottom larval fish samples were collected with paired bongo nets (333 and 500 m mesh sizes ) at 2 sites near the facility and 7 additional sites in the Detroit River. An electivity index was used to compare relative abundance of each entrained species with relative abundance of that species in pooled river samples. Yellow perch were susceptible to entrainment, wher eas white sucker, spottail shiners, and trout perch avoided entrainment. Lake whitefish were entrained at rates equal to their abundance in the river. Though abundant in the river, white bass and gizzard shad were absent fr om entrainment samples. Speciesspecific larval behavior, spatial distribution, and river current dynami cs may drive su sceptibility to entrainment in the Detroit River. Keywords: Fish behavior, Detr oit River, Spatial distribution. MCDONALD, K. and TONINGER, R., 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Tommy Thompson Park Torontos Urban Wilderness. Tommy Thompson Park, also known as the Leslie Street Spit, is a man-made peninsula in east Toronto owned and managed by Toronto and Region Conservation. It was created to enhance port facilities and as a cost e ffective way to dispose of harbor dre dgeate and construction materials. Through

PAGE 106

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 104 natural succession processes the park has developed into one of the most significant natural features on the Toronto waterfront and has been designated as an Environmentally Significant Area and a globally significant Important Bird Area. Seeing more than 250,000 visitors annually, with exponential increases expected, the park has been adopted by the local ecological community a nd is an excellent case study of natural habitat in an urban context. The focus of TRCAs work is plannin g, habitat restoration, and research to enhance and preserve this unique urban wilderness, while balancing human activity. Habitat projects, including wetland creati on, reforestation, and meadow enhancements among many others, are ongoing and assist in the restoration of rare or significant plant and animal species. Ongoing collaborative research, including fisheries data as well as radio te lemetry research on both coyotes and northern pike, indicate that the park is regiona lly significant and acts as a source, rather than a sink, for wildlife populations. Keywords: Urban areas, Management, Habitats. MCDONELL, D.J. 1, CREWE, T.L.2, MACKAY, S.3, COUTURIER, A.2, and MCCRACKEN, J.2, 1Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Bird Studies Canada, 115 Front St., P.O. Box 160, Port Rowan, ON, N0E 1M0; 3University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd. East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1. Demonstrating the Ecological Benefits of Ha bitat Restoration in the Canadian Areas of Concern Using Breeding Bird Atlas Data. To date, the Canadian government has c ontributed in excess of $48,000,000 toward habitat restoration and rural pollution reduc tion projects that address environm ental concerns in the Canadian Areas of Concern through the Government of Canada s Great Lakes Sustainability Fund. This work has resulted in the restoration of over 3,640 ha of fore sts and wetlands (4,760 ha protected), 584 km of riparian habitat, 8 km of shoreline, 200 ha of tallgrass prairie and th e mitigation of 27 fish barriers. An attempt to evaluate potential wildlife community ch anges at the landscape level was completed in 2007 using results from the Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (c ollected over a 20 year span). Results from this preliminary study suggest that an in crease in bird community richness (as indicated by metrics such as breeding bird community species richness across vari ous guilds) in several AOC s over the past 20 years suggests that restoration efforts ar e having a positive impact on habitat quality and/or qua ntity. However, further work is required to dis tinguish whether the positive impacts obs erved were the result of a net increase in habitat and/or an increase in the quality of available habitat. Keywords: Assessments, Avian ecology, Biodiversity. MCGAULEY, E.K. Trent University, 1600 West Bank Rd., Peterborough, ON. Wetlands that Work: A Comparative Assessment of the Ecological Potential of Treatment Wetlands Using Macroinvertebrate Indicators. This study compared the macroinve rtebrate diversity and environm ental variables of a treatment wetland with natural wetlands to test the ecological potential of a municipal wastewater treatment wetland in Brighton, Ontario. Macroinvertebra te abundance data were collected by kick and sweep sampling and Hester-Dendy samplers. Environmental variables including depth, plant density, conductivity, total ammonia and dissolved oxygen were measured. Non-me tric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to explore the separation of macroinvertebrate co mmunities with permutational analysis of variance

PAGE 107

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 105 substantiating ordinations. Natural wetlands had significantly different macroinvertebrate communities (p=0.001) at least twice the numbe r of taxa, correspondingly high Simp sons diversity indices, and twice the emergent plant density as treatment wetlands. Functional feeding group affiliations reflected differences between treatment and na tural wetlands, with natural sites dominated by scrapers rather than the collectors found in treatment cells. Environmen tal variables were also significantly different (p=0.015), with higher dissolved ox ygen concentrations in natural wetlands. Depth, conductivity, TKN, and total ammonia were all higher in trea tment cells than in natural wetlands. Keywords: Macroinvertebrates, Assessments, Biodiversity. MCLAUGHLIN, C. Dofasco Centre for Engineering & Public Policy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada. Is Natural Resources Management in the Great Lakes Pathological? Traditional command and control approaches to natural resources management premised on an understanding of ecosystems as clearly defined and relatively simple aim for specific and expected outcomes such as harvest quotas or pollution abatement targets. A large-scale success of this kind is the initial response to measures taken under the 197 2 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement to reverse widespread ecological deteriora tion. The misapplication of these schemes to complex and poorly understood ecosystems often results, however, in human, institutional, or ecosystem behaviors that violate societal norms or expectations. Un certainties inherent in ecosystems present added challenges for Great Lakes management because of deficiencies in the current governance structure. I evaluate evidence that Great Lakes management has suffered historically from what Holling and Meffe (1996) call a pathology using three characteristics of institutions exhibiting such pathological behavior suggested by Briggs (2003), that such institutions: inst igate multiple, often incompatible planning processes; initiate new natural resource management programs repeatedly w ithout evaluating the effectiveness of current or previous programs; and shed responsibility for capac ity-building while developi ng closed cultures that suppress or resist ideas. Keywords: Policy making, Great Lakes basin, Ecosystems. MCNINCH, R.M. VERHOUGSTRAETE, M.P., and ROSE, J.B., Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Using Fecal Indicator, Source Tracking, and GIS Tools to Assess Fecal Contamination in Michigans Waters. The state of Michigan uses indicator bacteria including E. coli, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms to determine the safety of recreational waters, drinking water, and wastewater treatment, respectively. These indicators, however, do not identify the full extent of pathogen contamination or sources of contamination. Therefore, the use of alternative indicators, actual pa thogen testing, and microbial source tracking have been used to iden tify sources and prevent further c ontamination of ground or surface waters. Our lab investigates watersheds across Michigan in order to better understand the inputs that affect the state and to identify mo re accurate alternative indicators We used a combination of the previously noted tools to sample surface waters of the St. Marys River near Sault Saint Marie, Silver Lake, the Muskegon Waste Water Treatment Plant, Co ldwater Creek near Freeport, and the Saginaw Bay. These sites were chosen and sampled in response to a water quality concern such as increased algal blooms, decreased water clarity, or exceeded effluent standard. The alternative i ndicator results identified

PAGE 108

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 106 potential impacts that, given the use of only Michigans standard indicators, would not have been detected. ArcGIS software was used to map water qua lity sampling sites for se veral of these projects. Keywords: Water quality, Mi crobiological studies, GIS. MCPHERSON, M.M.1 and DAHL, T.A. 2, 1U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 609 Second St., Davis, CA, 95616; 2U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 477 Michigan Ave., Detroit, MI, 48226. Modeling the Routing of Water through the Upper Great Lakes Using HEC-RAS. Current methods used for water quantity accoun ting and routing through the Great Lakes rely on empirically derived equations. As an alternative methodology, unsteady flow simulations using the HECRAS one-dimensional hydraulic model can be calibrate d to compute discharges in the Great Lakes connecting channels. Recent change s to HEC-RAS have allowed the embedding of the Lake Superior regulation plan in the model. Modeling the lakes as storage areas with input time-series of water-balance data allows a practical meshing of hydraulic and hydrologic modeling for routing periods of up to 30 years. The different sequences of re sulting lake levels and connecting ch annel flows, from simulations of alternative hydraulic characteristics or inflow data, are stored in the HEC-DSS format and can be easily compared to evaluate the effect of various study objectives. Since HEC-RAS and HEC-DSS are available for free and have existing large user bases, this ability may have wi de application for many within the Great Lakes research community. Keywords: Model studies, St Clair River, Lake management. MEEK, G.A. 1 and CROWE, A.S.2, 1School of Geography and Earth Sc iences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1; 2Environment Canada, Canada Centre fo r Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Role of Groundwater-lake Interaction on E. coli Levels at Beaches of the Great Lakes. E. coli, often at levels 1,000 times greater than fo und in nearshore lake-water, are frequently detected in groundwater below beaches within a few metres of the shore. Groundwater is a potential mechanism for delivery of E. coli to the shorelin e and storage of E. coli here. Given the large numbers of septic systems at beach front residences, and that groundwater flow beneath beach es is toward the lake throughout the year, it is possible that septic system may be a source of E. coli. However, our studies provide no evidence that E. coli is migrating from septic systems via groundwater flow beneath beaches to the shoreline. Our field and modeling studies do indicate that the source of the high levels of E. coli found in the groundwater below the beach at the shoreline is the adjacent lake. During a storm, wave runup across the shore causes lake water and associated E. coli to infiltrate to groundwater beneath the shore. The rapid infiltration raises the water table at the s hore, causing a localized reversal in the direction of groundwater flow. This local ized reversal restricts E. coli migration into the beach to several metres from the shoreline. A single storm event can cause large numbers of E. coli from the lake water to infiltrate into the subsurface at the shore and re produce the observed levels of E. coli. Keywords: Coasts, Beaches, Water quality, Microbiological studies, E. coli. MELYMUK, L.E. 1, ROBSON, M.E.1, GILBERT, B.2, HELM, P.2, and DIAMOND, M.L.1, 1University of Toronto, 45 St. George St ., Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125

PAGE 109

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 107 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Comparison of Chemical Prof iles in Urban Rivers during Base Flow and Storm Events. It is now widely acknowledged that large urban centers such as the Gr eater Toronto Area (GTA) are sources of a range of pollutant s to the wider environment. One pa thway through which this occurs is via the movement of pollutants into and through ur ban waterways. To investigate this aspect of contaminant transport and loadings to Lake Ontario, bulk stream water samples were collected from ten stream sites in the GTA, representing 6 watersheds with varying degrees of urban development. The samples were collected during base flow and stor m events. Additionally, more detailed sampling was conducted over the course of the hydrograph at one urban and one s uburban site, in order to better characterize chemical loadings during these events. Sa mples were analyzed for water quality indicators, including nutrients, chloride, and tu rbidity, as well as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). A comparison of the trends across the different watershe ds and differing land uses can provide insight into the factors and sources influencing the transport of metals and POPs through urban areas. Keywords: Urban watersheds, Toxic substances, Tributaries. METCALFE, B.W. 1, LA ROSE, J.K.L.1, and WILLOX, C.C.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 Hedge Road, RR#2, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aquatic Scien ce Unit, 26465 Hedge Road, RR#2, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0. Assessing Nearshore Small-fish Comm unity Biodiversity in Lake Simcoe. In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resour ces, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, began developing a sampling method to monitor small fish biodiversity in the nearshore zone of Lake Simcoe. This ongoing project seeks to assess trends in fish diversity th rough time. Long-term biodiversity monitoring of this kind will enable comprehensiv e reporting on the Lake Simcoe fish community. Additional objectives of this prog ram include detecting the presence of new aquatic invasive species and measuring their impact on the fish community. Nearshore small fish sampling in 2006 and 2007 used multiple gear types to sample a range of nearshore habitats in Lake Simcoe. We will describe the diversity of the nearshore fish community, examine sampling effort levels required to adequately characterize the nearshore community, and compare the current state of nearshore diversity with assessments conducted 20 years prior. Preliminary results confirm the presence of many nativ e and non-native fish species along Lake Simcoes shoreline, including the recently introduced round goby ( Neogobius melanostomus), and suggest substantial changes in a bundance of some cyprinid species may have occurred over the past 2 decades. Keywords: Biodiversity, Small fish, Lake Simcoe. MIDWOOD, J.D. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univ ersity, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Automated Approach Using Definiens Deve loper 7.0 for Classification of Aquatic Vegetation in the Coastal Wetlands of Georgian Bay. The pristine coastal wetlands of eastern Geor gian Bay are under threat due to increased development. It is only possible to map these regions for conservation using remotely sensed data. Here we present a technique for classify ing wetland coverage into open wate r, rock, and 4 vegetation classes

PAGE 110

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 108 using Definiens Developer 7 software. This software allows for a hierarchical analysis, grouping similar class types (vegetation) into larger regions and within these groups se parate specific types (floating or emergent). Multiple iterations allow us to refine our classification to increase the accuracy. Work in our lab has shown that IKONOS satellite images can be used to map aquatic vegetation but previous techniques relied purely on differences in spectral signature and required extensive field data to train the computer. Although there is a large i nvestment in time and money for the initial creation of the Definiens pathway, the final decision tree is easily applied to newly acquired images with minimal user input, essentially automating the process for end users. Au tomation allows us to qui ckly update our wetland inventory to include vegetation c overage information. Once a baseline is established for vegetation coverage, it will be easy to update our inventory a nd track changes which may occur due to fluctuating water levels. Keywords: Remote sensing, Georgian Bay, Coastal wetlands. MIKODA, P. 1, WESELOH, D.V.2, and PEKARIK, C.3, 1Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, Environment Canada, Canada Centre for In land Waters, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, Environment Canada 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4; 3Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontari o Region, Environment Canada, 335 River Rd., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3. Satellite Tracking of Breeding Great Blac k-backed Gulls from Eastern Lake Ontario. Recent increases in great black-backed gull ( Larus marinus ) (GBBG) nestings in eastern Lake Ontario over the last decade prompted us to examin e their annual movements. In 2002, two adult GBBGs from different nests were captured on Pigeon Island (44.07, -76.55) and affixed with satellite transmitters. General migration patterns, breeding season, and overwintering locations and range s as well as nocturnal movements were evaluated using these data. The birds general pattern of movement was to remain near the breeding colony from April until August, during which time Pigeon Island G BBGs consistently flew 40-45 km to the Bay of Quinte on what is assumed to be foraging trips. Interestingly, they were also making these trips at night, which is a new insight into the ecology of these birds. After breeding, the birds travel south to the Rochester, N.Y. area, where they stayed until late December. They then traveled to Niagara Falls for a week or two before continui ng south-west to the Cleveland area to spend the remainder of the winter. Birds began heading back to the breeding colony in early March to arrive there for April. Both birds occupied similar, overlappi ng ranges during the winter of 2003. In the winter of 2004, the one remaining transmitting bird spent a good por tion of time wintering in Sandusky, rather than Cleveland. Keywords: Avian ecology, Life hi story studies, Great Lakes basin. MILFORD, L. BATES, S., and LANDRIAULT, L., Ministry of Natural Resources, Lands & Waters Branch 300 Water St. 5th Floor South, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. A Tiered Water Budget Approach. The Ontario government has introduc ed legislation to pr otect municipal drinki ng water supplies at the source through the Clean Water Act (2006). A tiered approach to the preparation of watershed-based water budgets has been developed and is currently be ing applied across the Province. The key objective of the water budget is to provide an understanding of the water supply, demand and consumptive uses. The framework for the tiered approach to water budget consists of four leve ls; the first level a Conceptual

PAGE 111

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 109 Understanding is followed by an additional three tiers which may range in scale from a broad watershed level down to a localized area around a municipal water intake. Each tier involves a more detailed analysis of the interaction betw een groundwater and surface water res ources which increases certainty. The tier of water budget analysis requi red in each of the watershed areas is dependent on a level of stress based on the relationship between supply and demand and a water reserve. This presentation will highlight on-going watershed-based water budget work and will demonstrate how the tiered approach has been applied to specific regions. Keywords: Drinking water, Watersheds, Water budget. MILJKOVIC, N. Univ. of Vienna, Fac. of Life Sciences., Depart. of Theoretical Biol., Section Anat. & Morph., Althanstrasse 14, Vienna, A-1090, Austria. Analyses of Morphological Variation in the Gobiid Neogobius melanostomus A Comparison of Populations from Original European and Invaded North American Habitats. Bioinvasion modes are interlinked with indus trialization and human population growth. The situation in the Laurentian Great Lakes area started to deteriorate in the 19th century, with construction of canals and the St. Lawrence Seaway some 50 years ago. One of the most successful transatlantic invaders to the Great Lakes is the Eurasian round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, native to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The round goby is supposed to have trave lled via contaminated ballast waters of tankers due to its ability to survive extremely degraded water quality. Nevertheless, the situation in Europe is similarly crucial as for decades it is spreading throughout Europe as well. Variations of several meristic values highlight its adaptation speed to a non-native habitat, possibly also acc ounting for building of subpopulations. Studies on Eur opean populations of N. melanostomus show that the original populations possess very high intraspecific variat ion potential and high morphological plasticity. Our recent studies on morphological features such as fin ray counts and s calation of over 450 individu als do not result in the same findings. Moreover, we detect ed meristical variations comp aring alien Canadian and U.S. populations. Keywords: Biological invasions, Neogobius melanostomus, Round goby, Morphological variation, Invasive species, Black Sea. MILLER, B. 1, FACKLER, J.1, MANKIN, P.1, HORVATIN, P.J.2, ANDREN, A.3, and BRANDT, S.B.4, 11101 W. Peabody Dr., 350 National Soybean Res earch Center, MC-635, Urbana, IL, 61801; 277 W. Jackson Blvd. (G-17J), Chicago, IL, 60604-3511; 31975 Willow Dr., Madison, WI, 53706-1177; 42205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2945. Great Lakes Regional Research Information Network Lake Michigan. NOAA requested regional development plans for U. S. coastal, ocean, and Great Lakes areas. The Great Lakes Regional Research Info rmation Network (GLRRIN) is deve loping a comprehensive research and information plan that will help focus research, technology transfer, and outreach efforts on the highest priority issues within the Great La kes region. The Network consists of five teams, each focusing on one of the Great Lakes. The Lake Michigan team compiled a comprehensive lis t of organizations with a strong interest in Lake Michigan. The results indicate that ecosystem, pollutants, education, aquatic invasive species, and water issues were the top five priorities for the majority of the organizations. The Lake Michigan team concluded that specific research projec ts needed to address problems in the topic areas are

PAGE 112

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 110 dynamic and are expected to change frequently as new discoveries are made and new problems arise. Further coordination among the agenci es and institutions sponsoring and conducting research is needed to prioritize specific research questions and distribute agency attention a nd resources to these questions as conditions change. The implementation phase of this pr oject will engage scientis ts and funders in finding solutions to our Lake Michigan priority research issues. Keywords: Data acquisition, Decision making, Lake Michigan. MILLIGAN, M.S. 1, KROON, B.1, ORCHARD, A.1, HOLSEN, T.M.2, CRIMMINS, B.2, PAGANO, J.J.3, and SUMNER, G.3, 1SUNY Fredonia, Fre donia, NY, 14063; 2Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699; 3SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, 13126. Analysis of PCDD/F and WHO Coplanar PCBs in Great Lakes Fish. As part of the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Prog ram, we are analyzing w hole fish composites and fish fillets collected at different sites from all five of the Great Lakes for a suite of contaminants such as Hg, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PBDEs, and PCDD/Fs. In this contribution, we will report on fish concentrations of PCDD/F homologue s and the twelve coplanar PCBs designated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Five gram fish homogenates ar e extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), followed by preliminary clean-up using automated gel permeation chromatography. After multilayer silica column clean-up, PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs are isolated using dual-layer carbon column fractionation. The final extracts are then analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As an example, 2004 Lake Michigan Trout (n = 8) were m easured to have an average of 231 61 ng/g of WHO coplanar PCBs, with the most abundant congeners being PCB-118 > PCB-105 > PCB-123 > PCB-156. Average total PCDD/F for these same samples we re measured to be 6.9 1.4 ng/g, whose homologue pattern was dominated by the lower chlorinated dibenz ofurans (tetraand penta-). Additional results will be presented for fish tissue collected from all five Great Lakes. Keywords: Environmental contaminants, PCBs, Fish toxins. MINNS, C.K. 1, SHUTER, B.J.2, and TRUMPICKAS, J.2, 1Bayfield Institute (GLLFAS)(DFO), PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Research (OMNR), 300 Water St., Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Modeling Great Lakes Surface Temperatures and Predicting Future Values with Climate Change. The strength of monito ring programs lies in their consistency, duration, and how their results are used. The last feature is often neglected. Surface water temperature is routinely monitored around the Great Lakes via water intakes, inde x sites, synoptic surveys, and remo te sensing. Temperature is a key factor in biological productiv ity, particularly of fisheries, and sets the rate of many ecosystem processes. During open water, surface temperature typically exhibits a linear warming through the spring, rising to a peak mid-summer, followed by a linear cooling into th e fall. Analyses of lake-wide and area means, and intake temperatures around the Grea t Lakes, indicate the warming and c ooling rates vary little by location while the peak values vary among years. The timing of the peak varies little. Hence, by location, the length of the growing season and the maximum summer surface temperature are strongly linked. Location characteristics strongly influence warming and coo ling rates while peak temp eratures are linked to

PAGE 113

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 111 climate. Predictions of climate change from the Canadian CGMC2 model under different scenarios are used to estimate future surface temperatures. Subs tantial temperature increas es maybe expected with consequences for ecosystem processes and fisheries. The implications for future monitoring are assessed. Keywords: Climate change, Grea t Lakes basin, Ecosystem modeling. MOLOT, L.A. 1, LI, G.2, FINDLAY, D.L.3, and WATSON, S.B.4, 1Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3; 2Dept. of Geography, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3; 3Freshwater Institute, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6; 4National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Iron Regulation of Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria Abundance. Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria remain a global problem in lakes and rivers receiving excessive amounts of nutrients despite major in vestments in phosphorus control stra tegies in many countries. While numerous hypotheses have been advanced, there is no clear understanding of why these cyanobacteria typically dominate productive, nutrient-rich (eutrophic) wate rs or why they are rare in unproductive, lownutrient (oligotrophic) waters wh ere biological productivity is usually limited by low levels of phosphorus. An experiment in fertilized Lake 227 in the Experime ntal Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario showed that formation of a cyanobacteria l bloom was prevented by reducing access to ferrous iron despite elevated concentrations of other forms of iron. It appears that iron-limitation explains their absence in oligotrophic waters be cause of typically low ferrous supply rates. Work is ongoing in Hamilton Harbour in Lake Ontario to assess the re lationship of blooms in these waters to the bioavailability of iron. The ferrous iron limitation mode l has major implications for improved control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters. Keywords: Cyanophyta, Iron, Phytoplankton. MONTGOMERY, K.E. and FREEMAN, A.D., 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Aligning Remedial Action Plans with Watershed Plans, Is It a Good Idea? The Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan (TORRAP) has always adopted a watershed based approach. With its size, complexity of governance and the 3 million plus people living in this fast growing area, the ultimate success of this RAP will be no small feat. A lot has changed since the Stage 1 Report (1988) defined this Area of Concer n to include the waterfront and th e adjacent drainage basins. In 1988, watershed planning was in its early stages, the St ate of the Ecosystem for the Don River Watershed (1992) was the first move toward planning at a scale appropriate to improve e nvironmental conditions in this region. Plans for each of the watersheds within Area of Concern have been developed and now, the next evolution in watershed pla nning, integrated watershed manage ment is on-going. The RAP program focuses on the endpoint with the ob jective of working on a problem, fi xing it so that the action can be completed. This process lends itself best to deali ng with point source problems, whereas the issues impacting this region stem from non-point sources; often there is no clear-cut fix and the solution is continual vigilance. The question remains for the TORRAP: how to be st work within the RAP program, with its push for delisting, when we are dealing with issues that do not have short-term solutions? Keywords: Urban areas, Urban watersheds, Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan.

PAGE 114

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 112 MOORE, D.J. 1, WESELOH, D.V.2, and PEKARIK, C.1, 1Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4. Competition within Treeand Ground-nesting Guilds and Serial Replacement of Species at Great Lakes Waterbird Colonies. We use historical changes in colonial waterb ird numbers and nest di stributions at Hamilton Harbour, ON (HH) as a case study to examine whet her breeding colonies pa ss through predictable successional stages. The pattern of se rial replacement of ground nesting species, repeated at a number of sites within HH, was as follows: (1) common terns, (2) ring-billed gulls, (3) herring gulls, and (4) doublecrested cormorants (DCCOs). For tree nesting speci es, the following temporal patterns have been observed repeatedly: (1) colonizatio n by black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs), (2) reduced BCNH nest heights as DCCO density increased, (3) movement of BCNHs to smaller trees and shrubs, (4) abandonment of the site by BCNHs, and (5) increased ground nesting by DCCOs as nest trees die. The observed patterns are likely driven by competitio n for nesting space (within treeand ground nesting guilds) and changes in plant community structure, brought about, in part, by the nesting activity of the various birds. We present data on nest-site comp etition among tree-nesting herons, egrets, BCNHs and DCCOs and review evidence for competition among ground-nesting species. These natural processes have important implications for waterbird management and conservation. Keywords: Avian ecology, Species diversity, Biodiversity. MORBEY, Y.E. 1, ANDERSON, D.M.1, and HENDERSON, B.A.1, 1Aquatic Research and Development, Owen Sound, ON, N4K2Z1; 2University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N5A5B7. Progress Toward the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) in South Bay, Lake Huron. We evaluated the status of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush rehabilitation in South Bay, Lake Huron from 2001-2006. Standardized surveys were c onducted to quantify natura l recruitment, annual mortality, and the contribution of wildversus hatche ry-origin lake trout. Some indicators suggest a high level of natural recruitment. The spawning population was comprised of multiple ages, and the mean age of spawners (8.4 years for females, 7.9 years for males) was at least one year older than the estimated age at 50% maturity (5.8 years). Estimated annual total mortality rates (0.20 0.25) and sea-lamprey induced mortality rates (0.02) were less than maximum allo wable values. Finally, th e proportion of wild-origin fish captured was high among spawners (42%-88%, depe nding on the survey method). A strong year class (1997) could be tracked from 2001 to 2005, with few fish captured from earlier or later year classes. We speculate on reasons for low natural r ecruitment from the 1999-2001 year classes. Keywords: Fish populations, Lake Huron, Lake trout. MUIR, D.C.G.1, HOWARD, P.2, and SMITH, E. 3, 1Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Syracuse Research Corpor ation, 301 Plainfield Rd., Suite 350, Syracuse, NY, 13212; 3U.S. Environmental Protection Ag ency, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago,

PAGE 115

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 113 IL, 60604. Developing Analytical Methodology for P, B, and T substances A Systematic Process for Identification of Important Ch emicals in the Great Lakes Basin. Tens of thousands of chemicals are used comm ercially in the United States, Canada, and other countries of the world. Frequently, the chemicals that become environmental contaminants and PBT chemicals are only detected after decades of commercial use. Part of the reason for this is that analytical chemists often find it difficult to detect chemicals th at they are not anticipati ng. This project provides analytical chemists with a prioritized list of chemicals for which to develop new analytical methods. The toxicity of the priority list is also being assessed. This project screened high and medium production substances from a combined Canadian Domestic Substances List and th e U.S. TSCA Inventory for P, B, and T characteristics. A short list of substances was developed a nd analyzed for available methods. Keywords: Monitoring, Great Lakes basin, PBTs. MUIR, T.A. Environment Canada Retired, 70 To wnsend Ave., Burlington, ON, L7T 1Y7. On the Need for Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Annex 11 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreemen t calls for health indicators to help evaluate the achievement of Annex 1 Speci fic Objectives, including, the vi rtual elimination of PTSs, and consideration of interactive toxic e ffects of combinations of substances on aquatic, animal or human life. No PTS has been virtually eliminated, and new ones are on the rise. Wildlife and humans mirror a variety of endocrine, metabolic, reproductive, developmental, and cancer effects, sugges ting relevant indicators. Monitoring is on trends in pollutant concentrations, but no formalized monitoring program of such health indicators exists. Instead, the Parties use risk assessment comparing exposure estimates to toxicological model effects levels for single substances. However, emerging evidence indicates that binary and complex mixtures are most often at least dos e additive. There are discordant results between toxicological studies and epidemiology, including some animal experiments. Toxicology often shows a large margin of exposure between experimental mo del effects and human exposure (e.g., uM compared to nM). Epidemiological models may report si gnificant effects in humans at real -world exposures or body burdens of nM levels. Mixtures, susceptibil ity, and discordance challenge the Pa rties to develop health indicators for the real world. Keywords: Human health, Envir onmental health, Risk assessment. MURPHY, E.W. 1, NETTESHEIM, T.G.1, ZUCCARINO-CROWE, C.M.2, ZINTEK, L.3, BARBER, L.B.4, LAZORCHAK, J.M.5, BATT, A.L.5, MILLS, M.A.6, RICE, C.P.7, LOZANO, N.7, SHOENFUSS, H.L.8, LORDI, D.T.9, MINARIK, T.9, and STAHL, L.10, 1Great Lakes National Program Office, U.S. Environmental Progection Agency, Chicago, IL; 2O.R.I.S.E. Associate placed at, U.S. Environmental Progection Agency Great Lakes Nati onal Program Office, Chicago, IL; 3Chicago Regional Lab, U.S. Environmental Progection Agency, Chicago, IL; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; 5Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Res earch Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH; 6Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Pr otection Agency, Cincinnati, OH; 7Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu lture, Beltsville, MD; 8St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN; 9Research and Development, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Cicero, IL; 10Office of

PAGE 116

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 114 Water, U.S. Environmental Prot ection Agency, Washington, DC. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), Hormones, and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEs) in the North Shore Channel of the Chicago River Part 1: Concentrations in Fish Tissue and Analysis of Reproductive Impairment U.S. EPA's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) developed a study on the North Shore Channel to supplement the U.S. EPAs Office of Wate rs national study of PPCPs in fish tissue that is determining the occurrence of 39 PPCP s in composited fish fillets and liver samples from five sites (plus one reference site) where waters are dominated by waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The supplemental study on the North Shore Channel is a co llaborative partnership between several Federal Agencies, Universities, and City Departments to (1 ) determine if there is reproductive impairment to resident fish and (2) document seasonal differences in concentrations of these compounds in fish. Preliminary results suggest that some male fish do have measurable levels of vite llogenin (vtg) but that no intesex or other severe pathologi cal conditions were found at reference or regul ar collection sites. Additional results to be shared in clude measured concentrations of Nonyl & Octyl Phenol Ethoxylates and selected PPCPs as they relate to seasonal va riability and comparison of these compounds between supplemental study samples and the national study samples. Keywords: PPCPs, Fish Reproduction, Wastewater. MURPHY, S.C. 1, COLLINS, N.C.1, and DOKA, S.E.2, 1University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, ON; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great La kes Laboratory for Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, Burlington, ON. Seasonal and Interannual Variation in Growth Rates of Pumpkinseed and Largemouth Bass in Lake Ontario Embayments. In this study, which focuses on young of the year largemouth bass and pumpkinseed along the northwest shoreline of Lake Ontario, we report how seasonal and interannual gr owth rates vary between embayments and contrast their observed end of seas on growth with published growth rates of largemouth bass and pumpkinseed in nearby smaller inland lakes. We have found that unlike other largemouth bass populations, those that reside in emba yments are not switching to piscivor y in their first year of life and pumpkinseed growth is stunted; bot h of which may be possible symptoms of pressures reducing their early growth that are created by residing in an em bayment connected to a large cold water body. Thermal regimes, diet, food availability, a nd sediment contamination are critic ally examined to try and explain these unusual findings. Keywords: Wetlands, Lake Ontario, Fish diets. NALBONE, J.S. Great Lakes United, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Casse ty Hall-Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY, 14222. Stopping the Next Zebra Mussel: 20 Years Later, Policy Gaps Remain. The zebra mussel invasion led to significant cha nges in legislation and policies managing ballast water of ocean vessels in the Un ited States and Canada. However 20 years after the invasion, existing regulations still would no t have been effective in stopping the zebra mussel from establishing. Recent crises associated with the VHS virus raise new concerns with ensuring ballast is not a vector for viruses and pathogens. And recent research has raised the prof ile of hulls as a possible source of invasive species. This session will focus on the current status of pe nding ballast water legislati on, whether it will stop the

PAGE 117

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 115 next zebra mussel and how far it goes addressing recent developments surrounding viruses and hulls. Additional issues to be discussed include controversie s associated with state ve rsus federal rights and Coast Guard versus Environmental Protection Agency lead ership, as well as setti ng regulations for coastal and laker voyages between the United States and Canada. Keywords: Ballast, Dreissena, Policy making. NALEPA, T.F. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, NOAA, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48103, US. A Chronological Perspective on Ecol ogical Impacts of Dreissenids in the Great Lakes: Some Expected and Unexpected Outcomes. Just a few years after Dreissena (zebra and quagga mussel) first became established and rapidly increased in North America, it became obvious that these organisms would have a profound impact on the Great Lakes ecosystem. Some impacts were immediate and may have been predicted from the European literature, such as an increase in water clarity, a d ecrease in phytoplankton, a nd the loss of native mussels. Even so, achieved population densities led to changes that far exceeded expectations. Some impacts took longer to recognize and were mostly unpredicted. Exam ples include the complete disappearance of the amphipod Diporeia spp., an increase in blooms of Microcystis and the extensive growth of nearshore mats of Cladophora. Dreissenids have been indirectly implicated in the return of Hexagenia to western Lake Erie, the expansion of the central Lake Erie hypoxic zone, and an increas e in avian botulism, but research is needed or is underway to fully deve lop these relationships. One of the greatest unexpected surprises was the population expansion and high densities of quagga mussel profunda in deeper waters of many of the lakes. As a result, dreissenid impacts on the Great Lakes ecosystem are still evolving, and ultimate consequences have yet to be realized. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Zoobenthos, Dreissena. NEESON, T.M. ADLERSTEIN, S.A., and WILEY, M.J., School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. River Network Structure Influences Sea Lamprey Distribution in a Simple Model. River network structure is emerging as a possibl e important determinant of habitat and population dynamics for many riverine sp ecies. Adult sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) base movement decisions during their upstream spawning runs on the concentration of a larval pheromone and the relative sizes of confluent tributaries. As a result, spatial patterns of sea lamprey distribution w ithin a watershed exhibit hallmarks of a complex adaptive system that depends on the structure of the river network. We used a simple individual based model to test the hypothesis that la mprey aggregation is positively correlated with river network diameter. Model predic tions are consistent with the hypothe sis. We also used the model to explore outcomes from management scenarios, in cluding dam removal to restore stream habitat and pheromone release for lamprey control. We discuss our progress in using larv al density patterns from routine field assessments to validate the out comes of our model, and how our hypotheses may complement existing knowledge of in-stream sea lamprey dynamics. Keywords: Sea lamprey, Individual based model, River network structure.

PAGE 118

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 116 NEESON, T.M. ADLERSTEIN, S.A., and WILEY, M.J., School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Regression Tree Modeling of Sea Lamprey Ammocoete Habitat in Michigan Rivers. The habitat of sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) ammocoetes is well defined by substrate preferences, and the amount of suita ble habitat plays a central role in estimating larval abundance and ranking streams for annual lampricide control. Rive rscapes and sediment transport are controlled by multiple processes with potential thresholds and compli cated interactions, with th e result that they may be difficult to model with linear regression. We used regression trees to build predictive models of sea lamprey ammocoete habitat for rivers in Michigans lower peninsula. We used substrate data (~6,000 transects) collected during routine larval assessment surveys and GIS-derived variables stream power, riparian corridor surficia l geology and land use, and low flow yield. We constructed three regression trees, with splits based on 1) latitude and longitude, 2) the fitted regression response, and 3) both latitude/longitude and fitted regression response. Inferring causal re lationships from the final trees was difficult. We discuss the extent to which our tree splits match publis hed ecoregions an d the functional forms of causal geomorphic relationships. Keywords: Habitats, GIS, Spatial distribution. NEKOUEE, N. 1, ROBERTS, P.1, SCHWAB, D.J.2, and MCCORMICK, M.J.2, 1School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. 3D Numerical Prediction of the Grand River Plume. The nearshore behavior of the Grand River plume as it enters Lake Michigan is modeled in three dimensions. Simulation of the mixing and transport mech anisms in the near field and transition to far field is of particular concern. Far field mo dels typically incorporate grid sizes that are larger than the scale of near field processes by orders of magnitude. Hence, predictive capability is usually sought by refining the far field model grid size or coupli ng the far field model with a near field model. In this study, the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used to simulate the dispersion of the Grand River plume near the local beaches with a grid size of 100 m in a 24 x 6 km domain. The open water boundary conditions are obtained from a whole-lake hydrodynamic simulation wi th a 2 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with extensive the field observations to determine the extent to which the model can simulate the near field processes and hence the need for either further refining the model grid or coupling it with a separate near field model. The results of this research will improve numerical modeling of nearshore water quality. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Human health, Computer models. NELSON, W.H. 1, POULTON, N.J.2, and PETERSON, K.A.1, 1Fluid Imaging Technologies, 65 Forest Falls Dr., Yarmouth, ME, 4096, USA; 2Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, Boothbay Harbor, ME, 4575, USA. An Evaluation of Viability Assays Usin g a Continuous Imaging Particle Analyzer (FlowCAM) for Ballast Water Analysis and Regulatory Compliance. The FlowCAM, an imaging particle analyzer, is an instrument used for rapid plankton detection and analysis, with the abili ty to detect auto-fluorescence (chlorophyl l) or stain-induced-fluorescence in organisms. The fluorescence is used as a trigger for a camera to capture images of target organisms

PAGE 119

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 117 within a sample. The FlowCAM adds a unique capability to the ballast water monitoring process by using different stains to determine the viability of organisms in ballast water. Compared to traditional microscopic methods which are labo rious and plagued by operator error, the value of FlowCAM lies in the immediate feedback the user receives with regard to viability. We present resu lts of different viability assays using the FlowCAM, using bot h fluorescent and visual stains, in order to determine how effective these assays are at detecting viab le organisms in ballast water. Keywords: Invasive species, Phytoplankton, Biological invasions. NGHIEM, S.V.1 and LESHKEVICH, G. 2, 1JPL/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA, 91109; 2NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Res earch Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Using Satellite Scatterometer Data to Map and Monitor Variations in Great Lakes Ice Cover. Ice cover in the Great Lakes ha s a major impact on commerce and public safety, and is a sensitive index of regional winter climate. Recent studies, based on observed annual maximum ice cover (AMIC) from 1963 to 2002, found it was at a maximum of 97.4% in 1979 and a minimum of 14.8% in 2002. Winter 2002 set a new record low AMIC, while duri ng winter 2003, three of the Great Lakes froze over for the first time in nearly a decade. The large spatial and high temporal coverage of satellite scatterometer measurements with its all-weather, day/nigh t sensing capabilities make it well suited to map and monitor Great Lakes ice cover to extend the historical climatological record. The SeaWinds scatterometer (Ku-band) on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT) has been collecti ng backscatter data over the world continuously since its launch in June 1999 and can cover most of the Great Lakes two times per day. Results of ice cover freeze-up and break-up da tes observed by QSCAT over large lakes in North America and Europe show similari ty between ice cover response and indicate that ice freezeup date, breakup date, and ice cover duration are appropriate inte grated indicators of clim atic conditions over the hemispheric scale. Keywords: Remote sensing, Ice, Monitoring. NGUYEN, V.T. and LAMB, K.G., Department of Applie d Mathematics, Univ ersity of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinea r Internal Waves Generated by Wind Forcing over a Surface of Lake Erie. Wind blowing over a lake surface transfers mechan ical energy to basin-scale motions from which it cascades to the smallest scales of motion in a stratified lake. These motions include basin-scale internal waves driven by temporal variations in wind stress and basin-scale mean circulation driven by spatial variations in wind stress. The intern al waves are responsible for redistri bution of nutrients, pollutants, and sediments. Since basin-scale internal waves are the pr edominant source of energy for small scale internal wave, the correct modeling of lake mixing and transport requires ac curate modeling of basin-scale internal waves. Modeling of basi n-scale internal waves using threedimensional hydrostatic models has been carried out by many authors. Nonlinearity results in the transfer of some of the energy in basin-scale waves to high frequency, nonlinear, nonhydrostatic waves. This transfer and consequentia l shoaling and breaking cannot be modeled with a hydrostatic model. In this study, a fully nonhydrostatic, threedimensional model, the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) (Marshall et al. 1997) is used to

PAGE 120

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 118 simulate the basin-scale internal waves generated by wind-induced forcing on the surface of the Lake Erie. Keywords: Lake Erie, Waves, Mathematic al models, Basin-scale internal waves. ODONNELL, D.M. 1, QUARING, G.F.1, SPADA, M.E.1, STRAIT, C.M.1, EFFLER, S.W.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Spectral Measurements of Absorption, Beam Attenuation, and Backscattering Coefficients, and Remote Sensing Reflectance in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. An optics survey of Lake Ontario (August 2007) and Lake Erie (September 2007) was conducted to characterize the underwater light field and the coupled water-leavi ng optical signal. Instrumentation measurements at 7 sites in Lake Ontario and 14 site s in the central and western basins of Lake Erie included: (1) Spectral absorption, beam atte nuation, and backscattering coefficients [ a( ), c ( ), and bb( )] measured with WETLabs ac-s and BB9 meters; scattering coefficient [ b( )] obtained by difference [ c ( )-a( )], and (2) upwelling radiance and incident irradi ance measured with a Satlantic HyperPro II. Spectral and vertical patterns of a( ), c( ), b( ), and bb( ) are reported. Scattering represented between 60% 90% of c at =440 nm. Optical characteristics of a wh iting event and Deep Chlorophyll Layers (DCL) observed at several sites in Lake On tario are presented. Measurements of Rrs are demonstrated to close well with MODIS imagery. We illustrate the a pplicability of a common marine optics model that describes the dependence of Rrs( ) on bb( ) and a( ). Keywords: Underwater optics, Remote sensing, Remote sensing ground-truth. ODONNELL, D.M. 1, QUARING, G.F.1, SPADA, M.E.1, EFFLER, S.W.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. An Optics Survey of the Western Basin of Lake Erie. An optics survey of the western basin of Lake Erie was conducted over a three day interval in September 2007, following a major wind event, to charact erize the underwater light field and the coupled water-leaving optical signal. Instrumentation measur ements at 14 sites included: (1) Spectral absorption, beam attenuation, and backscattering coefficients [ a( ), c ( ), and bb( )] measured with WETLabs ac-s and BB9 meters; scattering coefficient [ b( )] obtained by difference [ c ( )a( )], and (2) upwelling radiance and incident irradiance measured with a Satlantic HyperPro II. Salient findings and observations presented include: (1) strong spatial differences in con centrations of light attenuating constituents and the measured optical propertie s, (2) good closure between laboratory and field measurements of a( ), (3) spectral ch aracteristics of a, components of a, c, b, and normalized water leaving radiance (Lwn), (4) strong positive linear depende nce of the backscattering ratio ( bbp/bp) on the fraction of suspended solids that is inorganic, and (5) good consistenc y between HyperPro II and MODIS (Aqua spacecraft, EOS PM-1) measurements of Lwn. Keywords: Underwater optics, Remote sensing, Lake Erie.

PAGE 121

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 119 ONEILL, C.R. Morgan II, State University College, Brockport, NY, 14420. Operational and Economic Impacts of Zebra Mussels on G reat Lakes Water-Dependent Infrastructure. Since the 1989 discovery of zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha ) in Lake St. Clair, the mussel and its congener D. bugensis (the quagga mussel) have had prof ound affects on the biological, physical, chemical, and hydrological properties of the Great Lake s. Dreissenid mussels have also had significant impacts on major water-dependent infrastructure. Th is paper will provide an overview of the physical (operational) and economic impacts of dreissenids on Great Lakes infrastructure Dreissenids impact the water handling systems of such ma jor infrastructure as electric power generation, drinking water treatment and industrial facilities from the mouths of intakes, through all in ternal water distribution components, to any discharges back into surface wate rs. Physical impacts include head loss and reduced water flow and clogging of components. Econom ic impacts include lost production, damaged components, employee time and effort expended uncloggi ng and cleaning fouled sy stems, facility retrofit and long-term fouling prevention an d control activities. Economic im pacts on infrastructure from 1989 through the present will be discussed referenci ng the 1995 study by the National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse and the 2005 NY S ea Grant/Cornell University study. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Impared water use, Economic impact. OBUSHENKO, N.1, REID, K.B. 2, and NUDDS, T.1, 1Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Ontario Commercial Fisheries Association, 45 James St., Blenheim, ON, N0P 1AO. Risk Assessment of Alternative Initial Allocations of Lake Erie Walleye Using Catch at Age Simulation and a Bayesian Appr oach to Uncertain Stock-recruit Dynamics. Initial allocations of walleye quota to the Ontario commercial fishery occur in January each year, which permits a limited harvest until May when the fina l total allowable catch is set. A catch at age model with discrete time simulated population dynamics and cat ch was used to evaluate risk associated with various initial allocation decisions. Bayesian methods were used to analyze uncertainty in the stockrecruit relationship. An extended Ricker function with a log-normally distributed error term described recruitment to the population. At low fishing mortality rates (i.e., less then 0.2), there was little difference in risk of stock collapse for initial allocations rang ing from 5% to 50% of the total allowable catch. At higher rates of fishing mort ality (0.3), risk of walleye fishery co llapse increased marginally from 0.8% when the initial allocatio n was 10%, to 1.8% when the initial allo cation was 50%, of the TAC. Our result is consistent with a view that there may be mo re capacity in the walleye population to withstand reasonable initial allocations than has been assumed. Armed with it, managers might more confidently go forward with an active adaptive management approach to setting initial allocations. Keywords: Fisheries, Walleye, Risk assessment. OLSON, A. and FREELAND, J.R., Department of Biol ogy, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Hybridization Facilitates Cattail Invasions around the Great Lakes. During the past two centuries, invasive species have substantially changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. Rapidly growing invasive plant spec ies in the Great Lakes area include cattails ( Typha spp.),

PAGE 122

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 120 which in some areas are posing a significant thre at to biodiversity and ecosystem function. While environmental change has undoubtedly influenced th e recent expansion, it is also possible that hybridization has increased th e ecological tolerance of T. x. glauca, a purported hybrid of native ( T. latifolia ) and invasive ( T. angustifolia ) cattails. In order to as sess the invasiveness of T. x glauca relative to its parental species, we have 1) surveyed the range of habitat types that the three taxonomic groups favor, and 2) used genetic data to determine whether T. x glauca exists only as first generation (F1) individuals, or has now become e volutionarily distinct from its pa rental species. Our results provide important insights into some of the proce sses behind the invasion of cattail populations. Keywords: Invasive species, Habitats, Marshes. ONI, S.K. 1, OUELLETTE, J.C.1, FUTTER, M.N.2, and DILLON, P.J.3, 1Watershed Ecosystem Graduate Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada; 2The Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, United Kingdom; 3Department of Environmental Sc ience and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada. Modeling DOC Fluxes and Runoff Changes in Pefferlaw River Watershed A study of Climate Change Impact. The production and degradation of dissolved orga nic carbon (DOC) are impor tant processes in the global carbon cycle. In many ecozones in Canada, DOC exceeds inorganic carbon species in lakes and rivers, and is the dominant carbon form transporte d downstream. It is also recognized that DOC degradation, either photochemically or microbially, is a significant s ource of carbon dioxide. The effects of climate and land use change on freshwater ecosystems can be manifested in a number of ways. One of these is through changes in the hyd rologic cycle including runoff; wh ich may alter DOC flux. However, not much is known about the combined effect of these factors on DOC fluxes in environment. We have used a hydrologic model (HBV) coupled with a pr ocess based biogeochemical model (INCA-C) to evaluate the effects of potential land use and climate change-induced runoff changes on the transport of DOC in the Pefferlaw River watershed, a major tribut ary of Lake Simcoe in the Great Lakes basin. Keywords: Climate change, Dissolv ed organic matter, Lake Simcoe. OPFER, S.E. 1, FARVER, J.R.2, MINER, J.G.1, and KRIEGER, K.A.3, 1Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sc iences, Bowling Green, OH; 2Bowling Green State Univ ersity, Department of Geology, Bowling Green, OH; 3Heidelberg College, Department of Biology-Water Quality Lab, Tiffin, OH. Sediment Heavy Metal and Bu rrowing Mayfly Distributio n in Western Lake Erie. Before pollution abatement programs, heavy metals contaminated sediments in the western basin of Lake Erie mainly through the Detr oit River, but also from lower disc harge sources such as the Maumee and Ottawa rivers. Although measurab le declines in sediment contamination have occurred, contaminant loading from these major discharges continues today. During the past two decades, burrowing Hexagenia mayflies have returned to the western basin of Lake Erie. Because of their importance as a prey resource for higher trophic levels and distribu tion in the sediment, mayfly nymphs may be a source of heavy metal transfer. To better understand the curr ent distribution of both heavy metals in sediment and mayflies, we collected water, sediment, and nymphs from 24 locatio ns across the western basin of Lake Erie in May 2007. Following EPA protocols, samples were analyzed for 16 elements using ICP-OES. Sediment heavy

PAGE 123

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 121 metal distribution profiles indicate that highest concentration occurred in the middle of the western basin pointing to a Detroit River source. Hexagenia were distributed throughout th e western basin, but were at highest density (1,350/m2) within the Detroit River plume. Thus, Hexagenia by consuming contaminated sediments in western Lake Erie can be a source of heavy metal uptake by fish. Keywords: Lake Erie, Environmental contaminants, Macroinvertebrates. OUELLETTE, J.C. DILLON, P.J., and AHERNE, J., Tr ent University, Peterborough, ON. Spatial Landscape-scale Modeling of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) Flux in the Lake Simcoe Watershed. Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), a dynamic materi al able to be transported and transformed through numerous natural biogeochemical processes, fulfills many roles in maintaining freshwater ecosystem integrity. DOC is changing across the north ern hemisphere; affecting factors such as climate and acidification. The Lake Simcoe watershed (LSW ), a large (3,303 square kilometer) mixed-landcover catchment, consisting of more than 20 percent water by total area, is an ideal site to study DOC dynamics. A new steady-state empirical model, refined from one created for the Muskoka River watershed; a near pristine forested landscape, was derived for appli cation within the mixed agricultural/urban/forested environments of the LSW. This new model was further calibrated and verified for several catchments and sampling stations, utilizing extracted spatial para meters acquired from manipulating and processing various Geographical Information System (GIS) layers. Keywords: GIS, Dissolved organic matter, Biogeochemistry. OZERSKY, T. 1, BARTON, D.R.1, HECKY, R.E.2, and GUILDFORD, S.J.2, 1University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1; 2University of Duluth, 1035 Kirby Dr., Duluth, MN, 55812. Nutrient Flux through Invasive Mussels: Dreisse nids as a Benthic-pel agic Nutrient Linkage. Dreissenid mussels are one of th e most important aquatic invaders in North America, having had large impacts on a wide array of eco logical parameters in numerous lentic and lotic systems. The ability of dreissenids to exert strong eff ects on ecosystems is caused by their often enormous biomass, as well as by their role as a benthicpelagic coupling mechanism, redirecting particulates from the water column to the benthos, while remineralizing a po rtion of the redirected material in to a dissolved form. Results from previous laboratory experiments showed that dr eissenid mussels could be a significant source of bioavailable dissolved nutrients, m odifying the way nutrients are cycled and utilized in invaded systems. We present and discuss data from in situ microcosm experiments designed to assess the magnitude and direction of nutrient flux through und isturbed dreissenid populations in La ke Simcoe. Results indicate that dreissenid mussels are an important link in the nutrient cycle of invaded systems, removing particulate nutrients from the water column, and excreting significant amounts of bioavailable phosphorus and nitrogen. The ability of mussels to impact nutrient cycles should not be ignor ed in phosphorus budget estimates and management decisions. Keywords: Dreissena, Nutrients, Lake Simcoe.

PAGE 124

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 122 OZERSKY, T. 1, MASON, K.4, SKINNER, A.J.2, DEPEW, D.C.1, EVANS, D.O.2, BARTON, D.R.1, GUILDFORD, S.J.3, and HECKY, R.E.3, 1University of Waterloo, 200 Un iversity Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Trent University, 2140 East Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 3University of Minnesota, 1035 Kirby D, Duluth, MN, 55812; 4Golder Associates, 940-6th Ave. S. W., Calgary, AB, T2P 3T1. Post-dreissenid Changes in Lake Simcoes Crayfish Community. Currently, invasive dreissenid mussels comprise a substantial part of Lake Simcoes macrobenthos, especially in the litto ral zone of the lake. Dreissenids can have a number of effects on aquatic ecosystems, among them the shunting of car bon and nutrients from the pelagic to the benthic environment, and physical re-engine ering of the benthic environmen t through deposition of shell and organic material. We hypothesize that both mechanisms could be important in explaining post-dreissenid changes to the crayfish community of Lake Simcoe, wh ere crayfish are an abundant and important part of the benthos, acting as predators, gr azers, decomposers, prey items, and ecosystem engineers. We present data showing significant increases in total abundance of all crayfish, as well as increases in the relative abundance of O. virilis at rocky sites and very localized high densities of the recently invading rusty crayfish. We also present an initial test of the benthic energy-shunt hypothesi s based on stable isotope analysis of preand pos t-dreissenid samples of O. propinquus a dominant species of crayfish in the lake. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Zebra mussels, Crayfish. PAGANO, J.J. Department of Chemistry, State Univer sity of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY, 13126. Utilization of Salmonid Eggs as Bioindicators of Organohalogen Pollutants in Lake Ontario. Understanding the linkage between pollutant sources and monitoring the important endpoints (such as concentrations in salmonids and lake trou t) is essential informa tion for making management decisions within the Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) process. Coho and Chinook eggs and muscle fillets were sampled at the Salmon River Fish Hatchery, Altmar, New York during the 2002-2006 spawning runs. Results from this study strongly s uggest that salmon eggs perform as effective timeintegrated biomonitors of critical and emerging contaminants found in the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Significant correlations were obs erved for polychlorinated biphe nyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) between eggs and musc le tissue for Chinook and coho salmon. Results of salmon egg and muscle tissue regression analyses indicates a strong quantitative re lationship for PCBs (r2 = 0.96 and r2 = 0.98) and PBDEs (r2 = 0.95 and r2 = 0.98) between eggs and maternal muscle tissue for both Chinook and coho salmon, respectiv ely. The significance of the relatio nships observed indicate that yearly monitoring of salmonid eggs has the potential to provide a practical and inexpensive bioindicator of the overall health of the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Keywords: Bioindicators, PCBs, Lake Ontario. PARKER, S.R. Parks Canada, Fathom Five National Marine Park, Tobermory, ON, N0H2R0. A Legacy in a Sweetwater Sea: Experience from Canadas First National Marine Conservation Area. Canadas National Marine Conservation Area program was launched in 1987 with the establishment of Fathom Five National Marine Park at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula in Lake Huron. This

PAGE 125

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 123 designation builds on a long history of protection in the Tobermory archipelago dating back to the naming of Flowerpot Island as part of Georgian Bay Islands National Park in 1930 and the establishment of Fathom Five Provincial Park in 1972. Management e xperience has matured in a variety of areas: a well established dive safety program a nd vessel-operating policy; shoreline development review process; and collaborative intergovernmental ini tiatives. Fathom Five has developed a national profile as a key area for Great Lakes research and conditi on monitoring. Opportunities for mean ingful visitor experience and education outreach programs have successfully engaged people on ma rine issues. On-going challenges include finding greater relevance and representivity in the mari ne region, evaluating management effectiveness, and further engaging the growing population around the Great Lakes. Keywords: Conservation, Protected areas, Management, Lake Huron. PATERSON, G. 1, WHITTLE, D.M.2, DROUILLARD, K.G.3, and HAFFNER, G.D.3, 1Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fi sheries and Aquatic Sciences, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Great Lakes Institute for Envionmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. Latitudinal and Temporal Declines in Great Lakes Lake Trout Energy Densities. This study used surveillance data on lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) collected from four Great Lakes during the period 1995 2004 to investigate la titudinal and temporal trends in biological characteristics of this top predator Lake trout weight at age, averag e body mass, and energy densities had negative relationships with latitude. Howeve r, between the periods 1995 1999 and 2000 2004, body masses declined an average of 17% for fish collecte d from Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Superior, with only individuals collected from La ke Huron exhibiting increases in body mass during these periods. Additionally, energy densities declin ed consistently by 13% across th ese lakes from 1995 1999 to 2000 2004. Von Bertalanffy growth models describing th e relationships between energy density and age demonstrated decreased growth of lake trout energy densities during 2000 2004 relative to 1995 1999. Asymptotic energy densities ( Q) generated from the growth models also declined 3 13% among the lakes from 1995 2004. While the latitudinal trends in body mass and energy densit ies primarily reflected patterns in system productivities, the temporal declines in these characteristics ar e hypothesized to be due to changes occurring in Great Lake s pelagic forage fish populations. Keywords: Latitudinal, Temporal, Declines. PAUL, J. and FREELAND, J.R., Department of Biol ogy, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Invasive Phragmites in the Great Lakes Region. II. Populat ion Genetics of Invasive and Native Lineages, and the Role of Local Adaptation. Invasive species have the potenti al to disrupt ecosystems and out-c ompete native species, and they collectively cost billions of dollars each year in prevention and c ontrol. Invasive species currently pose one of the biggest threats to the Great Lakes region, with one of the most probl ematic invaders being an invasive lineage of the common reed, Phragmites australis This lineage apparently originated in Europe, where it exists in stable, non-invasi ve populations. It is unclear whethe r the rapidly increasing range of

PAGE 126

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 124 Phragmites around the Great Lakes is attribut able to a single, plastic genotype, or to multiple genotypes that are each adapted to different sets of environmental conditions. We are addressing this question with a combination of genotypic and environmental data from Phragmites populations in North America (including the Great Lakes region) a nd Europe. Our goal is to determin e the role of adaptation in the movement of invasive Phragmites across the landscape. Keywords: Wetlands, Invasive species, Habitats. PAVLAC, M.M. and BOYER, G.L., State University of Ne w York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forestry Dr., Syracuse, NY, 13210. Monitoring Cyanobacteria in the Lower Great Lakes Using Continuous Real-time Fluorescence. Large cyanobacterial blooms reoccur in both Lake s Erie and Ontario. Regul ar monitoring of these potentially harmful blooms is important for implementi ng prompt water protection strategies. Such efforts necessitate a monitoring method that is reliable and easy to employ. A flow-through monitoring system composed of three commercial fluorometers (Turne r Designs Algaewatch, Turn er Designs Cyanowatch, and a Hydrolab) was installed on board the CCGS Limnos in the summer of 2007 to provide continuous real-time data on algal blooms throughout the two lakes. To sta ndardize fluorescence measurements between cruises, fluorometers were calibrated precruise using a standard Rhodamine WT solution. Calibration was monitored routinely en-route with the standard solution to ensure fluorescence data stability (i.e., check for instrument drift). The real-time fluorescence data were then compared to extracted chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentrations in order to map algal distribution. The effectiveness of fluorometer calib ration and accuracy of resulting bl oom mapping will be discussed. Keywords: Monitoring, Harmful algal blooms, GIS. PAYTON, A.1, WATSON, S.B. 2, ELSBURY, K.1, and KENDALL, C.3, 1Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Sant a Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064; 2Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS 434, Menlo Park, CA, 94025. Phosphate Sources and Cycling in Lake Erie an Isotope Signatures Approach. Recently Lake Erie has shown increasing nutrient concentrations in inshore areas, while productivity may be dropping in deeper waters. It is believed that the lake is once again receiving substantial nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from both terres trial (runoff, rivers, groundwater) and atmospheric (dry and wet deposition) sources. It has been suggested th at water-source nutrient enrichment (from sewage, fertilizer, manure, and detergents) and atmospheric deposition are among the factors responsible for the observed recent shift in la ke conditions. Efforts to identify and quantify the sources, fluxes, and fate of nutrients are extensive. However, these efforts are limited to stream waterquality monitoring and some atmospheric input estimations using water aerosol and rain collection. These data are coupled with modeling of input fluxes, de position, utilization, and cyc ling of the nutrients to evaluate possible impacts to the eco system. We present preliminary data from novel isotope analyses of phosphate and nitrate in potential so urces and within the lake in orde r to help us better identify and quantify the sources (point and nonpoint), constrain the P and N cyc ling dynamics within the lake, and

PAGE 127

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 125 estimate the impact of nutrient loading on the lake ecosystem. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Lake Erie, Pollution sources. PEKARIK, C. 1, WESELOH, D.V.2, and MOORE, D.J.1, 1Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, 867 Lakeshore Rd., P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario Region, 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4. Population Trends for Colonial Waterbirds Nesting on the Detroit River, Lake Erie, and the Niagara River During the Last Three Decades, 1976-2007. Since 1976, the Canadian Wildlife Service has conducted surveys of all colonial waterbird colonies on the Great Lakes and conn ecting channels, at approximately 10 year intervals. In 2007, the first phase of the fourth deca dal census was completed for the Detro it (DR) and Niagara (NR) rivers and Lake Erie (LE). Ground counts of al l apparently occupied nests were conducted in May for herring (HERG) and ring-billed (RBGU) gul ls and Caspian (CATE) and comm on (COTE) terns; Double-crested cormorants (DCCO), great blue herons (GBHE), gr eat egrets (GREG) and bl ack-crowned night-herons (BCNH) were censused in June. A ll eight species were present on LE (at 13 colonies); only HERGs, RBGUs and BCNHs nested on DR (at 5 colonies) and NR (at 12 colonies). Compared to the last census period (1997-2000), nesting pairs of DCCOs (12,186 nests, +63.9%), BCNHs (500 nests, +45.3%; first time nesting on DR) and GREGs (61 nests, +90.6%) in creased in the region. CATEs (300 nests at one colony in LE) had not been recorded nesting on these water bodies during previous surveys. HERGs (2,541 nests, -20.1%), RBGUs (65,876 nests, -27%) and COTEs (14 nests, -97.4%) all exhibited a decline. Keywords: Avian ecology, Sp ecies composition, Cormorants. PENG, F. 1, EFFLER, S.W.1, ODONNELL, D.M.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Inst., P. O. Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Individual Particle An alysis of Suspended Minerogenic Particles in Lake Erie: Implications to Water Clarity and Remote Sensing. Suspended inorganic, or minerogenic, particles from the western portion of Lake Erie, collected following a high wind event (September 2007), were char acterized by an individu al particle technique, scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automate d X-ray microanalysis and image analysis (SAX). SAX provided characterizations of the elemental X -ray composition, number concentration, and particle size distribution. This information supported Mie theoretical calculations of the a ssociated scattering ( bm, m) and backscattering coefficients ( bbm, m) and partitioning these two estimates into geochemical particle types to evaluate optical impacts and origins of the mineroge nic particle population. Wide spatial differences in bm and bbm were observed, with clay minerals do minating at most sites. These spatial differences were the primary driver of the variations observed in se veral related bulk optical metrics, including turbidity, the beam attenua tion coefficient, Secchi transparen cy depth, and particulate scattering and backscattering coefficients. Keywords: Individual particle anal ysis, Lake Erie, Remote sensing, Optical properticles, Turbidity, Suspended particles.

PAGE 128

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 126 PENNUTO, C.M. KRAKOWIAK, P.J., and JANIK, C., Bi ology Dept. & Great Lakes Center, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, NY, 14222. Seasonal Abundance and Summer Energy Consumption by Round Gobies ( Apollonia melanostoma) in Lake Erie Tributary Streams. Round gobies are well-established in all five of the Great Lakes, and in many tributary streams and rivers where they can have si gnificant impacts on invertebrate co mmunities and energy pathways. We assessed seasonal abundance of roun d gobies in two tributary stream s while examining summer diet composition and energy consumption. Gobies began migra ting into streams in April and exhibited a peak abundance in October, followed by a decline through January when no fish were found. Recruitment of YOY peaked in July, but new recruits were added at a low background rate into October. In summer, available invertebrate prey held significantly different energy conten ts with riffle beetles the most energetically profitable and mollucs (shell includ ed) the least. Round gobies did not feed randomly on available invertebrates, showing a strong preference for Chironomidae even though these prey were nearly the least energetically profitable. Energy gained from amphipod consumption was nearly 30x greater than energy acquired from consumption of chironomids. In this study, an average round goby was estimated to consume ~1% of the in vertebrate energy availalble per m2 per day. These data suggest round goby migration into tributary stre ams during the open water season wi ll have significant impacts on invertebrate communities and energy dynamics. Keywords: Invasive species, Fish diets, Bioenergetics. PERDUE, J.1 and FOX, M.G. 2, 1Department of Biology, Trent Univer sity, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Environmental & Resource Studies Program and Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Age Determination in the Round Goby; Comparison of Scales and Otoliths. Round gobies captured from the Trent River, Ontario and kept in captivity from June to September 2006 were used to compare age estimates dete rmined from scales with those determined from lapillus otoliths. Gobies were marked and held at ambient water temperatur es, and individuals were divided into four groups (two cont rols and a high and low temperature treatment). The latter groups were subjected to three temperature treatments of threeday duration (28C or 19C) in order to determine whether high or low temperature change would induce th e formation of false annuli on scales or otoliths. No false annuli developed on either the scales or th e lapilli of any fish over the study period. While minor checks were visible on some specimens, they were not distinct or continu ous enough to confuse age estimates. Scale and otolith age estimates agreed in 91.5% of cases, with an a dditional annulus evident on the otoliths in most cases where age estimates differed. Back-calculations of length at age suggest that the additional annulus that appeared on th ese lapilli is false. We conclude that age determina tion with scales is more accurate than with otoliths in the round goby. Keywords: Round goby, Invasive species, Fish populations. PERKINS, M.G. 1, EFFLER, S.W.1, STRAIT, C.M.1, QUARING, G.F.1, ZHANG, L.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, PO Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laborator y, 2205 Commonwealth Bl vd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Patterns of Light Absorption in the West Basin of Lake Erie.

PAGE 129

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 127 Light absorbing constitu ents are important regulators of the signal available to assess water quality from remote sensing. The magnitudes and spectral feat ures of absorbing components, including colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM or gelbstoff; aCDOM), phytoplankton ( aphyto), and non-algal particles (NAP; aNAP) were determined for near-surface waters at 15 sites in Lake Erie (mostly within the west basin), for samples collected in September 2007 follo wing a major wind event. Absorption spectra were obtained on filtrate (0.2 m pore size) for CDOM, and filters for phytoplankton and NAP (before and after bleaching). Exponential decreases with increasing wa velength (400-700 nm range) for aCDOM and aNAP, and bimodal patterns for aphyto, are reported. Dependencies of aphyto and aNAP on the common water quality metrics of chlorophyll a and suspended solids are evaluated. Wide spatial differences in the magnitudes of the three components and th eir relative contributions to overall a are documented. Comparisons are made with recent observati ons for Lake Superior and Lake Ontario. Keywords: Lake Erie, Remote sensing, Underwater optics. PERNANEN, S.K. Central Lake Ontario Conservation Authority, 100 Whiting Ave., Oshawa, ON, L1H 3T3. Using Regional Coastal Wetland Monitoring to Support Restoration and/or Adaptive Management at a Site Level. Great Lakes coastal wetlands ha ve decreased in size and/or quality during the recent past, but Durham Region still retains a number of examples. A va riety of stakeholders have identified the need for conservation and monitoring of these important ecosystems and, in response, the Durham Region Coastal Wetland Monitoring Project (DRCWMP) was initiate d by Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and the Central Lake Onta rio Conservation Authority in conj unction with adjacent Conservation Authorities and other partners. The project, which began in 2 002, was designed to implement a coordinated, multi-partnered approach to monito ring the biological and geophysical condition of 15 coastal wetlands along an 80-kilometer stretch of shorel ine on Lake Ontarios north shore. This talk will demonstrate how a regional monitoring plan can help to identify issues with specific biological communities at a site level, a nd to support existing management and restoration initiatives. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Monitoring, Ecosystem health. PETER, M.C.S. UGC Project on Husk Retting, Department of Zoology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 581, India. Mechanism of Stress Tolerance in Fishes Living in Coconut Husk Retting Ground of Lake Paravur in South India. Stress is a condition of threaten ed physiological homeostasis as result of exposure to stressors. Coconut husk retting, a common practice in the Lake Paravur in south India, is an essential step in the production of coir which releases t oxic effluents including ammonium and nitrates. Teleosts have evolved strategies to maintain metabolic and osmotic regulation with the help of endoc rines including interrenal and thyroid. We studied th e indices of these vital processes and quantified the hormones of these endocrines in climbing perch and in tilapia after exposi ng them to coconut husk retting effluents. Our data point that these fish tolerate the CHRE-induced metabolic and osmo tic disturbances with support of

PAGE 130

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 128 cortisol and thyroid hormones. (Funded by Univer sity Grants Commission MRPF-30-205/2004/SR.) Keywords: Metabolism, Stress, En vironmental effects, Pollutants. PETER, V.S.1, JOSHUA, E.K. 1, and PETER, M.C.S.2, 1Department of Zoology, Fatima Mata national College, Kollam, Kerala, 691001, India; 2Department of Zoology, Universi ty of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvanathapuram, 695 581, India. Physiological Response of Air-breathing Perch ( Anabas testudineus Bloch) to Coconut Husk Retting Effluent from Lake Paravur of Southern India. To understand the physiological mechanism of st ress tolerance in fish living in coconut husk retting grounds, we examined the metabolic pattern and thyroidal ac tivities in the air-breathing perch, Anabas testudineus after exposing them to the effluent of coconut husk retting (CHRE). Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), the primary hormones of thyr oid, were measured in the plasma of these fish together with the indices of metabol ic regulation. Five days of CHRE exposure decreased the plasma T4 without affecting the plasma T3. The concentration of plasma glucose, trig lycerides, and urea were significantly increased in the CHRE-e xposed fish. Significant reduction in the concentration of liver total protein, RNA, and DNA occurred in the CHRE-treated fish. CHRE treatment while increasing the alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphata se activities, decreased the aspartate aminotransferase in the liver. Besides identifying plasma glucose as the reliable bi omarker of CHRE-induced st ress, our results suggest that these fish reallocate their energy resources during stress where thyroid gland has a major role to play. (Funded by University Grants Comm ission, New Delhi MRP F-30-205/2004/SR) Keywords: Environmental effects, En vironmental contaminants, Metabolism. PETERSON, G.W. 1, GOLDSMITH, W.2, DEPINTO, J.V.1, and WHITING, C.1, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108, USA; 2Bioengineering Group, 18 Commerci al St., Salem, MA, 1970, USA. Sustainable Development and Restoration Opportunities at AOC Sites. Begin with the end in mind. Integrating remediat ion and pollution control efforts with waterfront use and development, ecosystem restoration, and ha bitat creation efforts can result in breakthrough opportunities to accomplish sustainable restoration of contaminated wate r ways. Typically, the restoration of degraded aquatic systems follows a sequential path of isolated actions from source control to remediation to ecosystem restora tion and property development. Each of these stages has focused objectives that are limited to meeting only the goals of that particular stage. Each of the alternatives in these stages are conceived and compar ed with one another using criteria that are typically important only to meeting the immediate objectives. With this pote ntially myopic approach, th ere are likely opportunities that are missed to creatively restore elements of the syst em or create new sustainabl e elements as a part of the remedial action. Missed too are synergies that at worst could save co sts and at best could help sell and potentially help fund the project and make an otherwise impossible project possible. Examples of the application of this concept will be presented for se veral sites, including the Don River watershed in Toronto. Keywords: Remediation, Restoration, AOCs.

PAGE 131

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 129 PILEGGI, V. 1, ROSENTHAL, H.2, and SCHROEDER, J.1, 1MOE, Standards Development Branch, 40 St. Clair Ave. West, 7th Fl, Toronto, ON, M4V 1M2, Canada; 2MOE, Land and Water Policy Branch, 135 St. Clair Ave. West, 6th Fl, Toronto, ON, M4V 1P5, Canada. A Survey of Ontario Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges and Landfill Leachates in the Great Lakes Basin. From 2004-2005, the Ministry of the Environment surveyed selected STPs and landfill sites. The objectives were to: characterize the in fluent, effluent, and sludge over f our seasons; compare results to the ministrys previous survey in 1987; compare discharges of plants receiving leachate to those not receiving leachate; and identify substances in the effluent s that warrant assessment for risks to human or environmental health. All STPs e fficiently reduced the concentrati ons of conventional parameters (CBOD5, COD, TSS, TP, and TAN) consistent with the level of treatment provided. Reduction of nonconventional substances in the effluent was gene rally compound specific and not treatment dependant. Partitioning to sludge appeared to be an important process for many contaminants. Compared to the 1987 survey, loadings of Hg and Ni were reduced but Sr and Al were increased. Municipal landfill leachates were found to contain a large number of the same co mplex chemicals found in typical STP influents but generally at higher concentrations. However leachate did not significantly influence the effluent or sludge concentrations except for Mg and Sr in the effluent and Sr in the sludge. Based on a screening-level comparison to ecological and human benchmarks, 13 compounds were flagged as warranting further investigation. Keywords: Environmental contaminants, Comparison studies, Great Lakes basin. POOS, M.S. 1, TU, C.2, and JACKSON, D.A.1, 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Har bord St., Toronto, ON, M5S3G5; 2Toronto Region Cons ervation Authority, Ecology Division, 5 Shoreham Road, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Using Meta-population Viability Analysis to Quantify Risks of Urbanizati on on Two Populations of Redside Dace ( Clinostomus elongatus ). The ability to improve recovery strategies thr ough an integration of bot h a metapopulation (patch size, connectivity) and a ha bitat (e.g., water quality, stream form) paradigm can provide critical insights into aquatic species recovery; esp ecially since aquatic systems are thought to have considerably higher rates of species imperilment than their terrestrial counter parts (Ricciardi and Rasmussen 1999). We are using the redside dace as a model organism for improving management objectives by considering an integrative meta-population-habitat approach. The re dside dace is a model organism because it has a largely fragmented distribution in the tributaries of the Great Lake s (McKee and Parker 1982; Andersen 2002; Holm 2003) and declines in redside dace have been attributed to changes in land-use (e.g., urban) and habitat quality (e.g., stream form). We use visu al implant elastomer tags (VIE) to quantify population dynamics in two redside dace populations in an urban system; one undergoing high urbanization, the other not. Using meta-population viability analysis, we demonstrate that population parameters such as patch occupancy and population persistence are great ly reduced in the highl y urbanized setting. We examine relationships of population decline using hab itat parameters and draw conclusions to improve recovery. Keywords: Fish tagging, Fish populations, Urban watersheds.

PAGE 132

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 130 POSTE, A.E. 1, HECKY, R.E.2, YAKOBOWSKI, S.1, DYBLE, J.3, and GUILDFORD, S.J.2, 1University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2University of MinnesotaDuluth, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, 55812; 3NOAA, Great Lakes Environm ental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Microcystin in Water and Fish from East African Lakes. Despite evidence of shifts toward cyanobact erial dominance and in creased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms in African lakes, few studies have quantified cyanot oxins in these lakes. Epilimnetic water and fish were coll ected in May 2007 from Lake Albert and Lake Saka. Microcystin in whole water was measured using a Protein Phosphata se Inhibition Assay, and fish muscle tissue was analyzed for microcystin using me thanol extraction and ELISA. In La ke Albert, the mean whole water microcystin concentration was 0.06 g/L, far below the WHO dr inking water guideline of 1.0 g/L. However, microcystin in Lake Al bert fish was still detectable and ranged from 0.47 to 5.66 ng/g. The highest concentration seen appro ached the WHO guideline for microc ystin in fish (TDI of 40 ng/g consumer, for a 50 kg individual consuming a daily fish meal of 300 g) and was observed in the smallest individual of Lates niloticus (Nile perch). In Lake Saka, where micr ocystin in water persistently exceeds 3 g/L, the Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) collected all exceeded the recommended TDI for microcystin in fish, with concentrations ra nging from 6.95.41 ng/g, indicating that microcystin concentrations in these fish may be detrimental to the health of consumers. Keywords: Africa, Microcystin, Fish. POTHOVEN, S.A. 1 and NALEPA, T.F.2, 1National Oceanic and Atmosp heric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Fish Diets and Condition in Lake Huron. We collected seasonal data on planktivorous fish condition, diets, and ava ilable prey (zooplankton, Mysis benthos) from a site in southern Lake Huron in 2007. Diets and condition were compared to earlier data collected from Lake Michigan. The two most abundant pelagic planktivor es in Lake Huron were rainbow smelt and bloater. Both rainbow smelt and bloater diets (by number) were mainly copepods (70% and 90% respectively), with smaller contributions from cladocerans (23 a nd 9% respectively) and Mysis (5 and 1% respectively). Diet comp osition in Lake Huron in 2007 differe d from that for fish from Lake Michigan (2000-2001), where smelt mainly ate cladocerans (56%), copepods (20%), and Mysis (12%) and bloater ate cladocerans (62%), Mysis (16%), Diporeia (8%), and copepods (3%). Diets will be further analyzed with respect season and to available prey resources for both lakes. Energy density in the spring for rainbow smelt was apparently lower in Lake Hu ron in 2007 (4,295 J/g) than in Lake Michigan (19981999) (5,894-6,528 J/g). On the other hand, energy density of bloater in the spring was similar between Lake Huron (6,690 J/g) and Michigan (5,829-7,002 J/g). Keywords: Fish diets, Lake Huron, Fish. POULOPOULOS, J. and CAMPBELL, L.M., Department of Biology and School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON. Analysis of Archived Fish from Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe, and Champlain to Assess Impacts of Exotic Fish Species on Food Webs and Hg Biomagnification.

PAGE 133

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 131 Exotic species have altered food webs and e xposure of native species to the biomagnifying chemical mercury (Hg) in many aquatic ecosystems. In particular, Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe, and Champlain represent a gradient of impacts from relati vely pristine northwestern Ontario, toward the more impacted southern Ontario and Vermont. We are perf orming stable isotope analyses on archived fish collected in the 1920s before the arrival of most exotic species to our study lakes and on more recently-captured fish, to determine how exotics have changed food web structures over the last 80 years. Results to date indicate a well-c onserved stable isotope composition among lower trophic levels through time, but changes at higher levels that may be due to the energetic pressures of e xotic species. As part of this project, we are assessing Hg biomagnification in modern f ood webs by measuring fish Hg concentrations at different trophic le vels. Through analysis of archived fish, it may be possible to evaluate historical Hg concentrations as well, assuming they have not been altered by ch emical preservation. We are investigating this possibility a nd expect to be able to compare Hg biomagnification in historical and contemporary fish, and gauge whether, by altering trophi c structures, exotic species have changed patterns of Hg contamination. Keywords: Isotope studies, Mercury, Invasive species. PRESTON, J.M. and WYATT, G.J., Quester Tangent, 201-9865 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC, V8L5Y8. Acoustic Remote Sensing and Classification of Sediments. Echo sounders, sidescans, and multibeams provide complimentary acoustic information about lake, river, and seabed sediments. Echoes and sonar im ages can be processed to produce habitat maps; in as much as bottom type contributes to habitat. Ques ter Tangent (QTC) is a worl d leader in hardware and software for acoustic remote sensing and classifi cation. QTC hardware acquires high-fidelity digital versions of sounder echoes. QTC software suites clas sify either echoes or imag es by generating features that capture characteristics such as echo duration a nd image texture. Variance in a set of features is concentrated with Principal Components Analys is and acoustic classes determined by automated objective clustering. Quality control is important, a nd many tools for this are included. Classification results can be brought into any GIS. Data can be exported at several stag es in the classification process, should alternative statistical methods be preferred. Examples of shallow-water surveys and the resulting class maps will be presented. Keywords: Acoustics, Seabed classific ation, Sediments, Remote sensing. QUESTEL, J.M. BACK, R.C., and WELSH, A.B., SUNY-Osw ego, Department of Biological Sciences, Oswego, NY, 13126. Genetic Determination of the Origin of Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario. Hemimysis anomala (Crustacea: Mysidacea) is a newly i nvasive species to the Great Lakes. Sampling was conducted near Oswego, New York in Sunset Bay during the summer of 2007 using horizontal night trawls. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) subunit gene was sequenced from sixteen specimens. Results were compared to a published study on haplotypes diversity in H. anomala from its native range in the Ponto-Caspian and a nonnative population in La ke Michigan (Audzijonyte et al. 2007). Those results identified a single haplotype in the introdu ced Lake Michigan population, indicating they invaded from the Danube. However, we identified seve ral haplotypes in the Lake Ontario population that were not present in the Danube lineag e, indicating that the La ke Ontario population may

PAGE 134

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 132 have resulted from an invasion from the Dnieper region of the Black Sea instead. The possible occurrence of multiple introductions in the Great Lakes may contribute to the future long-term success of H. anomala in the region. Keywords: Crustaceans, Biological invasions, Genetics. RAMKELLAWAN, J.1, GHARABAGHI, B. 1, and WINTER, J.G.2, 1School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2125 Resources Road, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Atmospheric Sources of Phosphorus to Lake Simcoe. High levels of phosphorus in Lake Simcoe have been attributed to the dec line in lake water quality since 1970. Out of the estimated 53 to 67 t/yr of phosphor us entering the lake, at mospheric deposition is believed to be responsible for 16 to 38 t/yr. Histor ical estimates for atmospheric deposition involved averaging rain gauge and rain quali ty station data. Thus, through use of this procedure, any spatial variability in the data is lost as each gauge is given an equal weighting. This study investigates the use of Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) to spatial represent rainfall data, as well as a method to correct radarrainfall estimates to rainfall recorded by local ra in gauges. It was found that the radar generally represented localized rainfall well, w ith the majority of correlation co efficients (R2) being over 0.90. For large bulk TP deposition events the dominant paramete r in calculating TP loads is rainfall depth and the revised method provides a significant improvement in rainfall depth calculation. Results from this analysis demonstrated a large diffe rence between historical and revi sed estimates of bulk atmospheric deposition of phosphorus over Lake Simcoe. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Phosphorus, Atmosphere-lake interaction. RAZAVI, R. 1, CAMPBELL, L.M.1, HODSON, P.V.1, and RIDAL, J.J.2, 1Queen's University, Department of Biology, BioSciences Building, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belm ont St., Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1. Does Gas Bubbling from Sediments Increase the Transfer of Mercury to Aquatic Food Webs? The St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, ON, is de signated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the legacy of industrial mercury (Hg) inputs for ove r a century. Understanding Hg bioavailability is complicated by a paradox between patterns of contamination in yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) and their prey items and contamination in sediments. Specifically, one zone exhibits higher than expected Hg uptake by biota. Methane gas produced as a result of decomposing fiber deposits are suspected of disturbing the natural burial processes which would redu ce exposure of biota to ol d Hg deposits. Artificial substrates were used in situ to collect amphipods (Gammaridae ) and gas measurements were taken over the deployment period. Corresponding sediment and porew ater samples were preserved to assess uptake routes. Preliminary results from June and August 2007 indicate possible site avoidance by amphipods at high bubbling locations, and do not po int to a relationship between bubbl ing rate and total Hg (THg) concentrations in amphipods. Increasing porewater THg concentrations corre spond to high bubbling sites but still do not explain amphipod contamination. While bubbling may not affect mercury concentrations in amphipods directly, it is possibl e that bubbling forces amphipods in to areas where they accumulate more Hg. Keywords: Sediment resuspension, Amphipods, Mercury.

PAGE 135

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 133 REDISKE, R.R. STEINMAN, A.D., CHU, X.F., THOMPSON, K.A., and SCULL, B.D., Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49401. Integrated Nutrient Assessment of Bear Lake, Michigan. An integrated assessment of nutrient loading was conducted in the Bear Lake watershed. Bear Lake is a 1.66 km2 eutrophic drowned river mouth system that is included in the Muskegon Lake Area of Concern. The lake is scheduled for a Total Daily Ma ximum Load (TMDL) due to excessive nutrients and nuisance algal blooms. A ten fold increase in the loading of suspended sediment and phosphorus was noted from base flow to storm event conditions. Lo adings from the tributaries were enhanced by a channelized stream and highly modi fied wetlands near the inlet to Bear Lake. While storm events accelerated phosphorus loading to Bear Lake, the pr esence of heavy cyanobacteria blooms, elevated chlorophylla concentrations, and low Secchi disk depth re adings throughout the summer were indicative of an internal sediment loading source. An analysis sediment and water quality, bathymetry, and thermal profiles determined that sediment resuspension also was a signifi cant source of nutrient loading. In addition, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment Model was employed to estimate NPS loading from lake front property. Keywords: Watersheds, Water quality, Monitoring. REDISKE, R.R. 1, HAGAR, J.1, OKEEFE, J.P.1, HONG, Y.E.1, and DYBLE, J.2, 1Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in West Michigan Drowned River Mouth Lakes. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a tropical toxic-bloom-forming cyanobacterium that recently has been reported in the Lake Michigan basin. C. raciborskii populations were studied in 5 drowned river mouth lakes in west Michigan during 2006 (n=48) Maximum densities were 10 Tc/mL in Muskegon Lake, to 3,500 Tc/mL in Spring Lake. Beach samples had significantly higher populations than open water stations (p=0.02) in Spring Lake. No significant difference was observed between beach and open water samples in the other lakes. Cylindrospermopsin was not detected in any of the water samples using HPLC/MS (LOD=0.01 g/L). The presence of the putative genes for cylindrospermopsin production was assessed using a set of PCR primers specific to a polyketide synthetase (PKS) gene in 6 samples containing the highest levels of the cyanobacterium. The Cylindrospermopsis-specific nifH primers amplified a PCR product from all 6 samples, indi cating both that the DNA was intact and that C. raciborskii was present in the samples. Neither th e more general cyanobacterial PKS or the Cylindrospermopsis -specific PKS primer sets successfully am plified a PCR product from the samples, despite strong amplification of th e positive control. These data suggest that toxin producing strains were not present. Keywords: Cyanophyta, Harmful algal blooms, Invasive species. REEVES, H.W. and NICHOLAS, J.R. USGS Michigan Water Scien ce Center, 6520 Mercantile Way, Suite 5, Lansing, MI, 48911-5991. Water Availability and Use in the Great Lakes Basin.

PAGE 136

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 134 Water availability is determined by the volume of water in storage, by the flow of water through the environment, and by the interaction of these with constraints. Constraints include existing water use, water quality, and ecological or othe r in-stream requirements. Each of these constraints depends upon societal decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (U SGS) is conducting a pilot study in the Great Lakes basin for a national initiative on wate r availability and use assessment. Goals of the pilot study include establishing a scientific fr amework for water availabili ty quantification for the basin, developing methods to quantify indicators used to expr ess water availability, and demons trating application of potential techniques and methods to assess wa ter availability. Constr aints are important for the final determination of water availability for the region, but these cons traints may vary between jurisdictions and depend on local conditions. The focus of the project, therefore, is on three main components: surface-water flows and storage, ground-water flows and st orage, and water-use assessment. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Regional analysis, Assessments. REICHERT, J.M. 1, FRYER, B.J.1, LUDSIN, S.A.2, JOHNSON, T.B.3, TYSON, J.T.4, JOHENGEN, T.H.5, and HAWLEY, N.6, 1Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research-University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2The Ohio State University, 1314 Kinnear Rd., 232 Research Center, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Ontario Ministry of Natural Res ources, R.R. #4, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 4Ohio Department of Natural ResourcesDivision of Wildlife, 305 E. Shoreline Dr., Sandusky, OH, 44870; 5CILER-University of Michigan, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 6NOAA-Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. River Plume Effects on Yellow Perch Growth, Survival, and Recruitment in Lake Erie. Several tributaries drain into western L. Erie that differ in their physical (e.g., temperature, sediment inputs) and chemical (e.g., phosphorus inputs) properti es. In turn, these river inflows lead to the formation of water masses (river plumes) that have distinct habitat characteristics, which could differentially influence the growth and survival of fi sh. Specifically, one might e xpect that nutrient-rich river plumes with higher temperatures (e.g., Maumee River plume) to prom ote faster larval fish growth, thus leading to increased survival and recruitmen t success, compared to river plumes without such attributes (e.g., Detroit River plum e). To test this hypothesis, we ar e using otoliths from yellow perch larvae and juveniles collected during 2006 and 2007 to 1) compare daily growth rates between the Maumee and Detroit River plumes (n=25 larvae/date/p lume/year), and 2) develop plume-specific microelemental signatures (n=50 larvae/plume/year) to recons truct past larval habitat use of age-0 juvenile yellow perch from August (n=100 fish/year), which is when recruitment is set for this species in L. Erie. Herein, we present our research findings and discuss their implica tions for understa nding how river plumes can influence recruitment variation of yell ow perch, which is of re creational and commercial importance in L. Erie. Keywords: Chemical analysis, Otolith, Tributaries, Fish growth, Recruitment, Icthyoplankton. REID, D.F. 1 and WILKINSON, D.2, 1National Oceanic and Atmosphe ric Administration-NCRAIS, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2945; 2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-

PAGE 137

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 135 NMFS, 1849 C St., N.W ., Washington, DC, 20240. The Zebra Mussel: Catalyst for National Policy on Aquatic Invasive Species. The earliest and most extensive legislation on invasive species in the U.S. was for protection of crops and livestock. On the aquatic side, Federal polic y until the late 20th Centur y was rare and primarily reactive, treating each introduced species as a sepa rate problem. The discovery of the zebra mussel in 1988 catalyzed multiple laws and policy changes at many levels of government across the U.S. and Canada, recognizing aquatic invasive species as a na tional problem. In the U.S. the centerpiece has been the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Species Preven tion and Control Act (NANPCA), originally passed in 1990. It included mandates on prevention (ballast water), and requirements aimed at zebra mussel control, as well as other actions, such as system surveys and establishment of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force to encourage a coordinated Fede ral approach. It led to establishment of regional panels, and to EO 13112, which result ed in the first comprehensive na tional plan for managing invasive species issues within the United Stat es. In Canada, the issue was recogni zed in the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy (1995), which led to the 2001 Canadian Action Plan to Address the Threat of Aquatic Invasive Species, resulting in recent changes in Canadian ballast water law and the establishment of an extensive scientific program. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Policy making, Environmental policy. REID, D.F. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admi nistration-NCRAIS, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2845. Oregon Public Broadcasting Vide o: The Silent Invasion: Quagga Mussels (Lake Mead). In January 2007, quagga mussels were discovered in Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, marking the first documented establishment of dreissenids west of the 100th meridian. Oregon Public Broadcasting is preparing an hour-long documentary on invasive species in Ore gon. A short segment from that documentary will be played that focuses on the Lake Mead invasion and the fear, already being realized, that the mussels will spread through out the western states. This video se rves as a brief introduction to the next presentation, by Drs. A.N. Cohen and R.A. Moll, about the spread of drei ssenids west of the 100th meridian and the local/regional response. Keywords: Invasive species Zebra mussels, Distribution patterns. REID, S.M.1, JONES, N.E.2, and YUNKER, G.B. 2, 1Watershed Science Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Aquatic Research and Development Section, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Evaluation of Single-pass Electrofishing and Rapid Habitat Assessment for Monitoring a Species-at-risk Stream Fish, Redside Dace ( Clinostomus elongatus ). To date, monitoring of the status of the provincially threatened redside dace in Ontario has been ad hoc or incidental to other sampling programs. We evaluated the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing without block nets to detect redside dace, provide an i ndex of abundance, and characterize size-class distributions. We also ex amined whether a rapid stream habitat assessment method was suitable for monitoring habitat condition at ca pture sites. Based on 40 sites across 7 Lake Ontario tributaries, catch data and length frequency distributions from singlepass sampling were compared to those from multiple-

PAGE 138

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 136 pass depletion sampling. Single-pass electrofishing captured 47% of estimated redside dace abundance and 34% of biomass. Abundance and biomass data fr om the single-pass method were positively correlated (abundance r2 = 0.83; biomass r2 = 0.52) with estimates from the multiple-pass depletion method. Singlepass and multiple-pass length frequency distributions were not significantly different. The habitat assessment method failed to detect expected habitat differences between sites that contained redside dace and those that did not. Habitat m onitoring could be improved by includin g more detailed measurements of fine sediment, pool depth, and riparian vegetation. Keywords: Habitats, Fish management, Monitoring. RICCIARDI, A. Redpath Museum, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6. Ecological Distinctiveness as a Driver of Exotic Speci es Impacts: Bivalves as a Case Study. While most aquatic invasions have no obvi ous impact, some cause substantial ecological disruptions. The ability to distingu ish invaders likely to have a ma jor impact from those having only minor effects is essential for prioritizing management efforts. Unfortunately, there exist few predictable patterns of impact for invasions, reflecting their context-dependent natu re. A promising approach toward identifying predictable patterns is to test hypotheses that incorporat e characteristics of both the invader and the invaded system. Using data from studies of dreissenid mussels and othe r introduced bivalves, I explored the hypothesis that an invaders impact is determined by the invaded systems evolutionary experience with similar species. The ra tionale for this hypothesis is that unique invaders are less likely to encounter enemies that can control their abundance (and, thus, limit their impact), and are more likely to encounter nave competitors, predators and prey th at are poorly-adapted to them. The hypothesis is supported by meta-analyses showing th at introduced bivalves that a dd a novel ecological function to a system are more likely to disrupt the system. Furthe rmore, the taxonomic relationship of the invader to resident species appears to be a useful pr oxy variable for ecological distinctiveness. Keywords: Dreissena, Ecological impacts, Prediction. RICHARDS, R.P. BAKER, D.B., and KRAMER, J.W., National Center for Water Quality Research, Heidelberg College, Tiffin, OH, 44883. Record-setting Phosphorus Loads from Agricultural Watersheds in Ohio. Annual loads of total phosphorus and dissolved reactive phosphorus for the Sandusky and Maumee Rivers in Water Year 2007 were the highest observed in more than 30 years of monitoring these rivers. This is true in spite of downward trends in sediment and particulate phosphorus concentrations: sediment loads for 2007 were above average but not record-setting. The major reason for these extreme loads is the weather. 2007 had above -average but not record -setting rainfall (44.8, 129% of the average since 1900), and a warm fall and winter supported tilla ge and fertilization, ac tivities that are postponed until spring in colder years. During this time, which is often dry, there were frequent rains, which eroded bare soils and leached nutrients from crop stubble a nd applied fertilizer and manure. Rainfall for October through January was 173% of the average for this period. Exceedence analysis suggests that phosphorus loads this large should occur only ab out once per 100 years. This year indicates the extent to which the weather can dominate nonpoint source nutrient loading from agricu ltural watersheds, and illustrates the

PAGE 139

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 137 challenge of developing models of to predict ecosyst em responses to highly variable watershed inputs. Keywords: Phosphorus, Pollution load, Tributaries. RIDAL, J.J. and HICKEY, M.B.C., St. Lawrence River Institute, 2 Belmont St., Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1. The Role of NGOs in the RAP Process: The E volution of the St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences in the St Lawrence River (Cornwall) RAP. The St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) RAP was initia ted in 1986, encompassing an 80 km stretch of the river from Cornwall, Ontario to the Quebec bord er. Industrial, municipal and agricultural activities contributed to several impairments including restrictions on fish and w ildlife consumption, loss of fish and wildlife habitat, eutrophication and beach clos ures. Early in the planning process, a lack of information on these issues within the context of a complex large river environment was identified. Strong local involvement led to the creation in the early 1990s of the St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences (River Institute) as a NGO res earch and education institut e. Since that time the River Institute has played a significant role in RAP implementation through research and outreach activities. The River Institute has been particularly successful in forging i nnovative partnerships with local municipalities, industry and universities to support research into ke y knowledge gaps. The River Institutes diverse outreach and environmental educa tion programs disseminate RAP information to the public. Central to its contribution has been an emphasis on building or ganizational capacit y, particularly in establishing complementary funding sources that provide a measure of independence from government funding cycles. Keywords: Public participation, Remediation, St. Lawrence River. RILEY, S.C. 1, MUNKITTRICK, K.R.2, EVANS, A.N.4, KRUEGER, C.C.3, and DETTMERS, J.M.3, 1U.S.G.S. Great Lakes Science Center 1452 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, E2L 4L5; 3Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 2100 Commonwealth Blvd., Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 4Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331. Fish Health and Ecosystem Dysfunction in the Great Lakes. Disease may be an important variable affecting wild fish population dynamics in the Great Lakes; however, a lack of information on the ecology of fish disease currently precludes th e prediction of risks to fish populations. We propose a conceptual framewor k for conducting ecologically -oriented fish health research that addresses the inter-relationships among fish healt h, fish populations, and ecosystem dysfunction in the Great Lakes. The conceptual fr amework describes potential ways in which disease processes may relate to ecosystem function, and suggests that functional ecosystems are more likely to be resilient with respect to disease events than dysfunctiona l ecosystems. We suggest that ecosystemor population-level research on the ecology of fish dis ease is necessary to understand the relationships between ecosystem function and fish health, and to improve prediction of popul ation-level effects of diseases on wild fish populations in the Great Lakes. These concepts are embodied in a research theme promoted within the Great Lakes Fishery Commi ssions research program, which is designed to encourage ecologically-oriented research on fish disease in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Fish diseases, Ecosystem health, Populations.

PAGE 140

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 138 RILEY, S.C. and ROSEMAN, E.F., U.S.G.S. Great Lake s Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Deepwater Demersal Fish Community Colla pse in Lake Huron: Implications for Monitoring of Great Lakes Fish Communities. Long-term fish community surveys were carried out by the U.S.G. S in the Michigan waters of Lake Huron using bottom trawls from 1976-2006. Tre nds in abundance indices for common species in trawl catches were estimated for two periods: early (1976-1991) and late (1994-2006). The round goby was the only species with a positive trend in abunda nce since 1994, and johnny darter and spottail shiner showed no significant trends; all ot her species significantly decrease d in abundance during this period. Percentage decreases in abundan ce indices between 1994 2006 ranged from 66.4 to 99.9 percent, with seven species having decreased in abundance by greater than 90%, and the mean biomass of all common species in 2006 was less than five percent of that observed in th e mid-1990s. Our observations suggest that the deepwater demersal fish community may be undergoing collapse. Trawlbased indices of fish abundance in Lake Huron are, however, subject to bias due to catchability, which may be affected by the presence of dreissenid mussels. We suggest that the use of multiple gears be considered for future fish community monitoring in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Fish populations, Monitoring, Lake Huron. ROBERTS, J.J. 1, HK, T.O.1, LUDSIN, S.A.2, POTHOVEN, S.A.3, and VANDERPLOEG, H.A.3, 1Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research-University of Michigan SNRE, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Aquatic Ecology Lab-Ohio State University, 1314 Kinnear Rd., 232 Research Center, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Bioenergetics Model to Explore the Effects of Hypoxia on Yellow Perch Habita t Quality in Lake Eries Central Basin. Seasonal hypolimnetic hypoxia recurs annually in the central basin of Lake Erie. While the ecological consequences of hypoxia on the food web of Lake Eries central basin are largely unknown, hypolimnetic hypoxia likely negatively affect s habitat quality of yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ), a primarily demersal species of both economic a nd ecological importance. We are using a threedimensional spatially-explicit bioenergetics modeling framework to synthesize fi eld and laboratory data collected during 2005-2007 to test this hypothesis. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, and prey abundance (zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates) data collected as part of th e 2005 IFYLE program were interpolated to generate 3-D estimates of biotic and abiotic envir onmental conditions. These estimates were then used as input to apply a 3-D yellow pe rch bioenergetics growth potential model, which incorporates laboratory results re lating yellow perch consumption and growth to temperature, oxygen concentration, and prey availabilit y. Preliminary results suggest that during a year of severe hypoxia, yellow perch habitat quality is dele teriously affected in the preponde rance of hypolimnetic cells within Lake Eries central basin. Ultimately, we discuss the implications of these results for management of Lake Erie yellow perch. Keywords: Fish, Bioenergetics, Lake Erie.

PAGE 141

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 139 ROCKWELL, D.C. 1 and WIRICK, H.2, 1USEPA Great Lakes National Pr ogram Office, 77 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604; 2USEPA Water Division, 77 W. J ackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604. An Overview of the 2007 Pilot Sanitary Surveys. The U.S. EPA supports a long-term beach clos ure and advisory survey of beaches on the Laurentian Great Lakes. Waters used for recr eational activities involvi ng body contact should be substantially free from pathogens, in cluding bacteria, parasites, and viru ses, that may harm human health. Nine Pilot Sanitary Surveys ($525,000) were funded in 2007 to implement the use of the Sanitary Survey Pilot tool at sixty beaches in six of the Great Lake States and the Pr ovince of Ontario. During a generally dry summer in the Great Lakes basi n, types of beach contamination so urces are identified and potential sources of contamination were studied that did not contribute to beach bacterial contamination. Grantees proposed remediation measures for managing their be aches will be discussed. Remediation plan cost estimates and expectations for improvements in beach usage will be presented. Forecast models types used for predicting E. coli posting and expected improvement in beach management from the use of models will be discussed. Grantee's suggestions for improvement and recommendations for use of the beach sanitary survey tool will be presented. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Indicators, Planning. ROD, D.L. and QUINLAN, R., Department of Biology, York Universit y, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada. A Paleolimnological Reconstruction of Historical Lake Simcoe Cold-water Fish Habitat. Since the start of European se ttlement (circa. 1800) in the wa tershed, phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe has increased 3-fold. Concurrently, Lake Simcoe populati ons of lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis ) have declined. This decline is due to poor population recruitment, attributed to eutrophication, causing a reduction in volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO). Recent abatement efforts have succeeded in decreasing P inputs, and VWHO levels have recovered to a target value of 5 mg/L. However, cold-water fish populations conti nue to experience recruitment failure. A VWHO target of 7 mg/L may better reflect the oxygen op tima of cold-water fish juveniles. This work aims to reconstruct historic VWHO values to determine how the cold-water fish habitat of Lake Simcoe has fluctuated since the on set of European settlement. VWHO values will be determined using a Chironomidae (Insecta:Diptera) VWHO inference model. Fish abundances will be inferred using a Daphnia ephippia model. The major goals of these pa leolimnological analyses are: 1) to determine if a VWHO of 7 mg/L reflects the historical characteristics of the lake; 2) to determine how fish abundance has fluctuated; 3) to compare inferred ch anges in VWHO and fish abundance with variability in anthropogenic P inputs. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Fish habitat, Paleolimnology, Oxygen. ROGERS, E.D. 1, HENRY, T.B.1, TWINER, M.J.2, STRANGE, R.J.3, BOYER, G.L.4, SAYLER, G.S.1, and WILHELM, S.W.5, 1Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 2Center for Coastal Environmental Health an d Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC; 3Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 4Department of Chemistry, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY; 5Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee,

PAGE 142

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 140 Knoxville, TN. Global Gene Expression in Larval Zebrafish Exposed to Microcystis aeruginosa: More Than Just Microcystin. Large-scale Microcystis blooms occur annually in the lowe r Great Lakes, and microcystin concentrations often exceed the WHO advisory level of 1 g/L. While fish kills have been associated with elevated microcystin concentratio ns, sublethal effects are largely unknown. We exposed zebrafish larvae to purified microcystin-LR (0-1,000 g/L) or lyophilized Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 for 96 hours and determined effects on global gene expression (Affy metrix arrays). Relative to control, 213 genes were differentially expressed (> two-fold change) in larv ae exposed to microcystin-LR. In larvae exposed to M. aeruginosa 59 genes differed in expression, 26 of wh ich were found only in fish exposed to M. aeruginosa Of particular interest, gene s involved in vitellogenin producti on were highly up-regulated in the Microcystis treatment (30 to 190-fold), but not induced in larvae exposed to microcystin-LR. These results suggest vitellogenin genes are not affect ed by microcystin-LR but some other secondary metabolite(s) produced by M. aeruginosa. Ongoing analysis of microarray da ta will provide insight into additional pathways activated by microcystin and M. aeruginosa and provide potential biomarker genes for assessment of fish living in Microcystis affected environments. Keywords: Fish toxins, Microcystis, Gene expression. ROKITNICKI-WOJCIK, D. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Use of Logic-based Decision Tree Analysis and IKONOS Imagery to Classify Coastal High Marsh and Inland Wetland Vegetation. Wetlands provide numerous invaluable ecosystem services and have thus been the focus of intensive classification analyses and inventorying efforts. In an age where high-resolution remote sensing imagery has lent itself to lands cape ecological studies, these em erging technologies have become increasingly valuable. IKONOS im agery has successfully been used to classify wetland vegetation; however, freshwater coastal wetlands (particularly the terrest rial portions) have re ceived little attention. Here we use IKONOS imagery to classify wetland vegetation, focusing on coas tal high marsh and inland wetlands in eastern Georgian Bay, On tario, Canada. Vegetation was separa ted into 6 classes, in addition to separate classes for rock and water. A decision tree cl assifier with Definiens Developer 7.0 software (Definiens; Mnchen, Germany) allo wed for increased thematic accura cy and the use of logic-based decision rules. The impetus of this work is to a pply the classification to the creation of a detailed inventory of coastal wetlands for the eastern coast of Georgian Bay and to track changes in vegetation with water level change to aid in coastal wetland conservation. Keywords: Georgian Bay, Remote sensing, Coastal wetlands. ROSSO, N. 1, WOOTTON, B.2, METCALFE, C.D.3, and ANDERSON, B.4, 11600 West Bank Dr., Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2200 Albert St., Fleming College, Lindsay, ON, K9V 5E6; 31600 West Bank Dr., Trent Universi ty, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 4Dr. Bruce C. Anderson, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. Assessing the Ability of Treatment of Wetlands to Mitigate Contaminants from Wood Waste Leachate.

PAGE 143

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 141 There is a growing concern and awareness about the negative effects of leaching residuals from wood waste at saw mill sites in Ontario. The proposed research project is located in Whitney, Ontario, and will be one of the first of its kind in the province. The objectives of the project are to: 1) examine the sources of contaminants in leachate runoff through co lumn testing; and 2) test the effectiveness of wetland designs. Parameters include the metals coppe r, zinc, and iron, and or ganic compounds such as tannins, lignins, and phenols. Test variables for the treatment wetland will include species of vegetation, substrate media, and abundance of dissolved oxy gen through passive and forced aeration. Prior to construction of full scale treatment wetlands, column test experiments will be conducted to determine the most effective vegetation types and substrate media that will reduce concentrations of metals, and tannins, lignins and phenols to below PWQOs. Wood waste leach ates can be toxic in the environment, unless treated at the source. This research will promote sustainable and effective saw mill practices through optimization of treatment wetland design and through the development of best management practices throughout this important resource industry. Keywords: Wetlands, Ecosystem health, Pollutants. ROTHLISBERGER, J.D. 1, LODGE, D.M.1, FINNOFF, D.C.2, and COOKE, R.M.3, 1University of Notre Dame, Department of Biological Sciences, Notre Dame, IN, 46556-0369; 2University of Wyoming, Department of Economics and Finance, Laramie, WY, 82071; 3Resources for the Future, 1616 P St., NW, Washington, DC, 20036. Ship-borne NIS Diminish Ecosystem Services of the Great Lakes: A Structured Expert Judgment Study. We performed a structured expert judgment st udy on the ecological and ec onomic impacts of shipborne nonindigenous species (NIS) in the Great Lakes (GL). We elicited ten North American GL experts on ecosystem services affected by NIS: wildlife watc hing, raw water usage, and commercial and recreational fishing. A calibration method assessed each experts abil ity to characterize uncertainty probabilistically. Experts differed sign ificantly in calibration performance, and experts' opinions indicated substantial uncertainty about NIS im pacts. To generate aggregate impact assessments, with uncertainty bounds, we combined experts' judgments based on calib ration performance. Aggregate results indicated that NIS-associated reductions in commercial fishing range from 10.5% (L. Erie) to 338% (L. Ontario), with a mean in the other 3 lakes of 36%. Experts estim ated losses to recreational fishing at 18% over all five lakes. Average annual NIS-related expenses were estimated at $66K per raw water-using facility. Impacts are expected to grow in to the future, at most doubling dur ing our 20 yr time horizon. Our study used a novel application of expert judgment to provide the first comprehensive and bounded estimates of ship-borne NIS impacts in the GL. These results could help evaluate the net valu e of access to the GL by ocean-going ships. Keywords: Economic impact, Biological invasions, Ballast. RUCINSKI, D.K. 1, BELETSKY, D.2, DEPINTO, J.V.3, SCAVIA, D.2, and SCHWAB, D.J.4, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystem Research, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 3University of Michigan, Sc hool of Natural Resources, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 4Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Long-term Application of a Climate-driven Dissolved Oxygen Model for the Central Basin of Lake Erie.

PAGE 144

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 142 Despite decreases in nutrient loading since the 1970s, Lake Erie continues to experience hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2 mgL-1) during the period of summer stratifica tion, particularly in the central basin hypolimnion. Several environmental factors are thought to drive the timing and magnitude of hypoxia, including climatology, cultural eutro phication, and invasive species. Here we examine the effects of the thermal cycle (i.e., climatology) of the lake with a long-term applic ation (1987-2005) of a simple model to estimate dissolved oxygen (DO) in the centr al basin. A 1-dimensional vertically segmented hydrodynamic model provides the thermal structure of the central basin. DO is lost from the water column due to a parameterized volumetric loss rate and a sediment oxygen demand is applied in the bottom layer. A long-term time series of model-determined oxygen loss rates is examined for its relationship to thermal stratification conditions and phosphorus loading. Keywords: Lake Erie, Oxygen, Ecosystem modeling. RUCINSKI, D.K. 1, BELETSKY, D.2, DEPINTO, J.V.1, SCAVIA, D.3, and SCHWAB, D.J.4, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystem Research, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 3University of Michigan, Sc hool of Natural Resources, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 4Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Development and Applicatio n of 1D Eutrophication Models for the Central Basin of Lake Erie. Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2 mgL-1) in the central basin of La ke Erie has reemerged as a hazard to ecosystem health, despite reductions in nutrient loading required by the Clean Water Act. Several studies are being conducted to investigate th e causes of hypoxia in Lake Erie, which may include climatology, cultural eutrophi cation, and invasive species. Two eutroph ication models were developed to predict primary production and th e associated oxygen dynamics for the period of 1987-2005. The first model is a simple stoichiometric algal growth model based on in-l ake phosphorus concentrations and incident light. The second model expands on the fi rst by incorporating grazing and detritus pools. Both models are linked to a 1-dimensional vertically se gmented thermal model for temperature and transport inputs. The model results are compared to pr evious dissolved oxygen modeling applications. Keywords: Ecosystem modeling, Lake Erie, Eutrophication. RUKHOVETS, L.A. 1, ASTRAKHANTSEV, G.P.1, MENSHUTKIN, V.V.1, MININA, T.R.1, PETROVA, N.A.2, and POLOSKOV, V.N.1, 1ul. Chaikovskogo 1, St. Petersburg, 191187, Russian Federation; 2ul.Sevastyanova 9, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. The Influence of Climate Changes and Anthropogenic Loading on the Lake Ladoga Ecosystem. The estimates of possible changes in the lake ci rculations and temperature regime of Lake Ladoga are obtained. To achive this, round-the-year circula tions were simulated under varying external forcing and water inflow. With use of the 3-D hydrodynamic model developed by the authors earlier, several different types of the lake circula tions that correspond to possible change s in the climate were calculated. The analysis of results show s that changes in the lake circulations to the middle of the XXI century can be considered as negligible. The changes in the lake ecosy stem can be considered as the integral estimates of changes in the lake circulations. To evaluate the ecosystem changes, th e authors have simulated the yearround functioning of the lake ecosystem for different circulations unde r several different external loading

PAGE 145

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 143 as well as for different scenarios of loading change in the long-term perspective. The most important result of this study performed: the key factor that determined the state of Lake Ladoga is the level of anthropogenic loading. Results obtained in theses investigations can be used for choosing the policy of sustainable development and management of water re sources of this lake. This study is supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Research (projects 06-06-80240, 06-06-08008). Keywords: Climate change, Lake model, Plankton. RUTHERFORD, E.S. 1, TYLER, J.A.2, WILEY, M.J.1, RISENG, C.M.1, HYNDMAN, D.3, and PIJANOSWKI, B.C.4, 1Institute for Fisheries Research, Co operative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research, School of Natural Resource s and Environment, Dana Bldg., 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1041; 2Fisheries Projections, 307 Old Mountain Rd., Farmington, CT, 6032; 3Department of Geology, 206 Natural Science Bldg., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1115; 4Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University, 715 West State St., W. Lafayette, IN, 47907-2061. Effects of Urban Development in the Muskegon River Watershed on Growth, Survival, and Potential Recruitment of a Lake Michigan Steelhead Population: Results of a Multi-modeling Approach. We examine how rates of urban development a nd reforestation in the Muskegon River watershed affect age-0 steelhead populations with a multi-modeling system. Basin-wide land use change and hydrologic models forecast alterati ons in the ecosystems water budge t. Local-reach hydraulic models provide a high-resolution, spatially-e xplicit depiction of the physical en vironment that we combine with site-specific data to model the biol ogical environment. Our individualbased model (IBM) operates in this model environment and follows steelhead from spawning until the end of the first growing season in early October. The IBM includes mechanistic submodels which simulate steelhead foraging, growth, movement, and mortality resulting from predation, starvation, and substrate scou ring or siltation. We run the IBM for landscapes representing years 1998, 2010, 2020, 2040, 2070, and 2100 under land use scenarios reflecting: 1) expected urban developm ent (baseline), 2) urban development under a slow growth regime, and 3) baseline with reforestation. IBM simulations show changes in survival, density, size, and potential recruitment of age-0 steelhead under the three differe nt urban development scenarios. Keywords: Computer models Recruitment, Watersheds. RYAN, P.A. 1 and MACDOUGALL, T.M.2, 1Villa Nova Estate Ltd., RR4 (1449 Con. 13), Simcoe, ON, N3Y 4K3; 2Ministry of Natural Resources, PO Box 429, Port Dover, ON, N0A 1N0. Habitat Objectives to Support Rehabilitation of Percids in Lake Eff ect Zones of Lake Erie and Detroit R. Corridor. Most rivers tributary to Lake Erie or the Detroit River corri dor have lake effect zones or lacustuaries with extremely degrad ed habitat, which limits recovery and production of localized walleye and yellow perch stocks. High nutrien t concentrations combined with seasonal low flows during summer and fall result in abundant algal growth, turbidity, low dissolved oxygen, and degraded wetlands. Adverse temperatures occur seasonally (winter/summer) while adverse TSS events are associated with storms and snow-melt. The term good habitat needs to be transl ated into numbers in orde r to establish targets for rehabilitation of habitat for perch and walleye. We review literature values for effects of suspended

PAGE 146

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 144 solids/turbidity, temperature and dissolved oxygen on fis h, in reference to field observations. We develop habitat objectives, with seasonal and spatial or r efuge aspects. Specialized monitoring programs are required in order to collect data requir ed to assess the status of habitat, and progress in re habilitation. Fish stock recovery will be a visible indicator, that will track recovery of habitat and the entire aquatic community. Keywords: Habitats, Walleye, Yellow perch. RYMAN, J.E. 1, KOOPS, M.A.2, and POWER, M.1, 1University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada; 2Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Hamilton Harbour Food Web Components using 15N and 13C. Stable isotopes ( 13C, 15N) will be used to determine f ood web interactions spatially and temporally in Hamilton Harbour. Pl ankton, benthic invertebrates, a nd fish were sampled in spring, summer, and fall in 3 regions of th e harbor (east, west, and north s hores). Seasonally, the 3 sites follow the same patterns for 15N in both phytoplankton and zooplankton, a gradual decrease from spring to summer and increasing agai n in fall. Zooplankton 13C for all three sites followed similar patterns with the most enriched carbon signature s appearing in early A ugust, the same time period as the depleted nitrogen peak. The 13C of phytoplankton was much more variable possibly as a result of variations in input sources to the harbor. The eas t end of the harbor is influenced by Lake Ontario as well as the discharge of wastewater from the c ities of Hamilton and Burlington. The west end of the harbor is much more sheltered, but subject to inputs from Cootes Paradise (with two wastew ater treatment plants discharging into it) and Grinds tone Creek. Analysis of fish 13C and 15N signatures is discussed against the background of observed variations at the base of the food web with pa rticular attention paid to spatial differences within and among seasons. Keywords: Carbon, Stable isotopes, Food chains. SANDERS, T.G. 1, BIDDANDA, B.A.1, KENDALL, S.T.1, STRICKLER, E.A.1, OSTROM, N.E.2, STRICKER, C.A.3, and NOLD, S.C.4, 1Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Department of Zoology, Michigan Stat e University, East Lansing, MI, 488241115; 3U.S. Geological Survey Stable Isotope Lab, DFC Bldg. 21, MS 963, Denver, CO, 80225; 4213 Science Wing -Jarvis Hall, University of Wisconsin -Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751-0790. An Ecological and Stable Isotope Study of Food Web Linkages in Submerged Vent Ecosystems of Lake Huron. The Great Lakes region is underlain by a series of aquifers with substantial runoff occurring through groundwater flow. In western Lake Huron, th ere are several submerge d vents that discharge groundwater plumes with high dissolved sulfate a nd extremely low dissolved oxygen. Recent studies of some sinkholes have shown them to be microbial ly dominated biogeochemical hotspots of intense photosynthetic and chemosynthetic pr oduction of organic matter. Tradit ional ecological techniques show distinct distributions of organism s inversely correlated to the distan ce from groundwater input. New data from stable isotope analyses of 13C, 15N, and 34S s how the groundwater to have a unique stable isotope signature when compared to surrounding lake environm ents. This source signature can be used to trace energy flow from producers (benthic algae, pla nkton) to consumers (macroinvertebrates, fish).

PAGE 147

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 145 Preliminary data suggest that, on average, benthic b acterial/algal mats were -8.9 and invertebrates were -12.88 more 13C depleted at sinkholes versus lake controls. Furthermor e, invertebrate feeding benthic fish carry a lighter signature than the more mobile predatory fishes. Continuing analyses will test the notion that sinkhole vents are not only zones of increased local production but ar e also important to the surrounding lake ecosystem. Keywords: Food chains, Stable isotopes, Lake Huron. SANDSTRM, A. BEIER, U., and AXENROT, T., St ngholmsvgen 2, Drottningholm, SE-17893, Sweden. What is the Potential of Pr otected Areas in Large Lakes? An Evaluation of Fishery Closures in Lake Vttern. The usefulness and function of area s protected from fishing has been a major issue of scientific as well as political debate over the last decade. With a few exceptions, the vast majority of both case-studies and theoretical models on protecte d areas are from tropical marine environments. Although fisheries management in lakes to some extent faces similar pr oblems as in marine systems, fishery closures have rarely been used as a management method. Subsequen tly, the numbers of studies from lakes are few and rather limited. We provide an example of early results from an assessment of fishery closures in Swedish Lake Vttern, the fifth largest lake in Europe. The commercial catch of the important fish species; whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus L.) and Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus L.) have declined markedly since the mid 70s and as a means of remediation, three large areas, comprising 15 % of the lakes surface, were closed for all fishing in 2005. We re port the results from a monitoring program following the response of both the pelagic as well as the bent hic fish communities within and outside the protected areas. Two years after the closure, the overall catch per unit effort of both target species has increased. However, only minor differences between closed areas and fished areas could yet be observed. Keywords: Fisheries, Assessments, Fish management. SATCHWELL, M.F. HOTTO, A.M., and BOYER, G.L., State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forestry Dr., Syracuse, NY, 13210. Using the Microcystin mcyA Gene to Track Toxin Movement in Northern Lake Champlain. In Missisquoi Bay, the northeas tern arm of Lake Champlain, the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin annually reaches levels which exceed the WHO guideline value for drinking water. Concentrations of 5 ppb in open water and greater than 30 ppb in su rface scums are common. Six years of whole lake monitoring (2000-2005) indicated that this highly eutroph ic bay may serve as the source of microcystin to other regions of the lake. Previous work using PCR to detect a suite of microc ystin synthesis genes has shown that the number of positive microcystin amplicons decreases with distance from Missisquoi Bay. During the summers of 2006 and 2007, samples for DNA analysis, microcystin quantification and pigment concentration were collected from Missisquoi Bay, south through the Inland Sea (eastern basin of Lake Champlain) and down through the Alburg passa ge connecting Missisquoi Bay to the northwest section of the lake (northwest arm). Cyanobacteria were dominant or co-dominant at all stations. Measurable amounts of microcystin were f ound at most stations. PCR indicated that Microcystis was present at most stations, as we re the 2 toxin biosynthesis genes mcyA and mcyD The movement of

PAGE 148

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 146 potentially toxin-producing populations was estima ted from genotype compositions, determined by sequencing the mcyA amplicon. Keywords: Microcystis, Toxic substances, Lake Champlain. SAXTON, M.A. 1, TRUITT, D.B.1, MCKAY, R.M.L.2, BOURBONNIERE, R.A.3, and WILHELM, S.W.1, 1Department of Microbiology, Univers ity of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green Stat e University, Bowling Green, OH, 43403; 3Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Defining the Role(s) of Phosphorus in Promoting Toxic Cyan obacterial Blooms. Phosphorus (P) speciation plays a defining role in determining freshwater phytoplankton community structure. A noteworthy frac tion of the total P in the Great Lakes is present in organic forms (i.e., phosphonates, phospholipids, and nucleic acids) from agricultural runoff, viral lysis, and other sources represent important inputs of P into the Great Lakes. Also, organic phosphorus has been shown to be important in the ecology of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. With this in mind we hypothesized that organic phosphorus would influence the phytoplankton community structure in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, USA. Sandusky Bay is a si te of annual blooms of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix spp. In lab studies we tested the ability of Planktothrix spp. to use glyphosate (a phosphonate) as a P source. Lab experiments were complimented by field studies and microcosm incubations using Sandusky Bay water to examin e the effects of glyphosat e on natural phytoplankton communities. Our findings indicate that Planktothrix spp. can use glyphosate as a phosphorus source and that glyphosate also influences the development of phytoplankton communities in bay water microcosm incubations. Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Lake Erie, Glyphosate. SCOTT, B.F. SPENCER, C., LOPEZ, E., and MUIR, D.C.G. Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. PFAs in Lakes Erie and Superior and Their Tributaries. Perfluoroalkylacids (PFAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), belong to a family of chemicals that are very persistent in the environment. They are under scrutiny by government agencies who must determin e their risk to the gene ral population and to the environment. Several studies have shown that PFO S and other PFAs are present in biota and surface waters of the Great Lakes. We have focused on two of the Great Lakes, Erie and Superior, conducting special and temporal distribution of PFAs in the wa ter column. In addition, the PFA content of their tributaries was measured to determine their influen ce on the whole lake concentrations. Finally, the PFA concentrations at 3 points along th e St. Lawrence River were determ ined. Lake Superior profiles and other exhibited <1 ng/L for both PFOA and PFOS at each site. This is reflected in the content of these compounds in 6 tributaries. Lake Erie had PFOA a nd PFOS concentrations > 2 ng/L throughout the water column and the tributaries also ha d comparable elevated concentra tions. In Lake Huron PFOA and PFOS concentrations were >1 and < 4 ng/L while the St Lawrence River results for both compounds were > 4 ng/L. Keywords: Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Tributaries, Great Lakes basin.

PAGE 149

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 147 SEALOCK, L. and WELLS, M.G. DEPS, UTSC, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C1A4. Residence Timescales and the Underlying Hydrodynamic Processes in Frenchmans Bay, a Lake Ontario Coastal Embayment. We explore the links between residence timescal es and the underlying hydrodynamic processes in Frenchmans Bay, a coastal lagoon that is permanently connected to Lake On tario through a narrow and shallow channel. Exchange between the bay and the lake is the result of thermal variations, oscillations in water level and wind. This study uses water level tim e series, and water physico-chemical data to characterize the residence time for Frenchmans Bay. Onehalf the daily sum of water level increments is directly interpretable as the depth of water column a ffected by all seiche activity. This metric is used to estimate the seiche-induced exchange flow rate. Inviscid exchange flow rate is calcula ted to estimate a residence time based on temperat ure-induced flow. Taking into c onsideration the effects of both temperature and seiche-induced exchange flow, we cal culate a total residence time within Frenchmans Bay of 7.5 days 1 day. Assuming a steady state in the salinity of the bay, we calculate a second residence time based on salinity differences between the bay and Lake Ontario, using data of the annual salt flux into the bay. This generates a residence time of 8.3 days 1 day. Data provided will support future efforts to understand seiche and water te mperature influences on Great Lakes embayments. Keywords: Water currents, Coasta l wetlands, Water level fluctuations. SEEFELT, N.E. Department of Biology, Central Michig an University, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859. Comparing Decadal Census Trends and Yearly Variation in the Abundance and Distribution of Breeding Double-crested Cormorants: The Impo rtance of Monitoring a Managed Species. Decadal waterbird censuses began in 1976, and have b een repeated every eight to ten years in U.S. waters. Between 2000 and 2007, cormorants were monitore d in the Beaver Archipelago. During this time, there were no official population controls of th ese birds, with the excep tion of culling 150 birds for stomach content analysis in 2000 and 2001, and an egg-oiling and culling program in 2007. Yearly variation in the breeding population size, clutch size, and reproductive output was documented. The peak number of breeders was in 1997; in 2007, as compared to the more recent counts, the number of birds increased in the archipelago, suggesting immigrati on from other regions. Yearly surveys found that individual colonies showed great plasticity, with some colonies forming and others disappearing. Although some of these changes appear to be due to environmental factors, others indicate interactions with other species (both avian a nd mammalian), human disturbance, a nd perhaps management actions in other areas. Yearly population estimate s indicate that the long-term tr ends are probably captured with decadal waterbird surveys, but the dynamic nature of cormorant populations is not. Variation in the breeding population size an unmanaged population stresses the importance of closely monitoring species that are aggressively managed. Keywords: Cormorants, Dec adal census, Lake Michigan, Populations. SEEFELT, N.E. and SHAW, H.L., Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859. Initial Development of an Avian Monitoring Site at the Central Michigan University Biological Station on Beaver Island.

PAGE 150

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 148 The USFWS has prioritized objectives for avian conservation, including gui delines for neotropical migrants. Stopover ecology is one aspect of their biology where information is lacking. This research examines the potential importance of the CMU Biological Station shoreline prope rty as a stopover site by focusing on the spatial and temporal di stribution of migrants at this site, the species-specific use of this site, and the physical condition of birds utilizing the site by employing standard methods in landbird monitoring. Because of the islands location in the open waters of Lake Michigan, it may provide habitat that is critical to migrating bi rds. In 2006, fifty three avian speci es were documented during spring migration at this location; of these, twenty neotr opical migrant species were recorded. Eight of these species are recognized by the PIF American Landbird Conservation Plan and/or the USFWS Conservation Priorities as species of concern. In 2007, several more neotropi cal migrants, as well as other species, were been documented through a mist netting program; severa l of these species were not detected by sight and song censuses. These data will aid in the developm ent of this unique location as a center for avian monitoring, and in advancement of c onservation and management plans for these birds and their habitats. Keywords: Avian ecology, Stopover ecology, Lake Michigan, Neotropical migrants, Migrations. SHEN, L. 1, GEWURTZ, S.B.1, REINER, E.2, KOLIC, T.2, MACPHERSON, K.2, BURNISTON, D.3, HOWELL, E.T.2, HELM, P.2, BRINDLE, I.1, and MARVIN, C.H.3, 1Department of Chemistry, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Ave., St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Rd., Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 3Environment Canada, 867 Lakes hore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. PBDEs in Surficial Sediments of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Water quality of the Great Lakes is monitored by Environment Canada and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment to provide information on contam inant loadings to the lakes and identify potential problem watersheds. This study reports polybrominat ed diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Sediment sa mples were collected at locations in the open waters, nearshore waters, and Canadi an tributaries of the lakes. PBDE s were detected in all sediment samples in the range of 1.2 to 53 ng/g dry wt. High PBDE concentrations were found at several tributary sites of Lakes Superior and Huron. PBDEs in ope n water and nearshore water sediments had lower concentrations, which were at the lo wer end of the PBDE concentration range reported in the literature. BDE209 was the most abundant congener in sediment s, occurring in over 90% of samples. BDE 47 and 99 were also detectable in most samples, follo wed by BDE100, 153, 154, and 183. Sediment samples with high PBDE concentrations had congen er-specific patterns that are diffe rent from a typical pattern of atmospheric deposition and varied with sampling locat ions, implying that industrial activities near the Great Lakes contribute to PBDE contamination in sediments. Keywords: PBDEs, Great Lakes basin, Sediments. SHERMAN, K. Severn Sound Environmental Association, 67 Fourth St., Midland, ON, L4R 3S9. Severn Sound Remedial Action Plan: Five Years After De-listing. Cultural eutrophication has affected Severn Sound a region in southeastern Georgian Bay, since the 1960s. In 1985, this region was identified as an Area of Concern by the International Joint

PAGE 151

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 149 Commission due to excessive algal growth. A remedial action plan wa s developed starting in 1986 with the final plan (Stage 2 Report) completed in 199 3. The RAP included a phosphorus control strategy and habitat restoration and enhancement to encourage a restored balance to the fish community. Other actions included remediation of pollution sources to beache s and pollution measures. Substantial completion of the remedial actions with conditions to follow up wh ere needed was reported on in the Stage 3 Report which was accepted by the federal and provincial gove rnments in 2003. Since that time monitoring has continued to track trends with tim e and stewardship actions in the watershed have been pursued. This paper will provide an update of the status of the former AOC. Keywords: Remediation, Ecosystems, Eutrophication. SHERRY, J. TINSON, C., CLARENCE, S., HEIKKILA L., MCMASTER, M., and BROWN, S., Environment Canada, 867 Lakes hore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Are Fish in the St. Clair River Exposed to Environmental Estrogens? As part of a broader assessment of wildlife health in Great Lake s Areas of Concern (AOC) we are examining wild and caged fish for evidence of expos ure to environmental estrogens (EEs) and possible anti-estrogens. We divided the St. Clair River into upstream, impact z one, and downstream sites. At each site we captured adult male and female specimens of pelagic and benthic species We also caged juvenile rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) at each site in both rivers. The presence of vitellogenin (Vg) in the plasma of male or juvenile fish is indicative of exposure to EEs. A decrease in the concentration of plasma Vg in female fish, when compared with fe males from the reference location, could indicate exposure to anti-estrogens, although ot her explanations are possible. The da ta suggest that wild fish at the St. Clair River AOC have had exposur e to EEs. Moreover, Vg concentra tions in the plasma of female shorthead redhorse sucker ( Moxostoma macrolepidotum ) from the impact zone were less than in females from the reference site (p = 0.04). Vg was induced in fi sh caged in Sarnia Harbour on the St. Clair River, but was not strongly induced at the other sites. Pelagic and bottom dwe lling fish in these two rivers may experience different EE exposures. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Fish, Endocrine disruption. SHRESTHA, D. 1, WOOTTON, B.2, and METCALFE, C.D.3, 11600 West Bank Dr., Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Program, Trent Un iversity, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2200 Albert St., Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Flemi ng College, Lindsay, ON, K9V 5E6, Canada; 31600 West Bank Dr., Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. The Effects of Temperature and Plants in Simulated Arctic Treatment Wetland. There has been a growing concer n in understanding the e ffects of temperature and plant species in treating contaminants using a treatment wetland. The ear ly studies suggest low performance of carbon and nitrogen removal to low temperature owing to low mi crobial growth rates. However, recent studies have shown removal efficiencies of organic matter (BOD, COD) may not be temperature dependent. The low temperature may not necessarily relate to low performance of the system. Further, studies suggest physiological response of some plant species to seasonal dormancy and lower temperature may permit increased oxygen transfer to the root zone of a subsurface constructed wetland. A number of factors ranging from hydraulic retention time to type of wastewater, grain size of a substrate, presence of oxygen,

PAGE 152

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 150 and species selection will determin e performance of the system. This research focuses on the study of treatment efficiencies of wastew ater through simulation of Arctic conditions. The in-situ column experiments are carried out between -20 to +35C with plant speci es common to Arctic. The physiochemical and microbiological analyses will help in understanding temperature variability and its interaction with various parameters in treating wastewater which is crucial for an effective design and application in an Arctic environment. Keywords: Arctic, Experimental design, Wetlands. SHUCHMAN, R.A. 1, LESHKEVICH, G.2, HATT, C.1, POZDNYAKOV, D.3, KOROSOV, A.3, and JOHENGEN, T.H.2, 1Michigan Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Court, Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 3Nansen International Environmental and Re mote Sensing Center, Vasilievsky Island 14th Line, 7A, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia. Development of a Robust Hydro-optical Model for the Great Lakes for the Extraction of Chlorophy ll, Dissolved Organic Carbon, and Suspended Minerals from MODIS Satellite Data. An algorithm has been developed by Michig an Tech Research Institute (MTRI), Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NIERSC), and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (G LERL) that is capable of retrievi ng concentrations of chlorophyll (CHL), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended minerals (SM) from sate llite images of coastal and inland waters. The algorithm employs a water-body sp ecific hydro-optical model, which is a set of backscattering and absorption coefficients for CHL, DOC, and SM, to estimate concentrations of these substances. To generate the wate r body specific hydro-opt ical model for the Great Lakes, a set of dedicated field sampling campaigns was conducted in 2005-2007. Using a Satlantic profiling radiometer, we collected in-situ irradiance a nd radiance values at bands corres ponding to the MODIS and SeaWiFS satellite sensors, as well as sea truth data for CHL, DOC, and SM. In 2005 we obtained extensive observation in Lake Erie while in 2006 and 2007 optical properties in Lakes Huron and Superior were obtained. Results of the model show a strong correlation between in -situ and retrieved CHL and SM. Keywords: Remote sensing, Lake model, MODIS. SHUCHMAN, R.A. 1, MEADOWS, G.A.2, and LIVERSEDGE, L.K.1, 1Michigan Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Court, Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2University of Michig an, 126 West Hall, 1085 South University, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Automated Lagrangian Water-quality Assessment System (ALWAS). ALWAS is a relatively inexpens ive, free-floating, sail-powered or jet-driven water quality measuring and watershed evaluation buoy. It is capable of measuring a data point in a water body with multiple parameters as rapidly as every 40 seconds. Data are transmitted for real-time viewing and are stored for future retrieval and analysis. The stored data are easily downloaded into geographic database (ESRI shapefile) and spreadsheet formats. ALWAS uses state-of-the-art sensors to measure water quality parameters and GPS data. The buoys presently measures depth, temperature, conductivity, sa linity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, pH, oxidation-reduction poten tial, turbidity, chlorophylla, blue-green algae, nitrates, ammonium, and chlorides. ALWAS has been successfully deployed in Lake Michigan,

PAGE 153

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 151 Lake Superior, tributary rivers of the Great Lakes, inland lakes in Michigan and Ohio, at the Bering Glacier in Alaska, and on the North Slope of Alaska ALWAS has also been used to validate and help create remote sensing-based aquatic models and algorithms. Keywords: Water quality, GIS, Data acquisition. SHUTT, J.L. 1, WESELOH, D.V.2, PEKARIK, C.2, MOORE, D.2, and WILLIAMS, K.L.2, 1Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, 1125 Colonel Bay Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3; 2Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4. Impacts of Exposure to Type E Botulism on the Health of Colonial Wa terbird Populations in Eastern Lake Ontario. Type E botulism was first recorded in birds in the Great Lakes in th e early 1960s and was not documented in colonial waterbirds in Lake Ontari o until 2002. Since then, epizootics of type E botulism involving gull and tern species as well as double-crested cormorants (DCCOs) have occurred annually. Following a significant die-off during the summer of 2004, we initiated regular colonial waterbird surveys during the fall of 2004 and again in 2005 and 2006 to doc ument mortality in fish-eating birds associated with type E botulism. Numbers of dead birds rec overed were related to lo cal population size. In 20042006 6 island nesting colonies in eas tern Lake Ontario were surveyed 3 times per month between the July and November. During the 3 years surveyed 4,725 dead colonial waterbirds were recorded consisting of 3,329 (70% of total) DCCOs, 642 (14%) ring-billed gulls, 386 (8%) herring gu lls, 248 (5%) great blackbacked gulls (GBBGs), and 95 Caspian terns (2%). The remainder (1%) consisted of shorebird and waterfowl species. Colonies with the highest mortality changed from year to year. Since 2002 populations of great black-backed gulls in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario declined by 90%, indicating a possible population-level impact of type E botulism on this species. Impacts on other colonial waterbird species will be discussed. Keywords: Invasive species, Disease, Av ian ecology, Colonial waterbirds, Lake Ontario. SIMPSON, H. 1, BRADLEY-MACMILLAN, C.1, MYSLIK, J.P.1, and TAYLOR, E.P.1, 1Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 1 Stone Road West, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2; 2University of Guelph, Department of Geography, Guelph. The Ontario Environmental Farm Plan A Case Study of a Successful Community Water Resource Stewardship Program. Community interest and involve ment is a significant componen t of successful water protection programs. It is significant because changing daily activities around the business, farm, or home is more effective in protecting water resour ces than the most comprehensive strategy. Unfortunately, most water resource protection programs limit awareness and e ducation to the traditional community consultation approach. The traditional approach typically involves talking to the community about the importance of water resources, but does little to help community members understand how they can help make a difference. An alternative approach is to view th e rural community as a group of potential partners who can make a difference by changing their daily activitie s around the business, farm or home. This involves working with stakeholders to develop a program coope ratively that will help th e community to understand both the concern and ways that they can change th eir business, farm and household activities that will help protect water resources. This paper presents a case study using Ontarios Environmental Farm Plan

PAGE 154

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 152 to demonstrate how this alternative approach can be used. An an education and risk assessment tool that assists farmers to select best ma nagement practices for protecting wa ter resources will be discussed. Keywords: Risk assessment, Education, Stewardship. SKINNER, A.J. 1, EVANS, D.O.1, ALLEN, R.2, and MCMURTRY, M.3, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J &B8; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 50 Bloomington Road, Aurora, ON, L4G 3G8; 3Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 300 Water St., Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Invasion History of Zebra Mussels in Lake Simcoe. Adult zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, were first observed in Lake Simcoe on a boat hull in 1991. In 1994 and 1995, we used multiple-plate tower sample rs at six locations to detect settlement of veligers. The samplers were suspended about 3 m below the lake surface over a depth of 6 m. Low densities of settled veligers were observed during summer 1994 (0-1,742 m2). The abundance of settlers in 1994 was greatest at sites in the main basin. Densities were much lower in Kempenfelt Bay (KB), Cooks Bays (CB), and Lake Couchiching (LC). In 1995, th e number of settlers in creased by two orders of magnitude at the main basin sites(165,343-173,848 m2), and densities in KB, CB and LC (8,990-17,114) exceeded the highest densities observed in 1994. Adu lt zebra mussels were not found during an intensive lake-wide survey of rocky shoals in the summer 1993. Low densities of adults were in itially observed on rocky substrates in the fall of 1994 and the winter of 1995. In February 1996, two distinct adult year classes of zebra mussels were found on shoals at the nor th and south ends of the lake. Densities of adults averaged 68,239 m2 (31,159-105,890) in 1996 indicating widespread colonization and high densities on rocky littoral zone substrates. Keywords: Invasive species, Zebra mussels, Lake Simcoe. SMITH, L.A. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univer sity, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Monitoring Wetland Birds in Great Lakes Coastal Marshes. Concern over the recent decline in many wetla nd-dependent bird species has led to an investigation into human land use pract ices and the potential role they play in this decline. In order to determine the effects humans are having on wetland birds, accurately monitoring bird populations is essential. We conducted point coun ts and vegetation surveys at 21 co astal wetlands in the Great Lakes Region from 2006-2007. Our main objectives were to determin e 1) the effect of inte rior versus edge point counts in detecting wetland birds and 2) the efficiency of call-response broadcasts in detecting secretive wetland-dependent birds. There was no difference in the abundance of generalist marsh-nesting birds between interior and edge counts, but we found significantly more genera list marsh-nesting species at the edge. We found no significant difference between the abundance and richness of wetland-dependent birds between interior and edge counts, although interior point counts always detected more species and more individuals. Call-response broadcasts detected significantly more spec ies and individuals than passive point counts. These results have im portant implications for wetland bird monitoring programs, future scientific studies, and Great Lakes wetland conservation action plans using bird s as indicators of wetland quality. Keywords: Avian ecology, Coastal wetlands, Monitoring.

PAGE 155

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 153 SMITH, R.E.H.1, LUDSIN, S.A.2, and MASON, D.M. 3, 1Biology Dept., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2Dept. Evol. Ecol. Organ. Biol., Ohio St ate University, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Nat. Ocean. Atmos. Admin., Great Lakes Environ. Res. Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Physical Processes and Fish Recruitment in the World's Great Lakes. Early life stages of fish (eggs, larvae and juveniles) have high but variable growth and mortality rates, which contribute to inter-annua l variation in recruitment (additi on of young fish to the reproductive or fishable population). Physical ev ents and conditions have been shown to be important to early life growth and survival in marine fish populations, through direct and indirect pathways (e.g., larval advection relative to prey distribut ions, physical fronts reducing access to prey or refugia from predators). Here we review physical processes common to larg e lakes that may have important influences on freshwater fish recruitment. We present examples of evidence for physical fo rcing of recruitment in Laurentian Great Lakes fish popula tions and of progress in modeli ng and other tools for studying the interactions between populat ions and physical forces. From these obs ervations we seek to formulate key questions and avenues of investigat ion toward an overall theory of physical-biological coupling and its role in large lake fish population dynamics. Keywords: Fish, Hydrodynamics, Recruitment. SOPKOVICH, E.A. BROWN, J.E., and STEPIEN, C.A., 6200 Bayshore Dr., Toledo, OH, 43618. Temporal and Spatial Population Genetic Structure of the Eurasian Round Goby: Invasion Patterns in the Great Lakes. The Ponto-Caspian round goby Apollonia melanostoma invaded the Lake St. Clair region in 1990 via ballast water. It quickly sp read throughout the Great Lakes and is now one of the most abundant benthic fishes in the lower Great Lakes. The objec tive of this study is to test whether the genetic composition of the exotic population has remained the same from place to place and over the time course of the invasion. We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and analyzed eight newly-developed nuclear microsatellite loci to test for spatial and te mporal patterns. We analy zed 397 individuals from 2-3 time periods (1993 to 2007) at 5 locations in Lake s St. Clair, Erie, and Michigan. The cytochrome b gene has shown little temporal change and some spatial divergences. Microsatellite analyses, however, have shown a significant temporal change in Lake Mich igan from 1998 to 2007. The Lake St. Clair River site, the site of the original introduction, has not appeared to have tem porally changed, whereas there has been some change in Lake Erie. The original introduction site thus has been genetica lly stable, whereas more peripheral sites have changed over th e time course of the invasion. In addition, there is spatial genetic structure among the different locations, likely re flecting differential introduction histories. Keywords: Round goby, Gene tics, Invasive species. SOUCY, G. 1, JOLLIET, O.2, DETTLING, J.3, MARGNI, M.1, HUMBERT, S.4, MANNEH, R.1, and DESCHNES, L.1, 1Chemical Engineering, cole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2900 douard-Montpetit, C.P. 6079, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3A7; 2School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI; 4Engineering and Project

PAGE 156

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 154 Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA. Evaluating the Potent ial Health Impacts of Multi-compound Emissions within the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Region. A method is presented to weigh emissions based on their potential health imp acts. It is common to use Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEF) to compare em issions of compounds such as dioxins/furans and PAH. Based on dose-response experiments, TEF are ad equate to compare intake, but are often used inappropriately to produce TEF-weighted emissions. Here, to relate emissions to intake, a multi-scale multimedia fate and exposure model is being developed for the Laurentian Great Lakes region to determine Intake Fractions (the fraction of an em ission taken in by the overall population). For PAH, it shows that 3% of the emitted ma ss correspond to 53% of the human exposure and to 98-99% of the toxic impact on humans. Hence, it is essential to account for both toxic potential and environmental transport/exposure (i.e., intake fraction) to prope rly weight PAH emissions. The model presented here can be used to identify sources and ch emicals with a high impact in a particular area, and gains in terms of human health from a reduction in emissions. Goals for ecosystem management frameworks such as the GLWQA could be set and track ed based on the total impact of a wide range of chemicals, rather than on a chemical-by-chemical basis. An example is give n with 16-PAH in the GL region. This method could potentially be applied to any set of chemicals. Keywords: Human health, Emissions impact, PAHs. STAINSBY, E.A. 1, WINTER, J.G.1, and PATERSON, A.M.2, 1Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6; 2Dorset Environmental Science Center, P.O. Box 39, Bellwood Acres Road, Dorset, ON, P0A 1E0. Trends in the Thermal Dyna mics of Lake Simcoe from 1971 to 2007. Lake Simcoe is the sixth largest inland lake in the province of Ontario, Canada and represents a significant recreational value to cen tral Ontario. While the impact of rapid urbanization on the nutrient status of the lake has been a primary focus of water quality research, the additio nal role of recent climate change has not been evaluated. In an analysis of the ice dynamics on Lake Simcoe from 1853 to 1995, Futter (2003) found a statisti cally significant monotonic increase in the duration of the ice-free season with a marked increase the last tw o to three decades. In our study we will examine lake temperature profiles at eight deep water stations in Lake Simc oe to evaluate changes in the lake from 1971 to 2007. We will also assess long-term trends in lake stability as an indicator of lake turnover given its importance in structuring biological communities within lakes. We anticipate that thermal stratification may have occurred earlier in the spring as a resu lt of rising air temperatures (Jones et al 2006) and earlier ice-off dates (Futter 2003). Keywords: Climate change, Lake Simcoe, Lake temperature. STAINTON, M.P. 1, MCCULLOUGH, G.K.2, HESSLEIN, R.H.1, and PAGE, S.J.1, 1Department of Fisheries and Oceans Freshwater Institute, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6; 2University of Manitoba, Department of Geography Centre for Earth Observation Science, Winnipeg, MB. Effects of Climate Change on Phosphoru s and Nitrogen Loading to Lake Winnipeg. The past decade has seen a significant increas e in the size and frequenc y of cyanophyte blooms in Lake Winnipeg along with consequent hypoxia, algal toxins, fouled beac hes, and general changes in the

PAGE 157

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 155 food web. While these changes have for the most part been attributed to incr eased anthropogenic loading from municipal and agricultural sources, climate relate d events appear to have had a greater and more immediate impact. In this presentation we repor t on observed and modeled ch anges to lake surface temperature, precipitation patterns in the basin, and consequent modeled ch anges in riverine loadings of P and N to Lake Winnipeg. The nutrient loading model we have used to es timate in lake concentrations is also used to demonstrate the effectiveness of various initiated and proposed nutrient management strategies. While there are doubtle ss anthropogenic impacts on Lake Winnipegs trophic status, we conclude that the dominant event driving recent cha nges in the water quality of Lake Winnipeg has been extraordinary levels of precipita tion in the Red River basin and th e consequent disproportionate contribution of the P rich waters of the Red River to the lake. Current nutrient management strategies are brought into question. Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Nutrients, Climate change. STAPANIAN, M.A. 1, ADAMS, J.V.2, KOCOVSKY, P.M.1, BUR, M.T.1, and EDWARDS, W.H.1, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Lake Erie Biological Station, 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH, 44870; 2USGS, Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Summer and Autumn Abundances of Young-of-year Yellow Perch and Walleye: Time of Day Matters. We examined catch per hour (CPH) in botto m trawls of young-of-year (YOY) yellow perch Perca flavescens and walleye Sander vitreus at an established monitoring site in Lake Erie during spring and autumn 1987-2005 in order to determine what factor s affect seasonal abundan ces. For both species we rejected a null model (H0) representing a single pattern of annual abundance for both sampling seasons and all three times of day (morning, afternoon, a nd night) in favor of an alternative model (HA) that allowed for different patterns of annual abundance for different seas ons or times of day. The year-byseason interaction was signifi cant for both species in HA, suggesting that mortality between summer and autumn varied annually. We then compared a series of 16 linear models using Akaikes Information Criterion to see if indices of climate, water level, and predation accounted for these changes and could be used in place of the year-by-season interaction. For both species, the model that included main effects year, season, time of day, and the interaction performed best. Predic ted CPH from the best model was always greatest for night sampling and least for af ternoon sampling. Monitoring programs must consider effects of sampling season and time of day when assessing populations. Keywords: Monitoring, Fish. STAPANIAN, M.A. 1, KOCOVSKY, P.M.1, and ADAMS, J.V.2, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Lake Erie Biological Station, 6100 Colum bus Ave., Sandusky, OH, 44870; 2USGS, Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Diel Shift in Young-of-year Yellow Perch: Association with Increased Oligotrophication. Lake Erie has undergone considerable oligotrophication since the 1970s, particularly due to passage of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and th e establishment of dreissenid mussels ( Dreissena sp.). We examined bottom trawl data for young-of-year yellow perch Perca flavescens collected at an established site in western Lake Erie duri ng 1961-2005 at three diel periods (m orning, afternoon, and night). The time series was divided into three 15year periods: (1) 1961-1975, representing the period before passage of CWA through 4 years after passage of CWA; (2 ) 1976-1991, an intermediate period; and (3) 1991-2005,

PAGE 158

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 156 representing four years af ter the invasion of dreissen ids through the end of the time series. Night catches were greater than daylight catches during period 3 than during the other tw o periods. The results are consistent with an hypothesis that night catches were associated with increasing water clarity, particularly after the establishment of dreissenid mussels. Mon itoring programs of YOY yellow perch that do not include night sampling may underestimate recruitment. Keywords: Yellow perch, Lake Erie, Monitoring. STEEN, P.J. 1, WILEY, M.J.2, and SCHAEFFER, J.S.1, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2School of Natural Resour ces and Environment, University of Michigan, 170 Da na Building, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Variation in the Effect of Urbanization on Michigan and Wisconsin Stream Fish: How Can Good Fish Communities Exist in Urban Areas? One of the primary goals in past investigations of urban stream an alysis has been to understand the strength of the negative relationship between urbaniza tion and biotic communities. However, little effort has been expended into understandi ng the variation that occurs around this effect; why streams with similar urban levels have fish communities of signifi cantly different quality. In this study, I will test the hypothesis that non-urban habitat featur es control the variance in the re lationship between fish community quality and urbanization. To do this Michigan and Wisconsin streams reaches were classified into groups based on fish community quality and amount of urbaniza tion in their watershed a nd a series of univariate tests were performed to find how natural and anthropogeni c features are related to fish biotic integrity. In addition, covariance structure analysis was used to provide multivariate insight into the complex relationships that control the quality of the stream fish community. Results indi cated that urban streams with a higher percentage of natu ral land-cover in the watershed, mo re point source discharges, better water quality, and proximity to non-urbanized stream s were more likely to hold higher quality fish communities. Keywords: Urbanization, Fish management, Model testing. STEPIEN, C.A. NEILSON, M.E., and BROWN, J.E., Lake Er ie Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43618. New Names, Evolutionary Resolution, a nd Founding Sources for Exotic Great Lakes Gobies. Two Ponto Caspian neogobiin gobies were identifi ed in the Lake St. Clair region of the Great Lakes in 1990: the round goby (formerly Neogobius melanostomus ) and the tubenose goby (formerly Proterorhinus marmoratus ). We examine their evolutionary re lationships in comparison with PontoCaspian relatives, using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We further test population genetic patterns for 1,000 round goby individuals across its Eurasi an and North American ranges using 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. DNA evidence refutes monophyly of Neogobius, and we thus elevate the subgenus Apollonia to genus level, encompassing A. melanostoma (the round goby), A. fluviatilis (the monkey goby), and A. caspia The former P. marmoratus comprises at least three species and we retain that name for the marine tubenose goby. The species in the Great Lakes is the newly resurr ected freshwater tubenose goby P. semilunaris We also identify the southern Dniepe r River as the founding source population for the round goby in the Great Lakes. There is consid erable population genetic variation throughout the

PAGE 159

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 157 Great Lakes and substantial genetic diversity, supporting large numbers of propagules, several introduction events, as well as localized selection. Keywords: Round goby, Gene tics, Invasive species. STEWART, K.M. Dept. Biological Sci., State Univer sity of New York, Buffalo, NY, 14260. Freshwater Protected Areas (FPAs), Great Lakes and Elsewhere. As the world's human population expands, and ocean resources are drawn upon more heavily for food, the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (M PAs) and marine reserves is gaining increased attention. Freshwater Protected Area s (FPAs) are needed also for some of the larger lakes in North America, Africa, Asia, and elsewhere. FPAs would probably also be helpful to many rivers and inumerable smaller lakes around the world. Such prote cted areas can not protect against all overfishing, loss of biodiversity, environmental damage from pollu tion, or climate change. However, protected areas do create "limited buffer areas for reseeding" and may act as banks that aid in the management of freshwater ecosystems. In all cases, it is best if decisions on the types (e.g., limited extraction, no take zones) and locations of reserves are based on good science. Getting the science right is probably less of a challenge than having to deal with the conflicting polit ics of multiple stakeholders. It is easy to think that people in other countries should establish FPAs on some of their selected lakes and rivers. It seems to be more difficult to bring together the science and far-sighted politics to establish FPAs on the water body near you. Keywords: Environmental policy, Pu blic participation, Public education. STEWART, P.W. 1, REIHMAN, J.1, LONKY, E.1, PAGANO, J.J.2, and GUMP, B.1, 1Department of Psychology, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, 13126; 2Environmental Research Center, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, 13126. Intelligence (IQ) in Children Exposed to PCBs, MeHg, and other Contaminants in the Great Lakes. PCBs and MeHg are among several known neurot oxic chemicals in the Great Lakes ecosystem. An important question relates to how exposure to these contaminants in children predicts cognitive development (IQ) in later childhood. Here we report new data on the relationship between exposure to PCBs and MeHg and IQ in a cohort of children in Os wego, NY. Results are discu ssed not only in terms of implications for public policy, but also in terms of the importance of a reasoned and considered interpretation of the data. Keywords: Methylmercury, PCBs, Human health. STEWART, T.J. 1, OGORMAN, R.2, SPRULES, W.G.1, and LANTRY, B.F.2, 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tor onto at Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, L5L1C6; 2United States Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Ontari o Biological Station, Oswego, NY, 13126. Invasive Species Disruption of the Lake Ontario Food Web Affects Alewife Diet, Production, and Consumption of Zooplankton and Mysis relicta Beginning in the 1980s, a succession of non-native invertebrates colonized Lake Ontario and precipitated lake-wide disruptive changes to the f ood web during the 1990s. In Lake Ontario, alewife play a pivotal role in structuring the food web and tran sfer lower trophic level pr oduction to top predators.

PAGE 160

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 158 Alewife diets changed after 1990 with an increase in th e consumption of Mysis relicta a decline in the consumption of zooplankton, a switch in cladoceran consumption from native Daphnids to the exotic cladocerans Bythotrephes and Cercopagis and a decline in the consum ption of cyclopoid copepods and small cladocerans. The increased prevalence of Mysis and the recently established predatory cladocerans in alewife diets means that alewif e have shifted to a higher trophic position. To examine the effects of food web disruption on alewife diet and bioenergetics, we first developed population-based alewife bioenergetic models for two 5-year time peri ods; 1987-1991 and 2001-2005. We then compared estimates of average annual alewife biomass, alewife production, P/B ratios, total consumption, taxon-specific consumption, and associated Q/B ratios between time periods. Finally, we use error propagation techniques to determine the consequences of sampling error on variability in these estimates. Keywords: Alewife, Bioenergetics, Lake Ontario. STOW, C.A. 1, SELLINGER, C.E.1, LAMON, E.C.2, and QIAN, S.S.2, 1NOAA GLERL, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2NSEES, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27712. Analysis of Water Level Changes in Lakes Michigan and Huron. Recent water level declines in Lakes Michigan a nd Huron have been particularly worrisome, in part because they are consistent with many global climate change scen arios. We examined water level changes over time with Dynamic Li near Models (DLMs) and Seasona l Trend Decomposition using Loess (STL). STL results highlight periodic ities at several frequencies, incl uding a relationship with sunspot activity. Interestingly, the sign of this relationship changed from positive to negative in about 1940. DLMs show a relationship with precipitation at thr ee annual time lags, with a pseudo-r-squared of 0.89, and reveal an underlying water leve l decline that began in the 1970s. Th e DLM results provide a basis to forecast annual average water levels, given previous year precipitation, with accompanying uncertainty estimates. They may also be a useful tool to help delineate the causes of th e long-term underlying water level decline. Keywords: Lake Michigan, Water level fluctuations, Lake Huron. STRECKER, A.L.1, RIDGWAY, M.S. 2, MILNE, S.W.3, ABRAMS, P.A.1, FORTIN, M.J.1, JACKSON, D.A.1, and SHUTER, B.J.1, 1Department of Ecology & Evolutiona ry Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Resear ch, Aquatic Research and Development Section, OMNR, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 3Milne Technologies, Hampton, ON, Canada. Using Hydroacoustics to Infer Spatial Patterns of Lake Huron Coastal Pelagic Fish. As part of a large-scale study undertaken to understand the effects of double-crested cormorants on coastal fish communities, hydroacoustic surveys of seven different locations in Georgian Bay and the North Channel of Lake Huron were conducte d from 2000-2004. Surveys were done in seven 400 km2 grids and covered roughly 4.7% of th e total surface area of the Georgi an Bay and North Channel basins. Hydroacoustic techniques yield spatially -explicit data on the density of di fferent size classes of fish across a variety of habitats. Using global an d local measures of spatial associa tion, we examined patterns in the spatial distribution of fish density and biomass in Ge orgian Bay and the North Channel at both fineand broad-scales. Small fish (<250 mm) were generally positively autocorrelated at small spatial scales of less than ~1 km, and weakly negatively autocorrelated at greater distances. Pattern s of spatial aggregation

PAGE 161

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 159 were stronger at night th an during the day for small fish, but they also varied over time, suggesting that broader-scale regional forces may be a strong influence on coastal pe lagic fish in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Lake Huron, Hydroacoustics. STURTEVANT, R.A. and REID, D.F., NOAA National Center for Research on Aquatic Invasive Species, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. GLANSIS: The Great Lakes Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Information System. The Great Lakes have a long hist ory of introductions intentiona l and unintentional of aquatic nonindigenous species. As of 2007, at least 186 nonindigenous species ha ve been recorded as having reproducing populations in the Great Lakes basin, i.e., Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, Ontario, and their connecting channels and water bodies within their resp ective drainages (Mills et al. 1993, Ricciardi 2001, Ricciardi 2006, Ricci ardi unpubl. data). The Great La kes Aquatic Nuisance Species Information System (GLANSIS) functions as a Great Lakes-specific node of the USGS NAS national database of freshwater aquatic invasive species. In formation entered for GLANSIS automatically appears in both databases. GLANSIS allows more direct access to the Great Lakes specific information especially collection records. Indi vidual fact sheets have been deve loped for 134 of the 186 established nonindigenous species, thereby accounting for over 70% of the known invaders in the basin. The species for which factsheets are not yet developed are all vascular plants and algae, primarily semi-aquatic species. These are listed but with only minimal information at this time. GLANSIS is available at: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/ Programs/ncrais/glansis.html Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Invasive species, Outreach. STURTEVANT, R.A. and REID, D.F., NOAA National Center for Research on Aquatic Invasive Species, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Recent History of Great Lakes Saltwater Vessel Traffic, Delivery of Ballast Water, and th e Effect of Ballast Water Exchange on Aquatic Species Invasions. We review vessel traffic patterns and ballast characteristics of saltwater vessels entering the Great Lakes during equal periods of tim e before (1978-1988, pre-BWE) and after (1994-2004, post-BWE) Ballast Water Exchange regulation. The number of sh ips entering as BOBs declined significantly, while the number of NOBOBs was not significantly different The size of ships entering the Great Lakes, as reflected in gross tonnage, increased slightly duri ng the post-BWE period; the average of annual cargo weight per transit was about 21% larger for the po st-BWE period. We speculate that the total ballast amount carried into the Great Lakes potentially declined by ~76% betwee n the preand post-BWE periods. The relative amount of ballast carried on NOBOB vessels was a relatively small fraction of the cumulative total ballast potentially carried into the Great Lakes duri ng either period. We use estimated changes in ballast quantities as a simple surrogate to examine potential changes in propagule supply. The results indicate a dramatic redu ction in potential propagule supply between, represented by an estimated average decrease of ~97%, equivale nt to elimination of ~3.3 million t per year of unexchanged ballast water. Keywords: Ballast, Invasive species, Risk assessment.

PAGE 162

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 160 SWINEHART, C.Y. 1, JENSEN, D.A.2, MOY, P.B.3, TEPAS, K.4, KELCH, D.O.5, and DOMSKE, H.M.6, 1Michigan Sea Grant, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1222; 2Minnesota Sea Grant, 2305 East Fifth St., Duluth, MN, 55812-1445; 3Wisconsin Sea Grant, 705 Viebahn St., Manitowoc, WI, 54220; 4Illinois-Indian Sea Grant, 400 17th St., Zion, IL, 60099; 5Ohio Sea Grant, 42110 Russia Road, Elyria, OH, 44035; 6New York Sea Grant, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 142604400. Reflections on Outreach in Uncharted Waters : How the Discovery of Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes has Changed Public Outrea ch and Involvement in the Region. Zebra mussels were not the first, nor will they be the last, invasive aquatic species to become established in the Great Lakes. The discovery of Dreissena polymorpha motivated agencies, organizations, and institutions to form new alliances and partnerships to address the issue, to work with new stakeholders within the region, to use and, in some cases, develop or adapt appropriate tools/methods to engage affected publics, and to extend the scop e of their outreach bey ond the regions geographic boundaries. Also involved have been the integration of environmental education principles, conservation philosophies, social change theory, strategic mark eting and communication. This presentation will include experiences and evaluations, outcomes and impacts of selected outreach effort s conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Sea Grant pr ograms in the Great Lakes basin, as well as those of other agencies, organizations, and institutions. The authors will also offer some educated speculation on outreach trends for the future. Keywords: Dreissena, Outreach, Invasive species. TAILLON, D.J. and WRIGHT, M.E., Ministry of Natural Resources, 300 Water St., Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5. Responding to a Large-scale Fish Die-off: Kawartha Lakes Carp 2007. In the late spring and summer of 2007, thousands of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) died on eleven lakes in the Kawartha Lakes region of sout hern Ontario. The combination of environmental and biological stressors is believed to have combined and increased the st ress and susceptibility of carp to outbreaks of Flavobacterium columnare. Responding to the die-off was a significant challenge to the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), Ministry of Environment, local municipalities, health units, and other agencies. The die-off was unexpected and occu rred across a number of lakes over a three month time period. Primary concerns from the public related to public safety and water quality, as well as impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. Coordination amongs t the various agencies was especially challenging given the multiple levels of government jurisdiction pr esent on the landscape. Timelines associated with fish health testing were a source of frustration for the public, media, a nd partner agencies and contributed to the spread of inaccurate information. MNR is working with our partner agencies to develop a protocol associated with large-scale fish die-offs on inland waters. Lessons learned during this experience will be presented and are intended to provide guidance to sta ff in other jurisdictions. Keywords: Columnaris, Fish die-off, Communications. THOMAS, S.P. 1, JONES, J.2, PERSHYN, C.2, ALLEN, E.2, GREENE, M.2, MIHUC, T.B.2, SATCHWELL, M.F.1, and BOYER, G.L.1, 1State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forest ry Dr., Syracuse, NY, 13210; 2State University of New York at Plattsburgh,

PAGE 163

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 161 101 Broad St., Plattsburgh, NY, 12901. A Geospatial Mapping Method to Detect Lake Champlain Cyanobacteria Blooms. The purpose of this study was to develop a nd test a flow through methodology for spatially explicit mapping of Lake Champlain algal blooms. We used continuous flow through fluorometers linked to a spatial GPS signa l to map chlorophyll a and phycocyanin pigments to assess total algal and cyanobacterial biomass. Mapping consisted of co ntinuous data collection using Turner Designs Algaewatch and Cyanowatch fluoromet ers at 1 second intervals with geospatial referencing at the same interval using a Garmin 17 HVS receiver. In additi on to algal pigments, other parameters (primarily temperature) were also mapped using a Eureka Mant a probe. Flow rates of approximately 2 L per minute were used for algal mapping. We test ed a variety of flow devices and in strument set-ups. Results indicate that this method is feasible and coul d be applied at larger scales for fi rst tier monitoring of algal blooms. We were able to detect bloom conditions in Lake Ch amplain and develop field a nd laboratory protocols to produce accurate bloom maps. Keywords: Spatial distribution, Harm ful algal blooms, Lake Champlain. TILLITT, D.E. 1, RILEY, S.C.2, EVANS, A.N.3, NICHOLS, S.J.2, ZAJICEK, J.L.1, RINCHARD, J.4, RICHTER, C.A.1, HONEYFIELD, D.C.5, FITZSIMONS, J.D.6, and KRUEGER, C.C.3, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO, 65201; 2U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 3Great Lakes Fisheries Commission, 2100 Commonwealth Blvd. Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 4Environmental Science and Biology, State University of New York Brockport, Brockport, NY, 14420; 5U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Appalachian Research La boratory, Wellsboro, PA, 16901; 6Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. A Review of the Occurrence and Consequences of Thiaminase in the Great Lakes Ecosystem. Thiaminase has been causally-linked to thiamine deficiency and subsequen tly to early mortality syndrome (EMS) in Great Lakes salmonines. Thiaminase is an enzyme that degrades the essential vitamin thiamine (vitamin B1). It is produced by bacteria, y east, algae, and possibly hi gher organisms, including complex plants and even fish. The catalytic activity of thiaminase (i.e., ability to degrade thiamine) has been measured in a variety of species, representing various trophic levels within the Great Lakes. However, the exact source or sources of thiaminase at the different trophic leve ls are not known. Potential sources of thiaminase include: 1) pl ankton/lower food chain; 2) visceral bacteria; or 3) de novo synthesis by the fish. An understanding of the source of thiaminase would help elucidate potential management strategies for efforts to mitigate the consequences of thiaminase on salmonine populations. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of the presence and consequences of thiaminase in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Keywords: Food chains, Fish diseases, Vitamin B. TONINGER, R. and MCDONALD, K., 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Shoreline Restoration at Tommy Thompson Park: A Ca se Study of Essential Habitat Creation. Toronto and Region Conservation has led the restoration and enhancement of nearshore habitats along the Toronto waterfront. Tommy Thompson Par k, a man-made peninsula in east Toronto that

PAGE 164

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 162 extends 5 km into Lake Ontario, is a case study on how a site that func tions as a biological center of organization can be further enhanc ed through nearshore habitat restoration. Through extensive planning and consultation a strategic natural area enhancement plan for terrestrial and aquatic habitats has been developed and is being implemented. Sp ecies specific essential habitats that target a range of life stages of fish, herpetiles, shorebirds, waterbirds, and mammals and biological communities have been created and enhanced. Projects include fish spawning habitat, amphibian pools, in-water and shoreline structural habitat, waterbird habitat, coasta l wetland development, and invasive species management. A range of monitoring projects has been unde rtaken including underwater camera surveillance, br eeding surveys, radio-telemetry, vegetation mapping, electrofishing, and fish entrapment. The results show intriguing trends and document changes in the flora and fauna community. This case study documents one of the most significant changes to the nearshore community within the Toronto waterfront. Keywords: Restoration, Lake Ontario, Wetlands. TROY, C.D. Purdue University, Civil Engineering, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN, 479072051, United States. Evaluation of Low-cost Thermisto r Chains for Vertical Temperature Measurement. We evaluate low-cost thermistor chains suitab le for thermal observations in the Great Lakes. Much is known about the surface temperature variabil ity in the Great Lakes, owing to the extensive observational and modeling efforts of the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. However, it is well known that vertical temperature structure can have a profound impact on vertical mixing of nutrients, pollutants, and biota during stratif ied periods. There are few reported observations of subsurface thermal structure in Lake Michigan since the pioneering observational work of Mortimer. We evaluate several different subsurface temperature measurement systems suitable for deployment in the Great Lakes. The systems include a proposed lowest-cost thermistor chain, with cost of approximately $500 per 10-node thermistor chain, that utilizes a novel temperature sens or relatively new to limnology. The low cost of this instrument allows for multiple, simultaneous deployments that can give important spatial information on the subsurface thermal structure. Plans are outlined fo r thermal measurements in southern Lake Michigan. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Monitoring, Lake Michigan. TROY, C.D. 1, HULT, E.L.2, and KOSEFF, J.R.2, 1Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN, 47907-2051; 2Stanford University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laborator y, Stanford, CA, 94305-4020. Richardson Number Measurements in Breaking Internal Waves. The breaking of internal waves is known to be responsible for much of the vertical mixing observed in large, density-stratified lakes. In order to both correctly model and correctly infer the mixing associated with breaking internal waves, a thorou gh understanding of the instab ility mechanism driving these turbulent events is crucial. In this study, a primary indicator of turbulence in stra tified flows, the gradient Richardson number (Ri), is examined for internal waves on the verge of instability. We use simultaneous high-resolution scalar (Planar Laser-I nduced Fluorescence, PLIF) and velocity (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, DPIV) measurement techni ques to infer the gradient Richardson number of

PAGE 165

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 163 breaking and near-breaking progressi ve internal waves in a laborat ory channel. The results show important deviations from the oft-assumed canonical stability limit of Ri=1/4, which we attribute to the unsteadiness of the internal wave-generated shear driving the instability. This result has important implications for the diagnosis of tu rbulent mixing in stratified lakes. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Instabilities and mixing, Laboratory experiments, Stratified flows. TSIPLOVA, K.1, OBUSHENKO, N.1, REID, K.B. 3, YANG, W.2, and NUDDS, T.1, 1Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 3Ontario Commercial Fisheries Association, 45 James St., Blenheim, ON, N0P 1A0. Bioeconomic Risk Assessment of the Lake Erie Walleye Commercial Fishery. We examined the effects of alternative exploi tation policies on the economic well being of the Lake Erie Canadian walleye fishermen and fish processors by developing a risk framework that incorporates biological and economic characteristics of Lake Erie co mmercial fishery and by evaluating how well these management policies perform within such a framework. The model consists of a discrete time and age structured Ricker equations of population dynamics. The biological model contains an error term, which reflects variation in recruitment. This biological model uses Ricker parameters that were generated using a Bayesian method and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The economic model consists of the profit equation. The profit is a functi on of the annual total catch in weight and has two components: total revenue and total cost. In order to es timate the cost function we collected financial data from the Lake Erie harvesting sector and proces sing sector.We evaluated the effect of various management strategies on the harvesting sector an d the processing sector separately. The future time series of stochastic catch at age constitute an out put. The output of the economic model is future time series of discounted stochastic prof its. We used certainty equivalence and value-at-risk to rank the various walleye management options. Keywords: Economic evaluation, Fisheries, Risk assessment. TULEN, L.A. and CORONADO, D., Citizens Environment Alliance, 1950 Ottawa St., Windsor, ON, N8Y 1R7. The Role of the NGO in the Detroit River RAP. Initiated in 1987, the Detroit River RAP pr ocess has gone through numerous changes in organization, government agency interest, and agen cy personnel. Three non-governmental organizations have been consistently involved in the process through active membership in the Public Advisory Council. This continued involvement has provided c onsistency in historical knowledge, information transfer, public empowerment, and invaluable inform ation on local issues a nd options for successful remediation. The involvement of these non governmental organizations has maintained political and governmental interest in a RAP program that continues its legacy as one of the most polluted rivers in the U.S. and Canada. Keywords: Detroit River, Public parti cipation, Non-governmental organizations.

PAGE 166

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 164 TURNER, B.A.F. 1, BOWLBY, J.N.2, DAVIES, W.E.1, CLARKE, D.R.1, and GROSS, M.R.1, 125 Harbord St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3G5; 241 Hatchery Lane, RR 4, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Salmonid Cannibalism in Lake Ontario: Testing the Predator Curtain Hypothesis. The question of whether or not adult salmonids pose a si gnificant predation ri sk to spring-running post-smolts remains an equivocal and important topi c in Great Lakes fisheries management. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that poor recr uitment of Lake Ontario juvenile salmonids is du e to predation pressure by adults during the spring smolt migration. To test this hypothesis, we collected stomachs from adult salmonids during the spring-run, from the n earshore area surrounding C obourg Creek, Ontario. The results presented here describe data from the first year of a three-year study. These preliminary findings do not support the hypothesis that ad ult salmonids pose a major predati on risk to juvenile salmonids during their outmigration. However, gi ven the limited sample size of this first year of study, it is difficult to say how representative these results are. A formalization of the predator curtai n hypothesis as it applies to salmon recruitment in the Great Lakes is presented. Keywords: Salmon, Pr edation, Lake Ontario. TWISS, M.R. 1, WILHELM, S.W.2, MCKAY, R.M.L.3, BULLERJAHN, G.S.3, DEMPSEY, J.P.4, CARRICK, H.J. 5, and SMITH, R.E.H. 6 1Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5805; 2Department of Microbiology, The Univer sity of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996-0845; 3Department of Biological Scie nces, Bowling Green State Univ ersity, Bowling Green, OH, 43403; 4Department of Civil and Environmental Engine ering, Clarkson Universit y, Potsdam, NY, 13699-5710; 5School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania St ate University, University Park, PA, 16802; 6Department of Biology, University of Wate rloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. The CACHE: A Unique Limnological Feature in Ice Covered Lake Erie. In February 2007, we documented discrete accumulations of elevated phytoplankton biomass, termed CACHEs (Concentrated Algal Community and Heterotrophic Ecosystems), dominated by the filamentous diatom, Aulacoseira CACHEs were present throughout the central basin and approximately every 100-300 m. We hypothesize th at diatom-synthesized lipid duri ng winter is trapped in the hypolimnion by the onset of therma l stratification and causes summ er hypoxia. We constructed a conceptual positive feedback model of CACHE forma tion that recognizes the physical and biological constraints on Aulacoseira growth. Since black ice is thinner than white ice due to albedo (light penetrating black ice warms water below), sca lloping occurs on the bottom of the ice surface. Aulacoseira in the water directly below scalloped black ice will be subjected to a favorable light environment and proliferate and produce abundant lipid to maintain the advantageous light regime in the depression and overcome isopycnal forces caused by the warming of the water. The isopycnal sinking of water masses leads to convective currents that concentrate Aulacoseira This hypothesis explains CACHE formation and the appearance of discrete accumulations of Aulacoseira biomass under the ice rather than as a widespread dispersed bloom. Keywords: Lake Erie, Algae, Ice. URBAN, N.R. 1, MCKINLEY, G.A.2, WU, C.H.2, ATILLA, N.2, BENNINGTON, V.2, and MCDONALD, C.P.1, 1Michigan Technological Un iversity, Houghton, MI, 49931; 2University of

PAGE 167

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 165 Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI. CO2 Fluxes Across the Lake Superior Surface: Coupling of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Physics, biology, and chemistry interact in a variety of ways to regulate the flux of CO2 out of the Great Lakes. On the physics side, seasonal variations in wind speed affect th e rate of gas transfer. Changes in atmospheric boundary conditions that occur on timescales of days alter both the rate of gas transfer but also the chemical gradient across the ai r-water interface. Physics in tersects chemistry when seasonal changes in temperature change the solubility of CO2 and induce seasonal influxes and effluxes. Changes in lake mixing depth alter the frac tion of the lake that actively exchanges CO2 with the atmosphere. Of course, th e biological uptake of CO2 by algae in summer raises the pH and lowers the concentration of CO2 in the water thereby altering the driv ing force for gas transfer. Many of these processes vary in space and time. As a result, estimating an annual lake-wide flux of CO2 is problematic. This talk will demonstrate several of the phenom ena discussed above as well as show a couple of approaches toward quantifying the lake-wide annual flux for Lake Superior. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Carbon cycle, Model testing. USJAK, S. and WITT, J.D.S., University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Genetic Differentiation of Diporeia Populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Implications for Conservation and Management. The taxonomic status of Diporeia populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes has been the source of much confusion and uncertainty, despite their im portance as energy conduits from the sediments to higher trophic levels. We conducted an analys is of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among populations from Lakes Huron, Michigan, Ontari o, and Superior to test the hypothesis that Diporeia hoyi represents a species complex in the Great Lakes. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data did not support the existence of two or more species. However, an analysis of molecular variance and tests of population differentiation revealed marked genetic structuring and population subdivision among the Great Lakes populations, which likely re flects historical colonization patt erns and a lack of contemporary gene flow. Populations in Lake S uperior represent one Evolutionary Significant Unit, while populations residing in Lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario repres ent another. Given the pr ecipitous declines of Diporeia in the Great Lakes over the past decade, these results have important implications for potential recovery and management programs. Keywords: Taxonomic status Mitochondrial DNA, Genetic diversity. UZARSKI, D.G. 1, BURTON, T.M.2, CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H.3, BRAZNER, J.C.4, ALBERT, D.A.5, OTIENO, B.S.6, BOURGEAU-CHAVEZ, L.7, TIMMERMANS, S.T.A.8, and MEIXLER, M.9, 1Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859; 2Departments of Zoology and Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 4Inland Waters Institute, 29 Powers Dr., Herring Cove, NS, B3V 1G6; 5Michigan Natural Features Invent ory, Stevens T. Mason Building, Lansing, MI, 48909-7944; 6Department of Statistics, Grand Va lley State University, Allendale, MI, 49401-9403; 7Michigan Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Ct. Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 8Bird

PAGE 168

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 166 Studies Canada, P.O. Box 160, Port Rowan, ON, N0E 1M0; 9Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, 104 Rice Hall, NY, 14853. Status and Trends of Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Health: A Basin-wide Monitoring Plan. In the 1990s, the need for indicat ors of the integrity of Great La kes coastal wetlands (GLCW) was identified. In 2000, U.S. EPA-GLNPO awarded funding to the Great Lakes Commission to form the Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Consortium (GLCWC) of ove r 50 organizations to de sign an implementable, long-term monitoring program. By 2007, the GLCWC had nearly completed development of their monitoring program, about the same time another resear ch consortium with simila r goals, the Great Lakes Environmental Indicators (GLEI) group, was also near ing completion of their pr oject. The two consortia met in early 2007 to ensure that common methodologies, findings, and cross-valida tion were incorporated into the final GLCWC recommendations. The final repo rt was prepared in 2007 and delivered to U.S. EPA-GLNPO early in 2008. The GLCWC document descri bes a long-term plan to monitor GLCW using a scientifically-validated experi mental design, a suite of recommende d plant-, invertebrate-, fish-, amphibian-, bird-, and landscape-based indicators, a thorough cost analysis, a data management system, and an implementation strategy. A summary of th is plan, including findings and recommendations on bioassessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands, will be presented. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Biomonitoring, Ecosystem health. VACHON, N. and FREELAND, J.R., Department of Biol ogy, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Invasive Phragmites in the Great Lakes Region. I. Emerging Evidence on the Relationship between Environmental Variables and Invasion Potential. Invasive species currently present one of th e most significant threats to the Great Lakes ecosystem. One particularly problematic plant is an invasive lineage of the common reed, Phragmites australis which is reducing biodiversity and disr upting ecosystems around the Great Lakes. A multifaceted approach is needed if we are to limit the damage that is being done by Phragmites, and this should be based in part on a better understanding of which environmenta l factors foster its invasiveness. We are using a combination of genetics and environmental modeling to compare populations of invasive Phragmites in parts of its native (UK) a nd invaded (including the Great La kes region) range to determine what combination of environmental factors (both edaphic and climatic) create ideal growth conditions. Our findings will be relevant to future management pl ans, some of which will be based on predictions of future climate change. Keywords: Invasive species, Habitats, Wetlands. VANDERPLOEG, H.A. 1, NALEPA, T.F.1, FAHNENSTIEL, G.L.2, POTHOVEN, S.A.2, LIEBIG, J.R.1, DYBLE, J.1, and ROBINSON, S.3, 1Great Lake Environmental Res. Lab., NOAA, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2GLERL Lake Michigan Field Sta tion, 1431 Beach St., Muskegon, MI, 49441-1098; 3CILER, Univ. of Michigan, 2205 Co mmonwealth, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Dreissenids as Nearshore and Offshore Engineers: Predicting Di rect and Indirect Effects of Mussels on Pelagic Food Webs.

PAGE 169

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 167 With invasion of dreissenids to all depth zones of the Great Lakes, we now have to consider effects of mussels across all depth regions of the la kes. We review our progress in understa nding effects of dreissenids on pelagic food webs Effects of mussel selective f eeding and nutrient processing on phytoplankton composition vary across trophic gradients. The desertification of the offshore pelagic region is likely not only driven by the hypothesized nearshore P shunt, but also activities of the mussels themselves in the offshore region. Increased light and other habitat modification have led to unanticipated changes in spatial coupling and food web pro cesses. For example, mussel filtering reducing phytoplankton along with increased water clarity have led to direct and in direct negative consequences to zooplankton through loss of food and possibly increased susceptibility to visu al predation from Bythotrephes and Cercopagis Many of the changes now seen in the Great Lake have not been anticipated from analogies of mussel impacts in other freshwater and marine systems. This stems from lack of consideration of scale, system ope nness, trophic status, seasonal stra tification, and peculiarities of the local food webs. We have a lot to learn before we can adaptively manage the Great Lakes. Keywords: Dreissena, Bythotreph es cederstroemii, Microcystis. VANDERPLOEG, H.A. NALEPA, T.F., and REID, D.F., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-GLERL, 2205 Commonw ealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2945. Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Synthesis and Open Discussion. The Session Co-Chairs will lead an open discussi on during the final speaker time slot in Session 29 to summarize the lessons learned from invited and contributed presentations during this session. Further, we hope to stimulate a di scussion about future research directions and adaptive management strategies that may be necessary to deal with the realitie s of dreissenids and othe r aquatic invaders in North America over the next 20 years. Keywords: Exotic species, M anagement, Environmental effects. VELEZ-ESPINO, L.A. 1, KOOPS, M.A.1, and BALSHINE, S.2, 1Great Lakes Laborator y for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Invasion Dynamics of Round Goby ( Neogobius melanostomus ) in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. Most introductions of non-nati ve species fail to establish so on after introduction either through mortality or reproductive failure. The presence of an established populat ion increases the probability of survival and reproductive success of new propagules by avoiding both Allee effects and demographic stochasticity. Analyzing data collected during the spread phase of the invasion, we model the probabilities of reaching critical densities for habitat saturatio n as a stochastic progression and backcalculate the elapsed time between arrival and establishment of round goby, Neogobius melanostomus in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. Our modelin g shows that (1) during the transition between arrival and establishment, propagule pressure in the form of adults can be very low and still represent a significant probability of establishment, (2) the demographic c ontribution of propagule pressure during the spread phase is low and its total elimination will not halt population growth and spread, (3) there is a short elapsed time between arrival and establishment, indicating the transiti on between arrival and

PAGE 170

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 168 establishment can be characterized as a deterministic process underp inned by high propagule pressure and low adult mortality rates. Keywords: Biological invasions, Round goby, Great Lakes basin. VENIER, M. and HITES, R.A., School of Public and E nvironmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405. Brominated Flame Retardant and Dioxin Concentrations on the Shores of the Great Lakes. Air samples were collected every 12-24 days at five near-lake sites (Eagle Harbor, MI; Chicago, IL; Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; Cleveland, OH; and Sturgeon Point, NY) from Nov. 2003 to Dec. 2006. Samples were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl et hers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants, such as 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane, Dechlorane Pl us, and decabromo-diphenylethane. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDEs were found at th e urban sites of Chicago and Cleveland (65 4 and 87 8 pg/m3, respectively) and the lowest at the remote site of Eagle Harbor (5.8 0.4 pg/m3). BDE-47, 99, and 209 were the most abundant c ongeners at all sites, suggesting that the penta-BDE and deca-BDE products were the main sources of PBDEs. At the sa me sites, except Clevela nd, polychlorinated dibenzop-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) were measured. The highest mean concentrations were found at the Chicago site (56 6 fg TEQ/m3) followed by the rural site at Sturgeon Point (28 4 fg TEQ/m3) and the two remote sites at Sleeping Bear Dunes and Eagle Harbor (11 1 and 4.0 0.5 fg TEQ/m3, respectively). The logarithmically transformed flam e retardant and dioxin concentrations showed a seasonal trend at most sites. Keywords: Atmospheric circulation, Chemical analysis, Environmental contaminants. WANG, H. 1, HK, T.O.1, COOK, H.A.2, EINHOUSE, D.W.3, FIELDER, D.G.4, KAYLE, K.5, and RUDSTAM, L.G.6, 1CILER, University of Michigan, NOAA/Gr eat Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Erie Fisheries Station, Rural Rout e 2, 320 Milo Road, Wheatley, ON, N0P 2P0; 3New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservati on, Lake Erie Fisheries Research Unit, 178 Point Dr., North Dunkirk, NY, 14048; 4Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Al pena Great Lakes Fisher ies Research Station, 160 E. Fletcher, Alpena, MI, 49707; 5Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Fairport Fisheries Research Station, 1190 High St., Fairport Harbor, OH, 44077; 6Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University Biological Field St ation, 900 Shackelton Point Road, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Inter-stock Variation of Maturation Schedul es of Walleye in the Great Lakes Region. Although intra-specific variation in fish matu ration schedules are indu ced by both plastic and adaptive processes, commonly used maturation indices (e.g., age and length at 50% maturity) do not facilitate discrimination between plastic and adaptiv e variation. More recently, several researchers have employed probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMR N) to help discriminate between plastic and adaptive variation. To quantify inter-stock plastic a nd adaptive variation in maturation schedules and to evaluate sensitivity of maturation in dices to sampling-induced biases, we quantified spatial and temporal variation of maturation schedules of walleye from Lake Er ie, Saginaw Bay, and Oneida Lake using 1) age and length at 50% maturity, 2) midpoints of age-sp ecific maturation ogives, and 3) midpoints of PMRN. Our findings suggest that while sampling month, gear, and agency effects can bias estimates of age and

PAGE 171

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 169 length at 50% maturity, PMRN estimates are robust to gear and month effects (but sensitive to biases relating to agency effects). Furthermore, based on PMRN estimates we identified potential adaptive variation in maturation schedules among walleye stocks. Our study high lights the necessity to monitor maturation schedules using multiple maturation indi ces and the need to account for biases when comparing maturation schedules. Keywords: Life history studies, Management, Walleye. WANG, J. 1 and HU, H.2, 1NOAA Great Lake Environmental Research Lab, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2CILER/UofM, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Developing a Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) Using CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) in Lake Erie. Lake ice cover is an important predictor of re gional climate. Lake i ce extent can modify the circulation patterns and thermal struct ure because: 1) wind stress drag is different in magnitude over water surface than over ice surface; 2) the albedo over ice vs. water differs, and 3) heat and moisture exchange between the atmosphere and the lake water can differ significantly (as much as an order of magnitude difference) in magnitude with and without lake ice, t hus leading to striking difference in evaporation in wintertime due to wind mixing. Thus, prediction of the lake ice extent (i.e., cover) is crucial for predicting mixed layer, circulation, temperature, and lake water level, and thus for predicting primary and secondary productivity. In addition, the timing of ice melting, de termined by climate variab ility, will determine the timing of phytoplankton and zooplankton blooms. As a first step, Lake Erie ice conditions are simulated with atmospheric forcing on synoptic and seasonal time scales (winter of 2004-2005) using the GLIM modified from Coupled Ice-Ocean Model (CIOM). The GLIM reproduces seasonal cycles of ice concentration, thickness, and velocity fields, which are validated by available satellite measurements. Keywords: Lake Erie, Ice, Model st udies, Hydrodynamics, Climate change. WARREN, G.J. HORVATIN, P.J., and ROCK WELL, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL, 60604. Where Have All the Daphnia Gone? Daphnia spp. have always been a small component of the Lake Superior zooplankton community. However, in the other Great Lakes, populations of Daphnia have been a major component of the summer zooplankton. In recent years Daphnia populations have declined drama tically in Lake Huron, and to a lesser extent in Lake Michigan. A number of reasons for the decline in thos e lakes can be postulated, including planktivory by fish and invertebrate predators and decreased productivity due to lower phosphorus levels in the lakes. Here we investigate the po ssibility that the decr ease in phosphorus has lowered productivity and availabl e food carbon to levels that limit Daphnia growth and reproduction, or that phosphorus may be the nutrient directly limiting Daphnia In order to investigate this question, literature estimates of the seston carbon necessary fo r growth will be compared with particulate carbon data and C:P ratios derived from our monitoring program. Keywords: Zooplankton, Phosphorus, Predation.

PAGE 172

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 170 WATSON, S.B. 1, HUDON, C.1, and CATTANEO, A.3, 1Canadian Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Centre Saint-Laurent, Envi ronment Canada, Montreal, PQ; 3Dpartement de sciences biologiques, Universit de Montral, Montreal, PQ. Cyanobacterial Impairments in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Ri ver: Benthic Fingerprints of Anthropogenic Activity. Recently, dense benthic/ epiphytic cyanobacteria Lyngbya cf. wollei and Gloeotrichia pisum ) have been impacting shorelines and drin king water in two areas in the Grea t Lakes. Both sites are located downstream from major tributaries draining agricultural regions, but differ in local flow/circulation, resuspension, and nutrient regimes. In one case, Lyngbya mats in the mouth of the Maumee River (W. Lake Erie) produce extensive shoreline and beach f ouling from detached mate rial, provoking media and public concern for potential cyanotoxins. The second imp acted area is located at the at the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers near Montreal where drinking water inta kes are impacted by late summer taste and odor and detached algal mats. In this area both Lyngbya and Gloeotrichia develop in distinct patterns reflective of di ffering local P and N regimes. We de scribe the physico-chemical regimes of the two sites, the taxa and a ssociated noxious metabolites, and poten tial socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Keywords: Cyanophyta, Harmful algal blooms, Benthos. WATSON, S.B. 1, MILLARD, S.2, BURLEY, M.2, MOLOT, L.3, and FORRESTER, L.A.3, 1Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environmen t Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Depatment of Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3. Cyanobacterial Impairments Following Remediation in a Eutrophic Area of Concern: Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. We describe a fiveyear collaborative assessment of impairment by cyanobacterial blooms, toxins and taste-odor (T&O) in the Bay of Quinte, a eutrophic Area of C oncern in Lake Ontario. Biweekly summer/fall samples at 4-5 sites were combined with extensive late-summer spatial surveys for physicochemical characteristics, phytoplankton, and noxious metabolites. Our data showed that, between 20032007, cyanobacterial impairment was a major probl em. Late summer cyanobacterial blooms were dominated by large N2-fixers (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon ) and periodic outbreaks of Microcystis Despite progress toward other delisting targets T&O remains an impairment, and is likely derived from runoff, planktonic and benthic sources in the bay. Importantly, a si gnificant number of samples exceeded drinking water guidelines for total hepatoxic microcys tin (MC). Municipal drinki ng water plants on the bay showed adequate removal, but high MC levels were recorded in shallow and beach areas where public exposure is not monitored. Microcystis and MC levels were well corre lated each year but showed differences in regression coefficients among years. Variation among st ations in average ratios of MC/chlorophylla and MC/Total P also suggest differences in factors modi fying the response of these plankton communities to nutrients. Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Cyanophyta, Harmful algal blooms. WEGHORST, P.L. 1, WITTER, D.L.1, ORTIZ, J.D.1, and HEATH, R.T.2, 1Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH,

PAGE 173

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 171 44242. Monitoring Lake Erie Chlorophylla Concentration with MODI S: An Assessment of Two Algorithms. Ocean Color 3 (OC3) chlorophyll data are available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but, as the name implie s, the OC3 algorithm was not calibrated for inland waters. How reliable is it for Lake Erie, which is shallower, more pr oductive, and more turbid than the ocean? OC3 and, for comparison, Cannizzaros shallo w water algorithm were applied to the AprilOctober MODIS data for 2002-2007. The algorithms were evaluated by linear regression of the derived chlorophyll concentrations versus 110 colocated in-situ ch lorophyll measurements analyzed in the lab using standard fluorometric methods. Differences among Lake Eries basins and the variable quality of MODIS imagery were also considered. Neither algor ithm was valid for Eries western basin. For the combined central and eastern basins, the Cannizzaro algorithm yielded better results; OC3 consistently under-predicted high concentrations. However, both algo rithms performed significantly better when badly pixelated images were screened from the data se t, suggesting that improvi ng atmospheric correction methods may improve the accuracy of chlorophyll re trieval for Lake Erie. Overall, OC3 predicted chlorophyll concentrations well for th e central and eastern basins, espe cially on days with clear image quality. Keywords: Remote sensing, Lake Erie, Chlorophyll. WEGHORST, P.L. 1, KLINE, W.T.2, MCMAHAN, A.C.3, and BAKERCAZAN, N.4, 1Department of Geology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242; 2Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242; 3Jackson High School, 7600 Fulton Dr., Massillon, OH, 44646; 4SAMM Center, Stark County Educational Service Ce nter, 2100 38th St., Canton, OH, 44709. Exploring Great Lakes Controversies with High School Students. Although sound water policies are important for every citizens well-b eing, many students are unaware of where their own drinking water come s from, much less associ ated state and local environmental issues. We used excerpts from Peter Annins The Great Lakes Water Wars to provide entry-level content on the economic, political, and eco logic issues associated with diverting water from the Great Lakes basin. Students researched and debated historical case studies about proposed Great Lakes basin diversions. As a follo w-up, the students identified wher e their own drinking water comes from, along with potential th reats to their local water source. Comparing state and local water concerns helped students understand that, despite local abundance of fresh water, living in a Great Lakes state does not in any way abrogate the need fo r careful water resource management. Keywords: Management, Great Lakes basin, Education. WELLINGTON, C.G. MAYER, C.M., and BOSSENBROEK, J.M ., University of Toledo-Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43618. Physical and Biological Factors Influencing Foraging Success of Age-0 Yellow Perch. Previous studies on yellow perch foraging indicat e that increased turbidity can impair foraging success, and that phytoplankton turbidity may reduce prey consumption more than sediment turbidity. Field data from western Lake Erie suggest that turbidity may co -vary with prey density. Prey

PAGE 174

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 172 consumption usually increases with prey density, but fish foraging in highly turbid areas may have a modified functional response and th erefore not forage at the expect ed rate. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine how larval and juvenile ye llow perch respond to changes in prey density when exposed to different levels and types of turbidity. Both prey density and turbidity type had an effect on the average number of prey consumed, with greater c onsumption for higher prey densities and sediment rather than phytoplankton turbidity. Slopes of the consumption-prey density relationships differed among turbidity types, indicating that turbidity type does influence the functional response of yellow perch. These results suggest that phytoplankt on turbidity reduces yellow perch foraging and that increasing prey density does not negate these effect s. Moreover, these results reinforce the need to control factors leading to excessive phytoplankton bloom s in western Lake Erie. Keywords: Recruitment, Turbidity, Yellow perch. WESELOH, D.V. 1, DESOLLA, S.R.1, PEKARIK, C.3, HAVELKA, T.1, and MOORE, D.J.1, 1Canadian Wildlife Service, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4; 2Canadian Wildlife Service Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Canadian Wildlife Service, 335 River Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Legacy Contaminants in Great Lakes Herring Gulls, 1974-2005. A long-term monitoring project to determine spat ial and temporal trends of major environmental contaminants in Great Lakes herring gull eggs was established in 1974. The project has run continuously since then. Eggs were collected annually in late April-early May from 15 gull nesting sites from throughout the Great Lakes and analyzed, as site pools, for over 75 cont aminants. Temporal trends were identified by change-point regression for each site for the years 1986-2005; spatial patterns were identified by ANOVA and SNK tests for data from 2001-2005. Four temporal models were found. Specific contaminants declined: 1) at a constant rate over the duration of the study (34.2% of cases), 2) faster in more recent years (51.3%), 3) slower in more recent years (3.3%), or 4) showed no significant trend (11.3%). At most sites, DDE, di eldrin, and HCB declined at a fast er rate in recent years; PCBs showed the most models which were declining more slowly and TCDD had the most non-significant trends. Significant spatial patterns were found for all 7 contaminants test ed. The greatest concentrations of 4 compounds were found at Channel-Shelter Island, Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Two other compounds were greatest in Lake Ontari o and one in Lake Superior Keywords: Organochlorine compounds, Monitoring, Avian ecology. WHITE, M.S. 1, XENOPOULOS, M.A.2, and METCALFE, R.A.3, 1Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 3Renewable Energy Section, Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Characterizing Water Level Fluctuat ions in Large Lakes of Ontario. Very few studies have statistically characterized water level fluctuations (W LF) in lakes. Here we present long-term WLF data (~20 yrs, sampled on weekly intervals during the ice-free season) for sixteen small (10-500 ha) lakes in the Laurentian Great La kes region and short-term WLF data (1yr, sampled hourly all year) for twenty large (>1,000 ha) lakes in Northern Onta rio. The long-term data reveal that

PAGE 175

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 173 mean yearly amplitude in water level does not exceed 1.27 m (x = 0.26 0.15 m) and yearly average water levels do not deviate greate r than 0.75 m (x = 0.10 0.11 m) from the long-term mean. Linear and waveform regression analyses reveal ed a significant (p 0.05) decreasing trend in water levels and a ten year oscillation in WLF. Analysis of the high resolution data for large lakes revealed regional groupings and yearly amplitudes between 1 and 2 meters. Further, wavelet analysis demonstrat ed consistent patterns among hydrographs. We will compare our results to WLF data from the Great Lakes. Record low water levels are now being recorded in several lakes across the globe (e.g., Lake Superior) and a better understanding of WLF is critical to assess loss of ecosystem services. Keywords: Lake model, Water level fluctuations, Great Lakes basin. WILHELM, S.W. 1, MCKAY, R.M.L.2, TWISS, M.R.3, BULLERJAHN, G.S.2, BOURBONNIERE, R.A.4, CARRICK, H.J.5, OSTROM, N.E.6, AL-RSHAIDAT, M.M.D.2, LECLEIR, G.R.1, STERNER, R.W.7, MARVIN, C.J.H.4, and SMITH, R.E.H.8, 1Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996; 2Department of Biological Sciences Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 13210; 3Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699; 4Environment Canada, National Water Resear ch Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 5School of Forest Resources, The Pennsylvania State Univ ersity, University Park, PA, 16802; 6Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 7Department of Ecology, E volution and Behavior, The University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108; 8University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Winter Assessment of Microbial Biomass and Metabolism (WAMBAM): A First Look at Winter Pelagic Biology in Lake Erie and the Im plications of Climate Change. Most of what we know about the biology of the La urentian Great Lakes is based on studies in the early spring to late summer period. In contrast, fe w studies have been carried out in other seasons, particularly winter. In response to this need the MELEE consortium voyaged the length of Lake Erie in February 2007 on an icebreaker during a period in which the lake was 90% ice-covered. The research team sought to answer the question: What microbes are in the lake in the dead of winter and what are they doing? A remarkable discovery was the document ation of high phytoplankton biomass dominated by the filamentous centric diatom, Aulacoseira spp. Large accumulations of Aulacoseira were visibly associated with ice cover. Moreover, phytoplankton bi omass in the water column in ice-free regions persisted at levels far exceeding (up to 10-fold) chl-a levels norma lly found during spring and summer. The results of our survey, combining classical and state-of-the-art techniques will be presented to demonstrate the importance of winter production in the overall scheme of tota l lake productivity. We will also present these results in light of the potential for climate change to affect ice cover, and to provide insight on how this biomass influences seasonal hypoxia (dead zone formation) late in the summer months. Keywords: Lake Erie, Biogeoch emistry, Habitats, Hypoxia. WILSON, H.F. 1 and XENOPOULOS, M.A.2, 1Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Program, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Landscape Determinants of DOC Concentr ation and Character in Streams of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin.

PAGE 176

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 174 Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an importa nt role in freshwater by influencing spectral characteristics, secondary production, nitrogen dynami cs, and the mobility of contaminants. We examined the influence of watershed land use and morphol ogy on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and character in thirty-six south-central Ontari o streams dominated by varying agricultural land use intensities. Agricultural land uses were not significantly correlated to stream DOC concentrations. The proportion of a streams watershed with poorly drained soil better predicts concentrations than any other landscape characteristic (r2 up to 0.67), including the proporti on of the watershed as wetland. DOC character is, however, strongl y related to land use, w ith DOC exported from more agricultural catchments being more autochthonous in character. Monoculture within the watershed is highly correlated with DOC fluorescence ratios (r2 = 0.83). For both DOC concentration and char acter, we show that the influence of landscape changes seasonally base d on regional moisture conditions Relationships of DOC with landscape characteristics become less predicta ble during periods of wetness or dryness. Keywords: Dissolved organic matter, Land use, Seasonality. WINTER, J.G. 1, STAINSBY, E.A.1, EVANS, D.O.2, GUILDFORD, S.J.3, and LA ROSE, J.K.L.4, 1Ontario Ministry of the E nvironment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 3Dept. of Biology and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812 2401; 4Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Si mcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, Sutton, ON, L0E 1R0. Trends in the Water Chemistry of Lake Simcoe over Three Decades and Changes in Phytoplankton Community Composition. There is concern over the imp act of rapid urbanization in th e Lake Simcoe watershed on the nutrient status of the lake. Lake Simcoe is the largest lake in southern Ontario after the Great Lakes and is located close to half the population of Ontario. Recruitment failure of the lakes native cold-water fishery has primarily been attributed to a three-fold increase in phosphorus lo ading from pre-settlement rates and consequent oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion and spawning shoal degradation. This led to the formation of a multi-agency partnership working to ward reductions in phosphorus loads from the watershed. The whole lake volume-weighted sp ring total phosphorus co ncentration decreased significantly from 1980 to 2007. There was a signif icant increase in minimum volume weighted hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentr ation from June to September over the same period, which now fluctuates around 5 mg/L. Significant increases in water clarity have be en observed at all lake stations coinciding with the establishm ent of dreissenid mussels. Ho wever, phytoplankton biovolume only decreased significantly at 3 stations in Cooks Bay at the south end of the lake. We will assess changes in phytoplankton community composition from 1980 to 2007 in relation to phosphorus loading, exotic species invasions, and trends in water chemistry. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Water quality, Phytoplankton. WOJNAROWSKI, L.A.1 and JONAS, J. 2, 135 E. Wacker Drive Suite 1850, Chicago, IL, 60601; 2101 S. Webster, PO Box 7921, Madison, WI, 53707-7921. Developing Water Conservation and Efficiency Objectives for the Great Lakes Basin.

PAGE 177

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 175 The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement was signed by the Great Lakes Governors and Premiers on December 13, 2005. In the Agreement, the Governors and Premiers committed to develop regional water conservation and efficiency goals and objectives which would then be used to inform the development of state and provincial water conservation and efficiency goals and objectives. These goals and objectives will later shape state and provincial water conservation programs. In drafting the proposed regional objectives, a Conservation Committee of state and provincial staff sought the input of an Advisory Panel of re gional stakeholders and c onsulted with Great Lakes Tribes and First Nations. Public comment was invite d, and revisions to the dr aft objectives were made following a review of the public comments. On December 4, 2007, the Regional Body adopted regional water conservation and efficiency goals and objectives. The Initiativ e will now assist the Great Lakes states and provinces in working together as they de velop more specific conservation and efficiency goals, objectives, and ultimately programs in their respective jurisdictions. The Initiative will also serve as a forum for the involvement of Tr ibes and First Nations, region al stakeholders, and others. Keywords: Planning, Conservation, Policy making. WOOLNOUGH, D.A. FROST, P.C., and XENOPOULOS, M.A., Biology Department, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Transitions from Agricultural to Urban Ecosystems: A Nutrient Approach. From the mid-18th century transition of natural wetlands to agriculture to the current shift of agriculture to urban development, we know many aqua tic ecosystems have experienced intense physical and chemical stress. We investigated the chemical st ress during transition from agriculture to urban land use in streams in an area undergoing rapid urbanization over the last 5 years. Str eam water quality data (> 50 parameters; nutrient and metals) were collected at sites upstream of development located in agricultural areas and site s located within and downstream of development. Monthly sampling in 2007 show urban sites to have less vari ability and to be more typical of native ecosystems (i.e., natural wetlands) than the upstream agricultural sites. For example, total phosphorus (TP) levels peaked in one agricultural site in October at 1371 g/L whereas the average TP for downstream urban sites during the same sampling event was 172 g/L. We will present nutrient data results and our speculation on the possible drivers of these relations hips observed across the transition from agricultural to urban land use.From the mid-18th century transition of natural wetlands to agriculture to the current shift of agriculture to urban development, we know many aqua tic ecosystems have experienced intense physical and chemical stress. Keywords: Urbanization, Ontario, Nutrients, Agricultural, Chemical analysis, Transition. WRIGHT, M.E. 1 and LUMSDEN, J.S.2, 1Fish Culture Section, OMNR, 300 Water St., 5th Floor, North Tower, Peterborough, ON, K9J 8M5; 2University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East., Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1. Surveillance for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHS) in Wild Fish Populations in Ontario. The Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic se pticemia virus (VHS) was identified for the first time in freshwater drum collected from the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario in 2005. Although this was the

PAGE 178

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 176 first detection of VHSV in the Grea t Lakes basin, archived samples collected two ye ars earlier from Lake St. Clair also had the virus indicating th at this strain of the virus has been in Great Lakes fish since at least 2003. The VHS virus may be spread through fish-to-fish contact in water and by inanimate objects such as boats and fishing gear. Therefor e, it is possible that the VHS viru s has already spread beyond the Great Lakes and is present in Ontario inland waterbodies. In 2007, the Ontari o Ministry of Natural Resources took action to slow the spread of VHS and developed a surveillance program to te st wild fish populations for VHS. Fish were collected from six sites in spring and six sites in fall. The selection of sites, test results, and implications to fish populations and fisheries management will be presented. Keywords: Fish diseases, Monitoring, Ontario Mi nistry of Natural Resources. WU, C.H. ANDERSON, D.A., and LIN, Y.T., Universi ty of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706. Study of Potential Erosion in Lower Sheboygan River. Estimate of erosion potential is critical for contaminated sediment assessment. Better characterizing bottom sediment substrates and monito ring flow and turbulent motions are important to understand the complex interactions between sediment properties and near-bed hydrodynamic processes. This study would discuss (i) the discre pancy of critical shear stress and erosion rates obtained by sediment cores and in-situ measurements; (ii) the sub-bottom sediment layer st ructures mapped by an acoustic subbottom profiler; (iii) near-sediment concentration, flow and turbulence obtained by a bottom erosion and deposition system (BEDS) that cons ists of laser in-situ scattering a nd transmissometry, acoustic Doppler current profiler and acoustic Doppler velocimeter; and (iv) application of a hydrodynamic-sediment model to assess the erosion potential under extreme flooding conditions and changing climate scenarios. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Sediment resuspension, Water level fluctuations. WYNNE, T.T. 1, SCHWAB, D.J.2, STUMPF, R.P.3, TOMLINSON, M.C.3, DYBLE, J.2, and FAHNENSTIEL, G.L.2, 1I.M. Systems Group, Inc., 1305 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, 20910; 22205 Commonweath Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 28516; 31305 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, 20910. Cyanobacterial Monitoring System for Lake Erie. Cyanobacterial blooms have become a relatively common occurence in Lake Erie. Early detection of these blooms would be advantageous to reduce so me negative impacts associ ated with these blooms. We will demonstrate a proposed operat ional forecast system utilizing re motely sensed data and simple modeling techniques to locate and forecast blooms. We have developed remotely sensed data products that have proven to be successful for detection of larger (>20 km2 ) cyanobacterial blooms. Trajectories are created using the General NOAA Operational M odeling Environment (GNOME). The inputs are the analyzed bloom field and currents from the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. GNOME then proceeds to predict where the bloom is likely to propagate. Results from recent experiments will be shown. The impact of uncertainty in both the bloom field and the currents is also assessed as part of the analysis. Keywords: Lake Erie, Algae, Remote sensing.

PAGE 179

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 177 XIA, X.1, CRIMMINS, B. 1, HOPKE, P.1, PAGANO, J.J.2, MILLIGAN, M.S.3, and HOLSEN, T.3, 1Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; 2SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY; 3SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia, NY. Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Progra m: Toxaphene Results Using GC-MS/MS. The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLF MP) began in 1980 as a cooperative effort to track the trends of selected organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Currently, two facets of this program assess the fishery contaminant burde n (Open Lakes Trend Monitoring Program) and human exposure (Game Fish Fillet Monitoring Program) usi ng whole fish composites and game fish fillets, respectively. In this paper toxaphe ne concentrations were measured in open water whole fish and fillet samples using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an ion trap mass spectrometer. Using MS/MS allowed for the unambiguous identification of toxa phene congeners by quantif ying daughter ion 89 m/z from parent 125 m/z ion fragment. Compared to the conventional nega tive chemical ionization technique, there is no need for the problematic subtraction of co-contaminants with similar ionization fragments (chlordanes). Using this rela tively new technique, Parlars 26, 38, 40, 41, 44, 50, and 62 and total toxaphene were quantified in Great Lakes fish collected in 2004 and 2005. Results from 2004 and 2005 open water samples will be presented in addition to a direct comparison between this relatively new GCMS/MS technique and the conventional negative chemical ionization methodology. Keywords: Toxic substances, Environmental contaminants, Fish. YADAV, B.V. and ATKINSON, J.F. Great Lakes Program, Universi ty at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14260. Circulation and Mixing in Lake Champlain. A study is conducted to evaluate circulation and mixing character istics of Lake Champlain, to support analysis of the evolution and transport of al gae blooms in the lake. Previous data using both Eulerian and LaGrangian measurements indicate that details of the circulation pattern are strongly dependent on local wind stress and that complicated vertical shears are often seen. Hydrodynamic modeling is difficult in this lake due to its many islands, complex bathymetry and shoreline. As an alternative, a non-steady mass balanc e model for chloride is develope d to evaluate dispersive mixing between main segments of the lake. It is shown that dispersive mixing of ten dominates advective transport, likely due to processes such as the in ternal seiche, and that the non-steady results are significantly different from results of a previous steady-state model based on annual average conditions. General flows and dispersive tran sports are summarized for average conditions in summer months. Keywords: Water quality, Com puter models, Water currents. YANTSIS, S.N. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster Univer sity, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Understanding Zooplankton Distribution a nd Plant Associations in Georgian Bay. Interactions among trophic levels in the lower f ood web of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have yet to be fully understood. Lower trophic levels are of pa rticular interest since zooplankton are thought to respond more quickly to changes in environmental qua lity than larger organisms such as fish and macrophytes. In 2002, the Wetland Zooplankton Index (W ZI) was developed with a dataset from 70 wetlands across the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Du e to the under-representation of upper lakes sites,

PAGE 180

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 178 the WZI has proven ineffective for predicting quality of pristine wetlands f ound in Georgian Bay. We investigate the reasons why the WZI does not apply to higher quality sites, by determining factors other than water quality variables that may affect zooplankton distribution. We explored zooplankton distribution using canonical correspondence analysis (environment al variables) and co-correspondence analysis (community variab les) and have found that the plant comm unity is a better pr edictor than water quality parameters. Though specific re lationships are yet to be determ ined, it is evident that wetland macrophytes have a significant impact on the community structure of zooplankton in coastal wetlands and for pristine wetlands, it is a be tter predictor of zooplankton pr esence than is water quality. Keywords: Georgian Bay, Zooplankton, Coastal wetlands. YERUBANDI, R.R. 1, ZHAO, J.1, and MARVIN, C.H.1, 1Environment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 2Environment Canada, Burlington, ON. Application of a Numerical Model for Circulation and Thermal Structure in Hamilton Harbour. The restoration of Hamilton Harbour from an envi ronmental standpoint is a current concern for the agencies involved with the remediation efforts in the harbor. Estimates of circulation and mixing are needed to assess the fate and transport of water quality constituents in the ha rbor. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling system (ELCOM) is used to study the circulation and th ermal structure in the harbor. The model results were compared with profile s of temperature at several moorings and currents and water levels in the harbor. The model showed considerable skill in reproducing the thermal structure, surface currents and water levels. Mean summer circ ulation in the harbor s howed two counter-rotating gyres occupying the harbor. The model-produced harbor -lake exchange characteristics are in agreement with previous studies. Simulations using passive tracers qualitatively agreed with a sterol concentration distribution at a sewage treatment pl ant outfall. The level of skill shown in these simulations suggests that the model is capable of describing flow and transpor t of material required for detailed water quality simulations. Keywords: Computer models, Hydrodynamics, Water currents. YOUNG, D. WILKINS, G., and MEEK, S., Toronto and Region Conservation, 5 Shoreham Dr., Toronto, ON, M3N 1S4, Canada. Turning Recommendations into Ac tions The Humber River Watershed Plan. Effective implementation of watershed plans requires clear actions with timelines and responsibilities, clear lines of acc ountability, and the support of partners politicians, and stakeholders. A new generation of watershed plans has been de veloped by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority for some of the rapidly urbanizing watersheds of the Greater Toronto Area that drain to the north shore of Lake Ontario, a Great Lakes Area of Concern. As part of these watershed planning studies, efforts have focused on providing policy makers, program managers and stewardship groups with improved guidance regarding strategic initiatives n eeded to maintain or improve watershed health. Guidance provided by the Humber River Watershed Plan illustrates some of the new directions being put forward in these watershed plans. Based on findings from an interdisciplinary modeling study of current and potential future conditions and drawing on outputs from region-wide groundwater and natural heritage studies, specific portions of the watershed have been identified where new policies are needed

PAGE 181

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 179 and where priority restoration initiatives should be undertaken. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Planning, Watersheds. YU, H. 1, JIAO, Y.1, and REID, K.B.2, 1Virginia Tech, 101 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA, 24060; 2Ontario Commercial Fisherie s Association, 45 James St., Blenheim, ON, N0P 1A0. Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Relative Abundance Index of Yellow Perch ( Perca flavescens ) by Standardization and Interpolation from Fish ery-independent Survey Data in Lake Erie. There are various statistical models to es timate fish relative abunda nce index, in which a generalized linear model (GLM) is the most often us ed approach. However, spatial autocorrelation often exists in fisheries survey data, wh ich will violate the assumption that the observed catch rate data are independent when we estimate relative abundance index using them. In addition, selecting explanatory variables is always a difficulty wh en using GLMs. In order to avoid th ese problems, spatial interpolation is assumed to be a new method to replace GLMs wh en survey intensity is high enough and spatial coverage is large enough. In this st udy, there is significant sp atial autocorrelation in the survey catch data, so the relative abundance index of yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) from fishery-independent survey data in Lake Erie was estimated by both GLM standardiz ation and spatial interpol ation approaches during 1990-2003. After investigating the correlations of predicte d values from standardization and interpolation with the population abunda nce estimated through catch -at-age model, we found that the interpolation model was suitable as an alternativ e way to estimate relative abundance index with spatia l autocorrelation for yellow perch in Lake Erie. Keywords: Model studies, Yellow perch, Lake Erie. YULE, D.L. 1, GORMAN, O.T.1, ADAMS, J.V.1, BUNNELL, D.1, EBENER, M.P.2, and KELLY, J.R.3, 1Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority, 179 W. 3 Mile Roa d, Sault Ste. Marie, MI, 49783; 3U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN, 55804. Development of a New Lake-wide Multiple Gear Survey Design to Assess Status and Trends of the Lake Superior Fish Community. The U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Scienc e Center has developed a plan to implement revision of its annual fish community survey of Lake Superior. The primary objective of the revision is improvement of the sampling design to be more repres entative of the Lake Superior fish community and thereby provide more accurate information for natural resource management partners. The secondary objective will be integration of lower trophic assessment (zooplankton, macroinvertebrates) into the survey. A team of inter-agency expe rts has been formed to 1) explore how to best stratify the lake to achieve a representative sampling de sign, and 2) use recently collected data to determine the level of sampling effort required to achieve precise estimat es of density and biomass of important species. Following completion of a new draft survey design, it will be subjected to peer re view by outside experts. In our presentation we will provide an overview of our plan to develop a new survey design, share preliminary findings of the design team, and solicit comments from the audience to provide additional input into the plan development. Keywords: Acoustics, Tr ophic level, Monitoring.

PAGE 182

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 180 YURISTA, P.M. KELLY, J.R., and MILLER, S.E., U.S. EP A (Mid Continent Ecology Division), 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN, 55804. Lake Superior Zooplankton LOPC Biomass Prediction Compares Well with a Probability-based Net Survey. We conducted a probability-based sampling of Lake Superior in 2006 and compared the zooplankton biomass estimate with laser optical pl ankton counter (LOPC) predictions. The net survey consisted of 52 sites stratified across three depth zones (0-30, 30-150, >150 m). The LOPC tow surveys were extensive and spatially covered much of Lake Superior (>1,300 km). The LOPC data were field calibrated to Lake Superior zooplankton net sample s and collected across the years of 2004 to 2006. The volume-weighted lake wide zooplankton biomass determined by traditional net tows to 100 m was found to be 20.1 mg dry-weight m-3. The sample site estimates varied by depth zones within the lake, where nearshore (0-30 m) estimates were highest and highl y variable. With field ca libration sites removed, the net estimate 19.9 mg dry-weight m-3 and LOPC lake wide predic tion of 16.7 mg dryweight m-3 agreed well. Variability for LOPC data was highest in thermocline regions and regions less than 100 m. Consistency in lake-wide estimates suggests that rapid and spatially diverse LOPC data provides a comparable assessment tool to traditional nets for collecting zooplankton biomass data. This abstract does not necessarily reflect EPA policy. Keywords: Assessments, Lake Superior, Zooplankton. ZHANG, J. 1, CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H.1, DROUILLARD, K.G.2, and HAFFNER, G.D.2, 1Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. Zoobenthic Community Indicators of Sediment Contamin ation in the L. HuronL. Erie Corridor: Application of the Reference-degraded Continuum Multivariate Approach. We investigated macroinverteb rate community composition and sediment contamination using data collected from 311 sites in 1991, 1998, and 2004. Multivariate analysis was used to develop Zoobenthic Condition Indices (ZCI) of sediment quality. Sites representi ng least and most contaminated 20th percentiles of a contaminant gradient were designated reference and degraded, respectively. Cluster analyses identified 2 groups of reference sites (soft substrat e; hard substrate), each with characteristic relative abundances of zoobenthos and associated habita t features. A ZCI was derived for each group, and a ZCI score assigned to each site, summa rizing its biological quality given local habitat attributes. For each group, ZCI score declined with increasing sediment contamination. Hard substrate reference areas were dominated by Chironomidae, Hydropsychidae, and Dreissena mussels; soft-substrate reference areas supported Chironomidae and (occasionally) Hexagenia Degraded sites were dominated by Oligochaeta regardless of substrat e texture. For both indices, ZCI th reshold scores could be identified describing reference/nonreference biological boundaries and degrad ed/nondegraded boundaries. Detroit R. sediment quality improved significantly between 1991 and 2004 but improvements in zoobenthic community condition were not statistically significant. Keywords: Bioindicators, Zoobenthos, Detroit River. ZHANG, X. 1, DIAMOND, M.L.1, HARRAD, S.2, and IBARRA, C.2, 1Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3; 2School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental

PAGE 183

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 181 Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. Estimation PBDEs' Emission from Sources in the Indoor Environment. Brominated flame retardants such as polybromin ated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely detected various media (e.g., sediment and biota) in the Great Lakes. Studies show that major sources of PBDEs in the Great Lakes originate from indoor envi ronments within urban areas, where large amounts of PBDE-containing consumer products such as computers and polyuret hane foam (PUF) are used. To better understand and mitigate contaminants in the Great Lakes, it is important to trace chemicals to their source. This study focuses on the sources and fate of PBDEs in the indoor environment, where PBDEs are first released. Air and dust samples were analyzed from 20 indoor environments within the Greater Toronto Area to better understand the indoor PBDE levels. A multimedia indoor environmental model was developed to illustrate the em ission and fate of PBDEs indoors. F actors affecting PBDE levels and transport from indoors to outdoors were evaluated with the model. Keywords: PBDEs, Source, Emission. ZHAO, Y.M. 1, JONES, M.L.2, SHUTER, B.J.4, and ROSEMAN, E.F.4, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Erie Fishery Station, 320 Milo Road, Wheatley, ON, N0P 2P0; 2Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State Univ ersity, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 3Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Research, OMNR, 25 Harbord St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3G5; 4USGS Great Lake Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. A Biophysical Model of Lake Erie Walle ye Explains Inter-annual Variations in Recruitment. We used a 3-D coupled hydr odynamic-ecological model (ELCOM_CAEDYM) to investigate how lake currents during the spawning-nurs ery period can affect walleye recruitment in western Lake Erie. The hydrodynamic model was driven by observed meteor ological observations. Four years (1995, 96, 98 and 99) were selected for the study. Two years (i.e ., 1996 and 99) exhibited high recruitment values and the other two years (i.e., 1995 and 1998) exhibited low recruitment values. During the two low recruitment years, the model predicted that (i) the walleye spawning ground experienced destructive bottom currents capable of dislodging eggs from suitable habitats (reef s) and moving them to unsuitable habitats (i.e., muddy bottom), and (ii) that the majori ty of newly hatched larvae were transported away from known suitable nursery grounds.. Conversely, dur ing the two high recruitm ent years, predicted bottom currents at the spawning grounds during the ea rly part of the spawning season were relatively weak and the predicted movement of newly hatched larvae was toward suitable nursery grounds. Thus, a temporal and spatial match between walleye first feeding larvae and their food resources was predicted for the two high recruitment years and a mismatch was predicted for the two low recruitment years. Keywords: Walleye, Recruitment, Hydrodynamic model. ZHU, B. 1, HALFMAN, J.D.2, MAYER, C.M.3, RUDSTAM, L.G.4, and MILLS, E.L.4, 1Finger Lakes Institute, 601 S. Main St., Geneva, NY, 14456; 2Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 112 Lansing Hall, Geneva, NY, 14456; 3University of Toledo, Lake Erie Ce nter, 6200 Bayshore Road, Oregon, OH, 43618; 4Cornell University Biological Field Station, 900 Shackelton Point Road, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Local and Lake-wide Effects of Dreissenids on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Lakes.

PAGE 184

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 182 Dreissenids can affect nutrient cycling at different spatial scal es in lakes through filtration of seston, resuspension of feces and pseudofeces, ex cretion, and tissue emaciation. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to simulate local effects of dreissenids on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and used long-term data in Oneida Lake and the Finger Lakes to investigate the la ke-wide effects. Results from the experiment revealed sol uble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in water was significantly higher when dreissenids were present (14.3.8 vs. 10.7.5 g/L) but total phosphorus (TP) a nd N:P ratios remained unaffected. However, total nitrogen (TN) was significantly higher with dreissenids (0.64.03 vs. 0.57.05 mg/L) due to a marked increase in nitrate (+31.3%) whereas ammonia was not affected. In addition, there was a significant incr ease of nitrate in sediments when dreissenids were present (6.4.7 vs. 2.0.2 g/g sediment). These results suggest drei ssenids can locally increas e nitrate, TN, and SRP. Conversely, data from Oneida Lake and the Finger Lakes revealed minimal changes in TP, SRP, and nitrate, except perhaps Seneca Lake. We conclude that dreissenids may have strong local effects but minor lake-wide effects on N and P cycling in lakes, a finding in support of the nearshore shunt hypothesis. Keywords: Dreissena, Oneida Lake, Exotic sp ecies, Finger Lakes, Phosphorus, Nitrogen. ZHU, X. 1, ZHAO, Y.M.1, MATHERS, A.2, and JOHNSON, T.B.2, 1Lake Erie Fisheries Station, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Wheatley, ON, N0P 2P0; 2Glenora Fisheries Stati on, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Reconstruction of Biomas s Trends of American Eel Angullia rostrata Population in Lake Ontario and Upper St. Lawrence River, 1959-2004. The American eel Anguilla rostrata is a catadromous panmictic sp ecies that once yielded up to 250 tons of commercial harvest in Lake Ontario a nd St. Lawrence River in 1978. Since 1993, eel harvests have declined precipitously in all areas above the Moses-Saunders Power Dam due to a significant decline in recruitment of eel and continued high explo itation. We developed a surplus production model to evaluate the contribution of fishing to the eel dec line that used maximum lik elihood strategies based on commercial harvests and independent surveys in eas tern Lake Ontario during 1959-2005. Over that time period, fishing effort increased 16-f old, resulting in a 9-fold increase in fishing mortality and an 89% decrease in lake-wide population biomass. Research surveys after 1985 in dicated that continuous declines in both carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate were significantly corr elated with yellow eel abundance and population turnover rate through time. We will discuss the development of biological reference points for the restoration of American eel population in the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Keywords: Fish populations, Lake Ontario, American eel. ZHU, Y. and VODACEK, A., 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY, 14623. Monitoring Inland Water Quality Using MODIS and WASP-Lite Data. The purpose of this study is to monitor water quality using both MODIS and WASP-Lite data for improving beach closure predictions at Ontario Beac h, Rochester, NY. We explored the potential for using MODIS 250-m data for TSS concentration mon itoring. The study area is the Rochester Embayment and nearby waters. Field surveys on Sept. 18, 2007 s howed, after using a singl e scattering atmospheric correction, the calibrated RRS at 645 nm closely correlated with RRS measured with a Ocean Optics

PAGE 185

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 183 spectrometer: RRS_OP=1.0952RRS_MODIS, R2=0.85. Th e relationship between MODIS RRS_645 and TSS concentration is also closely correla ted: TSS=0.1244exp(589.93RRS_645), R2=0.86. Further, the shape of the relationship is comparable with m odeled results using the HYDROLIGHT. The RIT WASPLite multispectral sensor underflew MODIS, providing additional data with higher spatial and spectral resolution. Because it is a high spatial resolution airborne sensor, preprocessing including image registration, radiance calibr ation, glint removal, and atmospheric correction were required. A modeling system based on DDDAS concepts can assimilate the results from both MODIS and WASP-Lite to improve the prediction of TSS distribution near the beach. These results can be used to help in the assessment of conditions relate d to beach closure decisions. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Remote sensing, Sediment transport. ZUCCARINO-CROWE, C.M. 2, MURPHY, E.W.1, NETTESHEIM, T.G.1, ZINTEK, L.3, BARBER, L.B.4, LAZORCHAK, J.M.5, BATT, A.L.5, MILLS, M.A.6, RICE, C.P.7, LOZANO, N.7, SCHOENFUSS, H.L.8, LORDI, D.T.9, MINARIK, T.9, and STAHL, L.10, 1Great Lakes National Program Office, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL; 2Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Associate placed at Great Lakes National Progra m Office, U.S. EPA, Chicago, IL; 3Chicago Regional Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; 5Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Res earch Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH; 6Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Pr otection Agency, Cincinnati, OH; 7Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu lture, Beltsville, MD; 8St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN; 9Research and Development, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Cicero, IL; 10Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Prot ection Agency, Washington, DC. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), Hormones, and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEs) in the North Shore Channel of the Chicago River Part II: Concentrations in Effluent and the Receiving Stream. A portion of the study investiga ting PPCPs in fish tissue from wastewater effluent dominated streams focuses on documenting the concentrations of PPCPs, hormones, and APEs in the effluent of the Northside Water Reclamation Plant and 4 km downstream of the outfall in the No rth Shore Channel of the Chicago River. This ancillary effort was also a collaborative partnership between several Federal Agencies, Universities, and City Departments. Obj ectives included the (1) e xploration of diurnal and seasonal variations in concentrations; (2) the co rrelation of treatment plant parameters on PPCP concentrations in effluent; and (3) the potential impact of stream attenuation on fish exposure. Preliminary results suggest that APEs concentrations inversel y correlate with temperature, however nonylphenol concentrations do not exceed the toxi city based criteria recommendations designed to protect aquatic life in fresh water. Additional results to be shared further discuss diurnal and seasonal variability of concentrations; the effect of temperature, flow, and ammonia on concentrati ons in effluent; and the persistence of some PPCPs downstream. An attempt will also be made to estimate BCFs for some compounds with available fish tissue data. Keywords: PPCPs, Wastewater, APEs.

PAGE 186

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 184 Author Index Page numbers in bold indicate author is an oral presenter. Page numbers in italic indicate author is a poster presenter. Co-authors are represented by pa ge numbers in normal type. Abdelouahab, N., 1 Abrams, P.A., 158 Adams, J.M., 1 Adams, J.V., 155, 179 Adlerstein, S.A., 2, 74, 115, 116 Aherne, J., 121 Ahmed, S., 2 Albert, D.A., 165 Allan, D., 56 Allen, E., 160 Allen, R., 152 Allender, C.J., 2 Al-Rshaidat, M.M.D., 173 Anderson, B., 140 Anderson, D.A., 176 Anderson, D.M., 112 Anderson, E.J., 3 Anderson, R., 85 Andren, A., 109 Ansell, A., 86 Arcagni, M., 3 Argyilan, E.P., 70 Arhonditsis, G.B., 4 Arnott, S.E., 67 Arribre, M., 3, 21 Arts, M.T., 44, 68, 71, 78 Astrakhantsev, G.P., 46, 142 Atilla, N., 4, 8, 164 Atkinson, J.F., 5, 177 Auer, M.T., 36 Austin, J.A., 5, 92 Awad, E.R., 9 Axenrot, T., 145 Bach, C.A., 5 Back, R.C., 131 Backus, S., 21, 81 Bade, D.L., 27, 97 Baedke, S.J., 70 Baker, D.B., 136 Baker, K., 6 BakerCazan, N., 171 Balakrishnan, V., 30 Baldwin, M., 1 Baldwin, R.J., 6, 6 Balshine, S., 167 Banda, J.A., 7 Bantelman, A., 42 Barber, D.G., 102 Barber, L.B., 113, 183 Barbiero, R.P., 7 Barker, I.K., 21 Barrett, G., 100 Barton, D.R., 36, 121, 122 Bates, S., 108 Batt, A.L., 113, 183 Beier, U., 145 Beletsky, D., 8, 8, 63, 141, 142 Bennington, V., 4, 8, 164 Berges, J.A., 9, 57 Bertram, P.E., 101 Best, D.A., 17 Bhavsar, S., 59 Bhavsar, S.P., 9 Biddanda, B.A., 10, 75, 144 Bidleman, T.F., 10, 68, 81 Binding, C.E., 11

PAGE 187

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 185 Birceanu, O., 11 Blais, J.M., 45 Bobrowski, R.J., 12 Bodamer, B.L., 12 Boegman, L., 13, 56 Bollin, T., 13 Bootsma, H.A., 88 Booty, W.G., 11, 14, 42 Bortone, S.A., 14 Bosch, A.T., 29 Bossenbroek, J.M., 12, 171 Boughton, L., 14 Bourbonniere, R.A., 146, 173 Bourgeau-Chavez, L., 165 Bouvier, L.D., 15 Bove, G.E., 80 Bowan, G.S., 14 Bowen, K.L., 15, 16, 68 Bowerman, W.W., 16, 17 Bowlby, J.N., 64, 164 Boyd, D., 38, 82 Boyer, G.L., 17, 124, 139, 145, 160 Bradley, D., 102 Bradley-MacMillan, C., 151 Brandt, S.B., 18, 109 Brazner, J.C., 165 Brenden, T.O., 71 Bridgeman, T.B., 18, 24 Briggs, T., 22 Brindle, I., 148 Brown, J.E., 153, 156 Brown, L., 19 Brown, S., 19, 149 Brownson, B., 70 Bruce, J.P., 19 Bukata, R.P., 11 Bullerjahn, G.S., 164, 173 Bunnell, D., 179 Bur, M.T., 80, 155 Burlakova, L.E., 19, 74 Burley, M., 170 Burniston, D., 148 Burton, T.M., 29, 165 Byer, J., 20, 20 Cagampan, S.J., 53, 81 Campbell, G.D., 21 Campbell, L.M., 3, 21, 35, 45, 85, 130, 132 Cargnelli, L.M., 22 Carpenter, D.O., 22 Carrick, H.J., 23, 71, 83, 164, 173 Casselman, J.M., 67 Cattaneo, A., 170 Cavaletto, J.F., 23, 89 Chadderton, W.L., 23 Chaffin, J.D., 24 Chan, H.M., 1 Chan, W.W., 45 Chapman, D.C., 24 Chapra, S.C., 25 Chatterjee, A., 25 Chiandet, A.S., 26 Chiblow, S., 26 Choc, S.J., 26 Chow-Fraser, P., 31, 33, 66, 107, 140, 152, 177 Christie, G.C., 64 Chu, X.F., 133 Ciborowski, J.J.H., 27, 61, 70, 165, 180 Claramunt, R.M., 78 Clarence, S., 149 Clarke, D.R., 164 Clevinger, C.C., 27, 97 Cloyd, E.T., 28, 96 Cohen, A.N., 28 Cole, L., 45 Collingsworth, P.D., 29 Collins, N.C., 114 Conroy, J.D., 31 Cook, H.A., 168 Cooke, R.M., 141 Cooper, M.J., 29 Corkum, L.D., 29 Coronado, D., 163 Costantini, M., 18 Cottenie, K., 15 Couturier, A., 104 Cox, L., 21 Craig, J.R., 71 Crane, T.R., 73

PAGE 188

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 186 Crewe, T.L., 104 Crimmins, B., 62, 110, 177 Croley, T.E., 30, 66, 69 Crowe, A.S., 30, 106 Crozier, P.W., 51, 59 Culotti, J., 79 Culver, D.A., 13, 31 Cvetkovic, M., 31 da Silva, A.F., 32, 60 Dahl, T.A., 32, 106 Damaia, S.M., 32 Damon, R., 17 Danz, N.P., 61 Davies, W.E., 164 De Catanzaro, R., 33 De Marchi, C., 74 Dekker, T.J., 33, 102 Del Gobbo, L., 34 Del Granado, S.M., 96 Deleary, M., 34 DeLong, E.J., 35 DeMarchi, C., 25, 30, 35, 66, 69 Demers, J., 85 Dempsey, J.P., 164 Depew, D., 64 Depew, D.C., 36, 54, 122 DePinto, J.V., 36, 92, 96, 128, 141, 142 Derbyshire, D., 37 Dermott, R.M., 68 Desai, A., 4 deSaint Victor, C., 26 Deschnes, L., 153 Desjardins, M., 12 deSolla, S.R., 172 Dettling, J., 153 Dettmers, J.M., 137 DeVanna, K.M., 37 Diamond, M.L., 34, 106, 180 Diep, N.K., 38 Dierks, S.B., 38 Dillon, P.J., 120, 121 Dobiesz, N.E., 39 Doka, S.E., 15, 47, 114 Dolan, D.M., 39 Domozych, D.S., 53 Domske, H.M., 160 Dopazo, S.N., 29 Dove, A.E., 25, 40, 81 Drake, A., 40 Drake, R., 80 Drouillard, K.G., 123, 180 Duckett, F., 40, 92 Duckworth, G., 34 Dumoulin, D., 41 Dwyer, D.F., 26 Dyble, J., 41, 130, 133, 166, 176 Ebener, M.P., 71, 78, 179 Edge, T.A., 42 Edwards, W.H., 80, 155 Edwards, W.J., 42 Effler, S.W., 43, 118, 125, 126, 126 Einhouse, D.W., 168 Elsbury, K., 124 Elster, M., 98 Evans, A.N., 137, 161 Evans, D.O., 43, 100, 122, 152, 174 Evans, M.A., 44 Fackler, J., 109 Fagan, K.M., 44 Fahnenstiel, G.L., 41, 166, 176 Faisal, M., 71 Fang, T., 45 Farver, J.R., 120 Fathi, M., 45 Fedora, M., 23 Fenichel, E.F., 46, 46 Ferrari, E., 68 Fielder, D.G., 168 Filatov, N., 46 Filbrun, J.E., 24 Finch, M., 47 Findlay, D.L., 111 Finnoff, D.C., 141 Fitzgerald, D.G., 47 Fitzsimons, J.D., 78, 161 Flatico, F., 85 Fletcher, R., 9 Forrester, L.A., 170

PAGE 189

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 187 Fortin, M.J., 158 Fox, B.M., 48 Fox, G.A., 16 Fox, M.G., 55, 126 Foy, H.D., 48 Franzin, W.G., 94 Fraser, G.S., 82 Freeland, J.R., 119, 123, 166 Freeman, A.D., 49, 111 Frost, P.C., 97, 175 Frye, J.L., 49 Fryer, B.J., 98, 134 Fuchsman, P., 50 Fullarton, M., 40 Furdui, V., 59 Futter, M.N., 120 Gan, S., 55 Gauthier, L., 58 Gefell, D.J., 50 Gerlofsma, J., 15, 16, 68 Gerretsen, J., 51 Gewurtz, S.B., 51, 59, 148 Gharabaghi, B., 132 Gilbert, B., 106 Gilbert, J.M., 51 Gilbertson, M., 52 Gogineni, P., 52 Goldsmith, W., 128 Goodyear, D., 40 Goodyear, D.R., 76, 87, 91 Gorman, O.T., 52, 179 Grabuski, J.M., 53 Greene, M., 160 Gretz, M.R., 53 Gross, M.R., 164 Guildford, S.J., 36, 54, 64, 121, 122, 130, 174 Guinn, E., 9 Gump, B., 157 Gungor, E., 54 Gutowsky, L.F.G., 55 Haffner, G.D., 123, 180 Hagar, J., 55 133 Halfman, J.D., 181 Hall, E., 56 Hamblin, P.F., 13 Hamilton, K., 85 Han, H., 56 Hansen, D.L., 56 Hansen, G.J.A., 57 Hansen, M.J., 52 Hanson, A.M., 57 Haponski, A.E., 13, 58 Harrad, S., 180 Harvey, H.H., 40 Hatt, C., 150 Hatt, J., 99 Havelka, T., 172 Hawley, N., 134 Hayton, A., 59 He, C., 30, 66, 69 Heath, R.T., 27, 97, 170 Hebert, C.E., 58 Hecky, R.E., 21, 36, 54, 64, 121, 122, 130 Hedges, K.J., 59 Heikkila, L., 149 Heil Jr., C.W., 87, 91 Helm, P., 51, 59, 88, 106, 148 Henderson, B.A., 112 Henning, M., 50 Henry, T.B., 139 Henshaw, B., 6 Henshel, D.S., 60 Hensler, S.R., 61, 72 Hesslein, R.H., 154 Hickey, M.B.C., 137 Hickling, G.J., 46 Hicks, R.E., 56 Higgins, S., 87 Hill, L., 84 Hinchey, E.K., 1 Hipsey, M., 87 Hites, R.A., 168 Hodgins, B., 61 Hodson, P.V., 132 Hollenhorst, T.P., 61 Holsen, T., 177 Holsen, T.M., 62, 110 Holtschlag, D.J., 3

PAGE 190

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 188 Honeyfield, D.C., 161 Hong, Y.E., 55, 133 Hood, J.L.A., 62 Hk, T.O., 63, 92, 138, 168 Hopke, P., 177 Hornbuckle, K.C., 63, 65, 97 Horvatin, P.J., 1, 109, 169 Hoskins, S.B., 47 Host, G.E., 61 Hotto, A.M., 17, 145 Houben, A., 36, 54, 64 Hovey, A., 80 Howard, P., 112 Howell, E.T., 51, 64, 148 Hoyle, J.A., 64 Hu, D., 65 Hu, H., 169 Hubeny, J.B., 87, 91 Hudon, C., 170 Hudson, J.D., 65 Hughes, D.J., 50 Hult, E.L., 162 Humbert, S., 153 Hunter, T.S., 30, 66 Hurley, T., 66 Hyndman, D., 143 Ibarra, C., 180 Ishii, S., 56 Ismail, N., 59 Jacko, N., 34 Jackson, D.A., 129, 158 Jackson, J.A., 67 James, L.A.H., 67 Janik, C., 126 Jantunen, L.M., 68, 81 Januska, B., 52 Jensen, D.A., 160 Jerome, J.H., 11 Jessen, S., 68 Jiao, Y., 179 Johannsson, O.E., 59, 68 Johengen, T.H., 69, 134, 150 Johns, C., 69 Johnson, J.H., 83 Johnson, L.B., 61 Johnson, T.B., 70, 78, 134, 182 Johnston, J.W., 70 Jolliet, O., 153 Jonas, J., 174 Jones, E.L., 71 Jones, J., 160 Jones, M.L., 46, 46, 57, 71, 181 Jones, N.E., 12, 135 Joosse, P.J., 72 Joseph, A., 14 Joshua, E.K., 128 Jude, D.J., 61, 72 Just, C.L., 65, 97 Kaminski, L.E., 73 Kao, Y., 74 Karatayev, A.Y., 19, 74 Kayle, K., 168 Kayle, K.A., 74 Kelch, D.O., 75, 160 Keller, R., 23 Kelly, J.R., 179, 180 Kendall, C., 124 Kendall, S.T., 10, 75, 144 Khan, I., 42 Kilgour, B., 76 Kimura, N., 4, 8 King, J.W., 76, 87, 91 Kinnunen, R.E., 78 Klamp, V.J., 88 Klassen, K., 3 Klawunn, P., 20, 20 Klein, D.F., 80 Kline, W.T., 76, 171 Kling, H.J., 77, 102 Knight, C.T., 77 Kocovsky, P.M., 77, 155 Kojima, J., 85 Kolic, T., 148 Koops, M.A., 16, 44, 59, 78, 144, 167 Korosov, A., 150 Koseff, J.R., 162 Kovalcik, P.K., 78 Krakowiak, P.J., 126

PAGE 191

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 189 Kramer, J.W., 136 Kramkowski-Epner, V., 79 Krantzberg, G., 79, 96 Krasowski, M., 85 Kraus, D.T., 80 Kremens, R.L., 80 Krieger, K.A., 80, 120 Kroon, B., 110 Krueger, C.C., 137, 161 Krueger, D., 89 Kurt-Karakus, P.B., 81 Kuzis, K., 102 Kyser, K., 3, 21 La Rose, J.K.L., 43, 81, 107, 174 Labencki, T.L., 82 Lakfard, S., 82 Lam, D.C., 87 Lamb, K.G., 117 Lamon, E.C., 158 Landriault, L., 108 Lang, G.A., 3, 89 Lantry, B.F., 83, 157 LaPlante, E., 14 Larson, W.M., 36 Lashaway, A.R., 23, 83 Lautenbach, D., 33 Lavoie, R.A., 84 Lawrence, P.L., 84 Lazorchak, J.M., 113, 183 Lean, D.R.S., 45, 84 LeBlond, S.S., 85 LeCleir, G.R., 173 Leigh, K., 50 Lekki, J.L., 85 Lembcke, D., 86 Lenters, J.D., 86 Leon, L.F., 71, 87 Leshkevich, G., 43, 85, 87, 117, 118, 125, 126, 150 Lester, N.P., 39 Lewis, C.F.M., 76, 87, 91 Li, G., 111 Li, H., 88 Liao, Q., 88 Lichtkoppler, F., 89 Liebig, J.R., 89, 166 Lin, Y.T., 176 Litchman, E., 44 Liu, S., 87 Liversedge, L.K., 90, 150 Locke, B., 51 Lodge, D.M., 23, 141 Loewen, M.R., 13 Lofgren, B.M., 90 Longstaffe, F.J., 91 Lonky, E., 157 Lopez, E., 146 Lord, B.D., 102 Lordi, D.T., 113, 183 Lorentz, J.A., 15 Lowes, C.I., 91 Lozano, N., 113, 183 Lu, Q., 40, 92 Ludewig, B.G., 92 Ludsin, S.A., 18, 92, 134, 138, 153 Ludwig, J.P., 93 Lumb, C.E., 94 Lumsden, J.S., 175 Lush, D.L., 61 Mabury, S., 59 Macdonald, R.A., 87, 91 MacDougall, T.M., 95, 143 MacIsaac, H.J., 94 Mackay, S., 104 Mackey, S.D., 95 MacPherson, K., 148 Mandrak, N.E., 29, 40, 59 Mankin, P., 109 Manneh, R., 153 Manning, N.F., 95 Manno, J.P., 28, 96 Marcarello, K.T., 97 Marcus, M.A., 97 Marek, R.F., 97 Margni, M., 153 Markham, J.L., 95 Marklevitz, S.A.C., 98 Marschall, E.A., 29

PAGE 192

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 190 Marsden, J., 98 Marsden, J.E., 99 Martin, P., 99, 100 Martinez, A., 63, 97 Marvin, C.H., 51, 59, 148, 178 Marvin, C.J.H., 173 Mason, D.M., 18, 63, 89, 153 Mason, K., 100, 122 Masson, C., 101 Mastitsky, S.E., 74 Mathers, A., 182 Matisoff, G., 42 May, J.C., 101 Mayer, A., 101 Mayer, C.M., 37, 171, 181 Mayer, M., 62 McClelland, G.B., 11 McConnell, C.J., 86 McCormick, M.J., 8, 54, 116 McCracken, J., 104 McCulloch, R.D., 102 McCullough, G.K., 77, 102 154 McDaniel, T., 99 McDonald, C.P., 164 McDonald, E.A., 103 McDonald, K., 37, 103, 161 McDonell, D.J., 104 McGauley, E.K., 104 McKay, R.M.L., 146, 164, 173 McKenna, Jr., J.E., 83 McKinley, G.A., 4, 8, 164 McLaughlin, C., 105 McMahan, A.C., 171 McMaster, M., 19, 149 McMurtry, M., 152 McNaught, A.S., 103 McNinch, R.M., 105 McPherson, M.M., 106 Meadows, G.A., 150 Meek, G.A., 106 Meek, S., 178 Meixler, M., 165 Melymuk, L.E., 106 Menshutkin, V.V., 142 Mergler, D., 1 Metcalfe, B.W., 81, 107 Metcalfe, C.D., 88, 140, 149 Metcalfe, R.A., 172 Michalak, A.M., 25 Midwood, J.D., 107 Mierle, G., 35 Mihelcic, J., 101 Mihuc, T.B., 160 Mikoda, P., 108 Milford, L., 108 Miljkovic, N., 109 Millard, S., 170 Miller, B., 109 Miller, S.E., 180 Millie, D.F., 41 Milligan, M.S., 110, 177 Mills, E.L., 181 Mills, M.A., 113, 183 Milne, S.W., 158 Minarik, T., 113, 183 Miner, J.G., 120 Miner, M.E., 72 Minina, T.R., 142 Minniefield, C., 52 Minns, C.K., 110 Moccia, R.D., 21 Moe, H., 76 Moen, S., 14 Moll, R.A., 28 Molot, L., 170 Molot, L.A., 111 Montgomery, K.E., 49, 111 Moore, D., 151 Moore, D.J., 112, 125, 172 Moore, L., 42 Morbey, Y.E., 98, 112 Morrison, B.J., 64 Moy, P.B., 160 Muir, A.M., 78 Muir, D.C.G., 21, 81, 112, 146 Muir, T.A., 113 Munkittrick, K.R., 137 Murphy, E.W., 113, 183

PAGE 193

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 191 Murphy, S.C., 114 Myslik, J.P., 151 Nairn, R.B., 92 Nalbone, J.S., 114 Nalepa, T.F., 2, 115, 130, 166, 167 Neeson, T.M., 115, 116 Neilson, M.E., 156 Nekouee, N., 116 Nelson, W.H., 116 Nettesheim, T.G., 113, 183 Nghiem, S.V., 117 Nguyen, Q.V., 85 Nguyen, V.T., 117 Nicholas, J.R., 133 Nichols, S.J., 161 Nold, S.C., 10, 144 Norstrom, A.K., 97 Nudds, T., 119, 163 Obushenko, N., 119, 163 O'Donnell, D.M., 43, 118, 118, 125 O'Gorman, R., 83, 157 O'Keefe, J.P., 55, 133 Olenin, S., 74 Olmstead, S., 101 Olson, A., 119 Omair, M., 61 O'Neill, C.R., 119 Oni, S.K., 120 Oo, O., 85 Opfer, S.E., 120 Orchard, A., 110 Ortiz, J.D., 170 Ostrom, N.E., 144, 173 Otieno, B.S., 165 Ouellette, J.C., 120, 121 Overmier, G.L., 73 Ozersky, T., 36, 54, 64, 121, 122 Padilla, D.K., 74 Pagano, J.J., 110, 122, 157, 177 Page, S.J., 154 Pangle, K., 89 Parker, S.R., 122 Paterson, A.M., 154 Paterson, G., 123 Paturi, S., 56 Paul, J., 123 Pavlac, M.M., 124 Payton, A., 124 Peacor, S., 89 Pearson, R.A., 73 Pekarik, C., 108, 112, 125, 151, 172 Peng, F., 43, 125 Pennuto, C.M., 126 Perdue, J., 126 Perkins, M.G., 43, 126 Pernanen, S.K., 127 Pershyn, C., 160 Peter, M.C.S., 127, 128 Peter, V.S., 128 Peterson, G.W., 33, 128 Peterson, K.A., 116 Petrova, N.A., 142 Pichlov, R., 89 Piette, C.M., 39 Pijanoswki, B.C., 143 Pileggi, V., 129 Pleskach, K., 59 Poloskov, V.N., 142 Poos, M.S., 129 Poste, A.E., 130 Pothoven, S.A., 89, 130, 138, 166 Poulopoulos, J., 21, 130 Poulton, N.J., 116 Power, M., 44, 47, 144 Pozdnyakov, D., 150 Preston, J.M., 131 Prokop, N., 85 Qian, S.S., 158 Quaring, G.F., 118, 118, 126 Questel, J.M., 131 Quinlan, R., 139 Rail, J.F., 84 Ramkellawan, J., 132 Razavi, R., 132 Redder, T.M., 102 Redder, T.R., 36 Rediske, R.R., 55, 133 Reeves, H.W., 133

PAGE 194

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 192 Reichert, J.M., 134 Reid, D.F., 134, 135, 159, 167 Reid, K.B., 119, 163, 179 Reid, S.M., 135 Reihman, J., 157 Reiner, E., 51, 59, 148 Ribeiro Guevara, S., 3 Ricciardi, A., 136 Rice, C.P., 113, 183 Richards, R.P., 39, 136 Richter, C.A., 161 Ridal, J.J., 10, 45, 132, 137 Ridgway, M.S., 158 Riesen, K., 89 Riley, S.C., 137, 138, 161 Rinchard, J., 161 Riseng, C.M., 143 Roberts, J.J., 138 Roberts, P., 54, 116 Robinson, J.T., 21 Robinson, S., 166 Robson, M.E., 34, 106 Rockwell, D.C., 7, 25, 139, 169 Rod, D.L., 139 Rogers, E.D., 139 Rokitnicki-Wojcik, D., 140 Rondeau, B., 53 Rook, B.J., 52 Rose, J.B., 105 Roseman, E.F., 103, 138, 181 Rosenthal, H., 129 Rosso, N., 140 Rothlisberger, J.D., 23, 141 Ruberg, S.A., 75 Rucinski, D.K., 92, 141, 142 Rudstam, L.G., 168, 181 Rukhovets, L.A., 46, 142 Rutherford, E.S., 63, 143 Rutter, A., 85 Ryan, P.A., 143 Ryman, J.E., 144 Sadowsky, M.J., 56 Sanders, T.G., 10, 144 Sandstrm, A., 145 Satchwell, M.F., 17, 145, 160 Saxton, M.A., 146 Sayler, G.S., 139 Scavia, D., 92, 141, 142 Schaeffer, J.S., 156 Schaner, T., 16 Scheuer, D., 14 Schiefer, K., 47 Schloesser, D., 42 Schoenfuss, H.L., 183 Schroeder, J., 129 Schwab, D.J., 3, 8, 8, 54, 63, 116, 141, 142, 176 Scott, B.F., 146 Scull, B.D., 133 Sealock, L., 147 Seefelt, N.E., 147, 147 Selegean, J.P., 32 Sellinger, C.E., 158 Shaw, H.L., 147 Shen, L., 148 Sherman, K., 148 Sherman, K.R., 27 Sherry, J., 19 149 Shoenfuss, H.L., 113 Shrestha, D., 149 Shuchman, R.A., 150, 150 Shumchenia, E.J., 76, 87 Shuter, B.J., 110, 158, 181 Shutt, J.L., 151 Sigler, W.V., 18 Sikarskie, J.G., 17 Silver, E., 33 Simoliunas, S., 52 Simon, M.B., 14 Simpson, H., 151 Skinner, A.J., 43, 122, 152 Slattery, S.R., 76, 87, 91 Small, J., 81 Smardon, R., 96 Smith, E., 112 Smith, L.A., 152 Smith, R.E.H., 36, 71, 87, 153, 164, 173 Smith, S.J., 99 Snyder, F.L., 75, 89

PAGE 195

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 193 Sopkovich, E.A., 153 Soster, F., 42 Soucy, G., 153 Spada, M.E., 118, 118 Sparks, D.W., 60 Spear, P.A., 1 Spencer, C., 146 Sprules, W.G., 157 Stahl, L., 113, 183 Stainsby, E.A., 154, 174 Stainton, M.P., 77, 102, 154 Stapanian, M.A., 77, 155 Stark, T., 10 Stearns, A.M., 80 Steen, P.J., 156 Steinman, A.D., 133 Stepien, C.A., 7, 13, 58, 153, 156 Sterner, R.W., 173 Stewart, K.M., 157 Stewart, P.W., 157 Stewart, T.J., 157 St-Jean, M., 1 Stow, C.A., 158 Strait, C.M., 43, 118, 126 Strange, R.J., 139 Strecker, A.L., 158 Stricker, C.A., 144 Strickler, E.A., 144 Struger, J., 20, 53, 81 Stumpf, R.P., 176 Sturtevant, R.A., 159 Sumner, G., 110 Sutton, T.M., 44, 78 Sverko, E., 20, 20, 81, 100 Swinehart, C.Y., 160 Szarleta-Yancy, E.J., 32 Taillon, D.J., 160 Takser, L., 1 Taylor, E.P., 151 Taylor, S., 92 Taylor, W.D., 62 Tepas, K., 160 Terzhevik, A., 46 Thomas, S.P., 160 Thompson, K.A., 133 Thompson, T.A., 70 Tillitt, D.E., 161 Timmermans, S.T.A., 165 Tinson, C., 149 Todd, A., 20 Todd, B.J., 87 Todd, K., 32 Tomkins-Tinch, C.H., 80 Tomlinson, M.C., 176 Tomy, G., 59 Toninger, R., 37, 103, 161 Troy, C.D., 2, 162, 162 Truitt, D.B., 146 Trumpickas, J., 110 Tryon, K., 61 Tsao, J.I., 46, 46 Tsiplova, K., 163 Tu, C., 129 Tuchman, M.L., 7 Tulen, L.A., 163 Turner, B.A.F., 164 Twiner, M.J., 139 Twiss, M.R., 164, 173 Tyler, J.A., 143 Tyson, J.T., 134 Urban, N.R., 4, 8, 164 Usjak, S., 165 Uzarski, D.G., 29, 165 Vachon, N., 166 Vanderlinden, L., 34 Vanderploeg, H.A., 2, 18, 23, 36, 89, 138, 166, 167 Vanier, C., 1 Velez-Espino, L.A., 167 Venier, M., 168 Verhamme, E.M., 36 Verhougstraete, M.P., 105 Villella, M., 19 Vodacek, A., 182 von Korff, B., 9 Wagner, T.J., 71 Walsh, M.G., 83 Walters, M., 6

PAGE 196

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 194 Wang, H., 168 Wang, J., 169 Wang, L., 70 Wang, Y.X., 45 Warren, G.J., 1, 7, 169 Watkins, D., 101 Watkinson, D.A., 94 Watson, S.B., 10, 42, 77, 111, 124, 170 Weghorst, P.L., 170, 171 Welch, M.K., 21 Wellington, C.G., 171 Wells, M.G., 147 Welsh, A.B., 131 Welsh, P., 50 Weseloh, D.V., 58, 108, 112, 125, 151, 172 White, M.S., 172 Whiting, C., 128 Whittle, D.M., 123 Wilcox, D.A., 70 Wiley, M.J., 74, 115, 116, 143, 156 Wilhelm, S.W., 2, 139, 146, 164, 173 Wilkie, M.P., 11 Wilkins, G., 178 Wilkinson, D., 134 Williams, K.L., 151 Williams, N., 99 Willox, C.C., 81, 107 Wilson, C.C., 12 Wilson, H.F., 173 Wilson, H.W., 48 Winter, J.G., 9, 43, 132, 154, 174 Wirick, H., 139 Witt, J.D.S., 165 Witter, D.L., 170 Wojnarowski, L.A., 174 Woolnough, D.A., 175 Wootton, B., 140, 149 Wrigglesworth, S., 68 Wright, M.E., 64, 160, 175 Wu, C.H., 4, 8, 164, 176 Wyatt, G.J., 131 Wynne, T.T., 176 Xenopoulos, M.A., 26, 48, 172, 173, 175 Xia, X., 177 Xiao, J.E., 88 Yadav, B.V., 177 Yakobowski, S., 130 Yang, W., 163 Yang, X., 17 Yantsis, S.N., 177 Yerubandi, R.R., 42, 178 Yerubandi, Y., 56 Young, D., 178 Young, E.B., 9, 57, 91 Yu, H., 179 Yule, D.L., 52, 179 Yumvihoze, E., 84 Yunker, G.B., 43, 135 Yurista, P.M., 180 Zajicek, J.L., 161 Zhang, J., 101, 180 Zhang, L., 126 Zhang, X., 180 Zhao, J., 178 Zhao, Y.M., 181, 182 Zhu, B., 47, 181 Zhu, X., 182 Zhu, Y., 182 Zimmerman, J., 101 Zintek, L., 113, 183 Zuccarino-Crowe, C.M., 113, 183

PAGE 197

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 195 Subject Matter Index Acoustics, 76, 131, 179 Africa, 130 Age and growth, 67 Agricultural, 175 Agricultural watershed, 38 Agriculture, 72 Air, 65 Alewife, 63, 157 Algae, 10, 53, 164, 176 Alkaline phosphatase, 97 American eel, 182 Amphibians, 99 Amphipods, 132 Anaerobic conditions, 101 Anoxia, 80 AOCs, 128 APEs, 183 Arctic, 149 Area of Concern (AOC), 38 Areas of concern cleanup, 67 Assessments, 51, 57, 70, 104, 134, 145, 180 Atmosphere-lake interaction, 2, 5, 68, 90, 132, 165 Atmospheric circulation, 168 Atrazine, 20 Avian diseases, 21 Avian ecology, 37, 82, 100, 104, 108, 112, 125, 147, 151, 152, 172 Ballast, 114, 141, 159 Basin-scale internal waves, 117 Bathymetry, 75 Bay of Quinte, 170 Beach closure forecasting, 66 Beaches, 106 Benthic flora, 48, 53, 75 Benthos, 3, 19, 37, 38, 42, 76, 83, 170 Bioaccumulation, 38, 93 Biodiversity, 13, 58, 80, 104, 107, 112 Bioenergetics, 126, 138, 157 Biofuels, 73 Biogeochemistry, 9, 10, 27, 42, 50, 75, 121, 173 Bioindicators, 1, 16, 17, 19, 27, 50, 56, 60, 79, 122, 180

PAGE 198

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 196 Biological invasions, 94, 109, 116, 131, 141, 167 Biomagnification, 85 Biomonitoring, 9, 61, 69, 166 Black Sea, 109 BMP, 73 Botulism Type D, 21 Buoys, 80 Bythotrephes cederstroemii 67, 89, 166 Carbon, 144 Carbon cycle, 4, 165 Carp, 24 Chemical analysis, 34, 62, 88, 134, 168, 175 Chiral signatures, 81 Chlorophyll, 171 Cladophora, 9, 36, 64 Cleanup, 65, 98 Climate change, 4, 5, 8, 44, 86, 88, 90, 110, 120, 142, 154, 169 Climate trends, 76 Cloud cover, 76 Coastal ecosystems, 5, 33, 49, 64, 75, 158 Coastal wetlands, 15, 29, 31, 51, 107, 127, 140, 147, 152, 166, 177 Coasts, 30, 70, 106 Colonial waterbirds, 151 Columnaris, 160 Communications, 160 Community engagement (prefer), 48 Community involvement, 49 Comparison studies, 11, 57, 129 Computer models, 92, 116, 143, 177, 178 Conservation, 68, 73, 80, 122, 174 Conservation authorities, 48 Consumptive water use, 41 Cormorants, 93, 125, 147 Crayfish, 122 Crustaceans, 68, 131 Cyanophyta, 17, 24, 77, 103, 111, 133, 170 Data acquisition, 39, 109, 150 DDT, 86 Decadal census, 147 Decision making, 28, 32, 57, 61, 96, 98, 109 Declines, 123 Detroit River, 52, 92, 103, 163, 180 Diatoms, 23, 83 Diets, 67, 99

PAGE 199

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 197 Disease, 151 Dispersal, 12 Dissolved organic matter, 120, 121, 173 Dissolved solids, 25 Distribution patterns, 5, 135 Dreissena, 7, 12, 13, 28, 31, 36, 37, 54, 69, 94, 114, 115, 121, 136, 160, 166, 182 Drinking water, 32, 42, 108 E. coli, 106 Ecological impacts, 136 Economic evaluation, 89, 163 Economic impact, 61, 119, 141 Ecosystem approach, 15, 28 Ecosystem health, 16, 19, 47, 51, 79, 80, 127, 137, 140, 149, 166 Ecosystem integrity, 101 Ecosystem modeling, 4, 71, 110, 141, 142 Ecosystems, 10, 96, 105, 148 Education, 49, 151, 171 Emission, 181 Emissions impact, 154 Endocrine disruption, 30, 60, 149 Energy, 73 Engagement, 26 Environmental contaminants, 9, 17, 58, 65, 68, 85, 88, 110, 120, 128, 129, 168, 177 Environmental education, 80 Environmental effects, 73, 127, 128, 167 Environmental health, 22, 27, 60, 113 Environmental policy, 47, 49, 67, 79, 84, 135, 157 Escherichia coli 27 Eutrophication, 24, 142, 148 Exotic species, 2, 28, 167, 182 Experimental design, 79, 149 Finger Lakes, 182 First Nations, 26, 34 Fish, 9, 11, 15, 19, 30, 31, 34, 35, 45, 59, 66, 94, 130, 138, 149, 153, 155, 177 Fish behavior, 103 Fish consumption restrictions, 82 Fish die-off, 160 Fish diets, 114, 126, 130 Fish diseases, 46, 65, 71, 137, 161, 175 Fish growth, 134 Fish habitat, 139 Fish management, 12, 135, 145, 156 Fish populations, 12, 13, 46, 52, 58, 70, 74, 81, 93, 112, 126, 129, 138, 182 Fish reproduction, 114

PAGE 200

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 198 Fish tagging, 71, 129 Fish toxins, 62, 110, 140 Fisheries, 12, 119, 145, 163 Fishing, 89 Food chains, 3, 21, 58, 83, 84, 144, 161 Freshwater drum, 65 Gages, 27 Gene expression, 140 Genetic diversity, 165 Genetics, 2, 7, 13, 58, 131, 153, 156 Geochemistry, 98 Georgian Bay, 31, 107, 140, 177 GIS, 90, 101, 105, 116, 121, 124, 150 Glyphosate, 20, 146 Governance, 101 Great Lakes, 44 Great Lakes basin, 2, 14, 22, 25, 39, 40, 41, 52, 59, 61, 68, 78, 81, 101, 102, 105, 108, 110, 113, 129, 134, 139, 146, 148, 159, 167, 171, 172 Great Lakes rivers, 81 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 101 Groundwater, 91 Habitats, 1, 5, 6, 68, 76, 78, 95, 103, 116, 119, 123, 135, 143, 166, 173 Hamilton Harbour, 82 Harmful algal blooms, 18, 41, 44, 85, 124, 133, 146, 154, 161, 170 Hemimysis 16 Hexagenia 37 Holocene, 88 Human health, 1, 34, 41, 42, 49, 54, 113, 116, 154, 157 Hydroacoustics, 158 Hydrodynamic model, 2, 3, 8, 40, 56, 71, 92, 181 Hydrodynamics, 2, 13, 54, 87, 89, 92, 116, 153, 162, 169, 176, 178 Hydrogeomorphology, 33 Hydrologic budget, 90 Hydrologic cycle, 86 Hydroxylated PCBs, 97 Hypoxia, 37, 80, 173 Ice, 117, 164, 169 Icthyoplankton, 134 IJC, 19 Impared water use, 10, 22, 119 Indicators, 16, 33, 52, 61, 139 Individual based model, 115 Individual particle analysis, 125 Instabilities and mixing, 162

PAGE 201

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 199 Invasive species, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, 30, 37, 40, 53, 55, 67, 74, 83, 94, 109, 116, 119, 123, 126, 131, 133, 135, 151, 152, 153, 156, 159, 160, 166 Iron, 111 Isotope studies, 84, 131 IUGLS, 19 Karst sinkholes, 75 Laboratory experiments, 162 Lake Champlain, 17, 145, 161 Lake ecosystems, 49 Lake Erie, 7, 11, 13, 18, 23, 24, 27, 29, 31, 38, 39, 56, 71, 74, 75, 77, 83, 84, 87, 89, 92, 95, 101, 117, 118, 120, 124, 125, 126, 138, 141, 142, 146, 155, 164, 169, 171, 173, 176, 179 Lake herring, 67 Lake Huron, 2, 10, 15, 27, 64, 66, 72, 75, 92, 98, 112, 122, 130, 138, 144, 158 Lake management, 28, 106 Lake Michigan, 8, 57, 60, 74, 78, 89, 91, 109, 147, 158, 162 Lake model, 142, 150, 172 Lake Ontario, 10, 14, 36, 42, 43, 56, 65, 82, 83, 114, 122, 151, 157, 161, 164, 178, 182 Lake Simcoe, 6, 36, 40, 43, 51, 64, 81, 91, 100, 107, 120, 121, 122, 132, 139, 152, 154, 174 Lake St. Clair, 3, 92 Lake Superior, 4, 5, 8, 19, 52, 180 Lake temperature, 154 Lake trout, 43, 59, 95, 100, 112 Lake whitefish, 44, 71, 78 Lake Winnipeg, 77, 94 Land use, 48, 173 Latitudinal, 123 LC-MS/MS, 88 Leaf litter decomposition, 48 Life history studies, 55, 78, 108, 168 Macroinvertebrates, 29, 48, 74, 104, 120 Macrophytes, 62 Management, 5, 15, 47, 48, 96, 103, 122, 167, 168, 171 Marshes, 119 Mass balance, 56 Mathematical models, 44, 46, 54, 117 Matrix modeling, 47 Measuring instruments, 41 Mecoprop, dichlorprop, metolachlor, 81 Mercury, 21, 35, 45, 62, 84, 131, 132 Metabolism, 127, 128 Metals, 21, 69, 85 Methylmercury, 157 Microbiological studies, 56, 57, 105, 106 Microcystin, 130

PAGE 202

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 200 Microcystis, 2, 17, 24, 41, 85, 140, 145, 166 Migrations, 147 Mink, 50 Mitochondrial DNA, 165 Model studies, 14, 25, 36, 40, 74, 87, 96, 101, 106, 169, 179 Model testing, 56, 156, 165 Model validation, 30 Modeling, 4 MODIS, 150 Monitoring, 1, 14, 16, 27, 39, 68, 70, 80, 86, 87, 113, 117, 124, 127, 133, 135, 138, 152, 155, 162, 172, 175, 179 Morphological variation, 109 Multi-sensor precipitation estimates, 25 Mysids, 15 Neogobius melanostomus 109 Neotropical migrants, 147 Nitrogen, 182 Non-governmental organizations, 65, 163 Nutrients, 9, 26, 64, 72, 97, 121, 154, 175 Nutrients load, 30, 69 Oneida Lake, 182 Ontario, 175 Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 32, 175 Optical properticles, 125 Organic compounds, 40 Organochlorine compounds, 172 Otolith, 134 Outreach, 159, 160 Over-lake precipitation, 25 Oxygen, 18, 23, 27, 42, 80, 93, 139, 141 PAHs, 154 Paleolimnology, 70, 88, 92, 139 PBDEs, 59, 148, 181 PBTs, 113 PCB, 38 PCBs, 1, 22, 36, 50, 59, 60, 63, 65, 82, 93, 110, 122, 157 Perfluorinated compounds, 51 Perfluorooctane sulfonate, 146 Pesticides, 11, 20, 53, 68, 81, 86 Pharmaceuticals, 30 Phosphorus, 27, 36, 39, 54, 56, 57, 61, 62, 91, 97, 132, 136, 169, 182 Phytoplankton, 7, 24, 26, 31, 54, 77, 91, 103, 111, 116, 174 Plankton, 142 Planning, 5, 6, 33, 78, 80, 139, 174, 178

PAGE 203

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 201 Policy making, 15, 96, 105, 114, 135, 174 Pollutants, 52, 99, 127, 140 Pollution, 74 Pollution load, 39, 136 Pollution sources, 124 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 58, 100 Population dynamics, 47 Populations, 15, 137, 147 PPCPs, 114, 183 PPCPs and EDS, 88 Predation, 89, 164, 169 Prediction, 136 Protected areas, 122 Public education, 14, 37, 157 Public involvement, 15 Public participation, 48, 52, 67, 137, 157, 163 Rainbow smelt, 93 Recreational, 75 Recruitment, 52, 63, 81, 93, 100, 134, 143, 153, 171, 181 Refugia, 59 Regional analysis, 101, 134 Remediation, 22, 79, 98, 128, 137, 148 Remote sensing, 11, 43, 80, 85, 87, 90, 103, 107, 117, 118, 125, 126, 131, 140, 150, 171, 176, 182 Remote sensing ground-truth, 118 Research, 15, 72 Resting cells, 83 Restoration, 128, 161 Review, 48 Risk assessment, 24, 40, 45, 46, 50, 113, 119, 151, 159, 163 River network structure, 115 Round goby, 30, 55, 72, 109, 126, 153, 156, 167 Salmon, 98, 164 Sampling, 77 Satellite technology, 87 Sea lamprey, 57, 115 Seabed classification, 131 Seasonality, 173 Sediment, 97 Sediment load, 32 Sediment quality, 63 Sediment resuspension, 11, 132, 176 Sediment transport, 32, 102, 182 Sediments, 45, 51, 131, 148 Sidescan sonar, 95

PAGE 204

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 202 Small fish, 107 Source, 181 Source-sink dynamics, 12 Spatial analysis, 35, 63 Spatial distribution, 29, 103, 116, 161 Species at risk, 47 Species composition, 15, 19, 29, 94, 125 Species diversity, 112 SPMDs, 86 St. Clair River, 3, 19, 92, 99, 106 St. Lawrence River, 22, 45, 137 Stable isotopes, 3, 91, 124, 144 Stewardship, 151 Stopover ecology, 147 Stormwater management ponds, 26, 97 Stratified flows, 162 Stress, 127 Submerged plants, 36 Suspended particles, 125 Sustainability, 38 Synoptic climatology, 76 Taxonomic status, 165 Temporal, 123 Terrestrial, 100 Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan, 111 Toxic substances, 17, 107, 145, 177 Traditional ecological knowledge, 34 Transition, 175 Tributaries, 64, 107, 134, 136, 146 Triple bottom line, 38 Trophic disruption, 44 Trophic interactions, 67 Trophic level, 179 Trout, 74 Turbidity, 7, 90, 125, 171 Turbulence, 89 Underwater optics, 43, 118, 126 Universal krigging, 25 Urban areas, 37, 97, 103, 111 Urban watersheds, 26, 49, 82, 95, 107, 111, 129 Urbanization, 32, 97, 156, 175 Veligers, 12 Viruses, 57 Vitamin B, 161

PAGE 205

International Association for Great Lakes Research Abstracts 51st Annual Conference 203 Walleye, 7, 18, 93, 119, 143, 168, 181 Wastewater, 114, 183 Water budget, 108 Water currents, 5, 63, 147, 177, 178 Water level, 19, 32, 70 Water level fluctuations, 86, 147, 158, 172, 176 Water policy, 26, 34 Water quality, 1, 4, 6, 14, 15, 26, 30, 32, 33, 40, 43, 49, 51, 52, 56, 66, 69, 79, 105, 106, 133, 150, 174, 177 Water use, 73 Watershed hydrology, 30, 66, 69 Watersheds, 20, 32, 48, 50, 51, 53, 61, 62, 74, 84, 102, 108, 133, 143, 178 Waves, 89, 117 Wetlands, 12, 27, 33, 66, 95, 114, 123, 140, 149, 161, 166 Whitefish, 99 Yellow perch, 29, 77, 93, 143, 155, 171, 179 Zebra mussels, 12, 19, 72, 75, 99, 115, 119, 122, 135, 152 Zoobenthos, 27, 80, 115, 180 Zooplankton, 2, 23, 24, 26, 61, 97, 169, 177, 180



PAGE 1

Program May 19th 23rd, 2008 Trent University Peterborough, Ontario, Canada 51st Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research Institute for Watershed Science Trent University INTERNA TIONAL ASSOCIA TION FOR GREA T LAKES RESEARCH

PAGE 2

1 Conference Logo Design: William Knight Trent University This logo reflects on the theme of the 2008 conference, Our Lakes, Our Community. This theme recognizes the role that communi ties and community organizations play in protecting the quality and quantity of wa ter, and the recreational and commercial value of the Great Lakes and how our stew ardship of Great Lakes watersheds is connected to the health of the Great Lakes and of our communities.

PAGE 3

2 PROGRAM International Association for Great Lakes Research 51st Annual Conference OUR LAKES, OUR COMMUNITY May 19-23rd, 2008 Institute for Watershed Science Trent University Peterborough, Ontario Copyright 2008 International Association for Great Lakes Research 2205 Commonwealth Boulevard Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105

PAGE 4

3TABLE OF CONTENTS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE.................................................................................................................4 IAGLR SUSTAINING MEMBERS...........................................................................................................6 CONFERENCE SPONSORS...................................................................................................................7 CONFERENCE EXHIBITORS................................................................................................................8 PLENARY SESSIONS.........................................................................................................................10 SPECIAL EVENTS.............................................................................................................................13 SCHEDULED EVENTS.......................................................................................................................15 CONFERENCE OVERVIEW................................................................................................................17 SESSIONS BY DAY...........................................................................................................................21 POSTER SESSION.............................................................................................................................48 “GREEN” INITIATIVES AT THE 51ST CONFERENCE AT TRENT UNIVERSITY........................................52 DRIVING DIRECTIONS AND MAPS....................................................................................................53 LOGISTICS............................................................................................................................... .......54 CAMPUS MAP............................................................................................................................... ...55 LOCATION OF CAMPUS, PETERBOROUGH.........................................................................................56 FLOOR PLAN OF GZOWSKI COLLEGE................................................................................................57 FLOOR PLAN OF OTONABEE COLLEGE.............................................................................................58

PAGE 5

4 ORGANIZING COMMITTEE 51st Annual Conference “OUR LAKES, OUR COMMUNITY” Site Chair Chris Metcalfe Director, Institute for Watershed Science Professor, Environmental Resource Science Trent University Site Coordinator Leslie Collins Institute for Watershed Science Trent University Program Chair Patricia Chow-Fraser Professor, Department of Biology McMaster University Local Organizing Committee Chris Metcalfe Leslie Collins Mark Dzurko Brittany Cadence Eric Sager Trent University Brian Grantham Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Thanks to: Trent University Conference Services Institute for Watershed Science Staff Trent University Volunteers

PAGE 6

5

PAGE 7

6 IAGLR SUSTAINING MEMBERS Our deepest appreciation is extended to our annual IAGLR Sustaining Members Great Lakes Fishery Commission* 2100 Commonwealth Blvd., Suite 100 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105-1563 Great Lakes Protection Fund 1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 880 Evanston, Illinois 60201 4808 International Joint Commission Great Lakes Regional Office l00 Ouellette Avenue Windsor, Ontario N9A 6T3 U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Great Lakes Environment Research Lab. 2205 Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes National Program Office 77 West Jackson Street Chicago, Illinois 60604 IAGLR Sustaining Members receive multiple benefits! If your institution is interested in ensuring the integrity and the longevity of the Association and its objectives, please consider joining our prestigious league of Sustaining Members. *proud sponsor of the annual Norman S. Baldwin Fishery Science Scholarship.

PAGE 8

7 CONFERENCE SPONSORS Thank you to the following Sponsors for their financial support to host the 51st Conference on Great Lakes Research Major Sponsors! ($5,000 and greater) Mi nistry of Natural Resources Great Lakes Branch Ministry of Natural Resources Lands and Waters Branch Ministry of the Environment Great Lakes Sea Grant Consortium* IL-IN, MI, MN, NY, PA, WI Contributing Sponsors ($2,500 and greater) Fisheries and Oceans Canada* Great Lakes Fishery Commission U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Great Lakes Environment Research Lab. Supporting Sponsors ($1000 and greater) U.S. Geological Survey Fleming College Great Lakes Fishery Trust, Inc. Greater Peterborough Region DNA Cluster International Joint Commission Gr eat Lakes Regional Office The St. Lawrence Se away Management Corporation U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Sponsors Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University Great Lakes Protection Fund funds provided towards program book and abstract production

PAGE 9

8 CONFERENCE EXHIBITORS Welcome to our Conference Exhibitors! AXYS Analytical Services Ltd. 2045 Mills Road Sidney, BC V8L 5X2 www.axysanalytical.com BBE Moldaenke P.O. Box 36167 Cincinnati, OH 45236-016 www.bbe-moldaenke.com Biohabitats, Inc. 2081 Clipper Park Road Baltimore, MD 21211 www.biohabitats.com Campbell Scientific Canada Corp. 11564 – 149 Street, NW Edmonton, AB T5M 1W7 www.campbellsci.ca Fluid Imaging Technologies Inc. 65 Forest Falls Dr. Yarmouth, ME 04096 www.fluidimaging.com Great Lakes Fishery Commission*^ 2100 Commonwealth Blvd., Suite 100 Ann Arbor, MI USA 48105-1563 www.glfc.org Hoskin Scientific Ltd. 4210 Morris Drive Burlington, ON N3H 4K6 www.hoskin.ca NOAA, Center of Excellence for Great Lakes and Human Health 2205 Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105 www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Centers/HumanHealth Quester Tangent 201-9865 West Saanich Road Sidney, BC V8L 5Y8 www.questertangent.com Thermo Scientific 2845 Argentia Road, Unit 4 Mississauga, ONT L5N 8G6 www.thermo.com Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources^ Great Lakes Branch 300 Water Street Peterborough, ON K9J 8M5 www.mnr.gov.on.ca Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources^ Lands and Water Branch 300 Water Street Peterborough, ON K9J 8M5 www.mnr.gov.on.ca U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA*^ Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab 2205 Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105 www.glerl.noaa.gov/ Exhibits will be open daily Please make them feel welcome by visiting their displays! A special thank you is extended to the Exhibitors as indicated: *annual SUSTAINING MEMBER ^proud conference SPONSOR

PAGE 10

9

PAGE 11

10 PLENARY SESSIONS Keynote Address, Tuesday, May 20th Dr. Dean Jacobs, Executive Director Walpole Island First Na tion Heritage Centre Dean Jacobs is the Director of the Walpole Island Heritage Centre. Dean Jacobs is a former Chief of the Walpole Island First Nation. He also has served six elected terms as a Councillor on the WIFN Council of Three Fires. Dean was Wallaceburg Chamber of Commerce’s Professional Business Person of the Year for 2004. He is a recipient of two honorary doctorate degrees and two eagle feathers. He has served on the Editorial Advisory Bo ard for the Journal of the Ontario Historical Society. He was a me mber of the International Joint Commission's Council of Great Lakes Research Managers and was a charter member of the Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy. In addition, Dean Jacobs is a former board member of the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ontario Historical Society, and the Premier's Council. For over 34 years Dean has worked on esta blishing and sustaining a community-based research program for the Walpole Island Fi rst Nation. Through his guidance, Walpole Island has been recognized, by international scholars, as having one of the best First Nation community research offices in Canada. In 1982, He was instrumental in enhancing community-based research capabili ties by implementing a socio-economic and environmental research program called Nin.Da.Waab.Jig. In 1989, he became the founding Director of the Walpole Island Heritage Centre. In 1995, the Walpole Island First Nation received the “We the Peoples: 50 Communities Award” from the Friends of the United Nations for their exemplar y record in environmental research and sustainable development. In 1992, the Governor General of Canada conferred upon Dean the Commemorative Medal for the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada in recognition of significant cont ribution to compatriots, community, and Canada. In1997, the Walpole Island Heritage Centre was selected by Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development as a "First Nations Effective Practices" site. In 1976, Dean became the first Canadian Indian admitted to the Smithsonian Institution's American Indian Cultural Reso urces Training Program. He has been an expert witness in a number of hunting and fishing rights court cases and has also testified as an expert witness in environment and energy regulatory agency hearings. Dr. Jacobs currently specializes in negotiating land claims and the development of First Nations impacts and benefits agreements.

PAGE 12

11 Plenary Speaker, Wednesday, May 21st Dr. Al Kristofferson Manager, Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Al Kristofferson was born and raised in Gimli, Manitoba and educated at the University of Manitoba (Ph.D.). He has had a close association with Lake Winnipeg all his life. His greatgrandfather and grandfather were both commercial fishermen on the lake and he has a number of relatives who are still in the industry today. As a child he spent his summers swimming and angling in the lake and has been a recreational sailor on Lake Winnipeg since 1972. In the early 1970’s he worked for th e Provincial Fisheries Department and completed his Masters Degree on the populati on structuring of lakewhitefish in Lake Winnipeg. He joined Canada’s Departme nt of Fisheries and Oceans in 1977 as a Fishery Management Biologist, working mainly on fisheries for Arctic char across the Canadian Arctic. He retired in October 2007 after 30 years of service. Al has a lifelong love for Lake Winnipeg and is a founding member of the Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Inc. He has coordinated its development since 1998. Presently, he is its Managing Director and plans to continue his involvement well into retirement. “The Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Inc.” Lake Winnipeg is one of the least studied of the world’s great lakes. It is the major geographical feature in central Canada and is of vital importance to the people of Manitoba. It generates over 100 million do llars in tourism each year and supports a commercial fishery with an average annual landed value of 20 million dollars. The majority of the over 1000 commercial fishers are Aboriginal and, in addition to its economic importance to them, the lake is of great spiritual importance as well. The commercial fishery was closed for over a year in the late 1960’s when high levels of mercury were detected in some commercial fi sh species. The sources have since been dealt with and mercury contamination is no longer a problem in the lake. However, the lake now faces the serious threats of cu ltural eutrophication, exotic species and climate change. These developments clearly pointed to the need for a dedicated research initiative to address the situ ation and prevent future problems from developing. The Red River flood of 1997, with its massive influx of flood water to the lake’s south basin, served to heighten go vernment’s awareness of the need for this research. To that end, the Lake Winnipeg Research Consor tium (LWRC) was founded in August 1998 and incorpor ated in August 2001. The LWRC is a nonprofit organization. At present, 32 partners comprise the LWRC, including academia, government, First Nations, industry and recr eational interests. By working together as a community, we can protect our great lake now and for future generations to come.

PAGE 13

12 Plenary Speaker, Thursday, May 22nd Rick Findlay Director, Water Programme, Pollution Probe Rick Findlay is Director of the Water Programme of Pollution Probe, one of CanadaÂ’s longest establ ished non-profit environmental groups. Rick also leads the Ottawa office of Pollution Probe. Rick joined Pollution Probe in 1998 after serving for six years as Chief of the Climate Change team with Environment Canada. His position previous to that was Director of the Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy, where Rick developed a deep respect for the principles of sustainable development and a commitment to helping achieve it through the multi-sect oral process of creating a sustainable development strategy for the Province of Ontario. Rick joined Environment Canada in 1977, where he was responsible for the project that created the widely replicated Blue Bo x recycling program and for activities in Canada concerning toxic pollution of the Niagara River in the 1980Â’s. Prior to that, Rick worked for five year s as a project engineer with a Canadian Company doing water and wastewater process engineering. Rick has over 30 years of experience in business, government and institutional position s, and now the nongovernment sector. His experience rang es from project engineering to policy development. Rick is currently serving as a member of boards, task forces and advisory panels, including Member of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Water Network, one of the National Networks of Centres of Excellence; Rick has a Bachelors of Applied Science de gree (Chemical Engineering) from QueenÂ’s University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada. "Sustaining the Sweetwater Seas: A New Vision for the Great Lakes" The Great Lakes Futures Roundtable is an informal bi-national community of individuals who have develope d a Vision for the Great Lake s St. Lawrence region that suggests a new approach to achieving the go als we all seek; a robust ecosystem along with strong economic, social and cultural systems. Great Lakes governance will need to adapt in order to achieve the shifts th at will be necessary to protect and sustain this vital community of communities.

PAGE 14

13 SPECIAL EVENTS Banquet Speaker, Wednesday, May 21st Dr. Roberta Bondar Astronaut, Neurologist, Photograph er, Chancellor of Trent University As the worldÂ’s first neurologist in space, Dr. Roberta Bondar is globally recognized for her pioneerin g contribution in space medicine research. Aboard the Discov ery mission STS-42 in 1992, she conducted experiments in the shuttleÂ’s first international microgravity laboratory. For more than a decade at NASA Dr Bondar headed an international research team, continuing to find new connections between astronauts recovering from the microgravity of space and neurological illnesses here on Earth such as stroke and ParkinsonÂ’s disease. Her techniques have been used in clinical stud ies at the B. I. Deaconess Medical Center, a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical Scho ol and at the University of New Mexico. A true renaissance woman, Dr. Bondar is an acclaimed photographer of the natural wonders of our planet. She is the author of four best-selling photo essay books featuring her stunning photography of the Ea rth. RobertaÂ’s photographs of the deserts in the American Southwest and the Canadian Arctic became a well received exhibition entitled The Deserts of North America UNESCO has announced 2008 through 2010 as the International Years of the Planet and Dr. Roberta Bondar has been named the Honorary Patron for Canada. As a space scientist and neurologist Dr. Robert a Bondar is a much sought-after speaker who makes exciting connections between how our brains adapt in space and how we can adapt to constantly-changing business environments here on Earth. With innovative ideas about how to navigate in uncharted territory, she offers her abilities as a leader and visionary to corporations and organizations throughout North America. Dr. Bondar demonstrates the adaptive thinking necessary for changing perspectives in our contemporary world. In 2007 the Ontario Government appointed Dr. Bondar to chair the Working Committee on Environmental Education, to strengthen environmental education in the curriculum of elementary and secondary schools. The Committee presented the report and all 32 of their recommendations are being implemented in 2008. Dr. Bondar has been recognized with th e NASA Space Medal, inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame and into the International WomenÂ’s Forum Hall of Fame for her pioneering research in space me dicine. In addition, she has received 24 honorary doctorates from Canadian and American universities. In 2003 TIME magazine named her among North America's best explorers. Currently, Dr. Bondar is in her second te rm as Chancellor of Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario and she continues photographing the extremes of our planet.

PAGE 15

14 The David Sheperd Family Lecture Series and Trent University present Robert F. Kennedy Jr. “Our Environmental Destiny” Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s reputation as a resolute defender of the environment stems from a litany of successful legal actions. Mr. Kennedy was named one of Time magazine's “Heroes for the Planet” for his success in helping Riverkeeper lead the fight to restore the Hudson River. The group's achievem ent helped spawn more than 160 Waterkeeper organizations across the globe. Mr. Kennedy serves as senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, chief prosecuting attorney for the Hudson Riverkeeper and president of Wate rkeeper Alliance. He is also a clinical professor and supervising attorney at Pace University School of Law’s Environmental Litigation Clinic and is co-host of Ring of Fire on Air America Radio. Earlier in his career, he served as assist ant district attorney in New York City. He has worked on environmental issues across the Americas, and has assisted several indigenous tribes in Latin America and Ca nada in successfully negotiating treaties protecting traditional homelands. He is cred ited with leading the fight to protect New York City's water supply. The New York City watershed agreement, which he negotiated on behalf of environmentalists and New York City watershed consumers, is regarded as an international model in stakeholder consensus negotiations and sustainable development. He also helped lead the fight to turn back the antienvironmental legislation during the 104th Congress. Among Mr. Kennedy's published books are the New York Times bestseller Crimes Against Nature (2004) ; The Riverkeepers (1997); and Judge Frank M. Johnson Jr: A Biography (1977). His articles have appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Rolling Stone, Atlantic Monthly, Esquire, The Nation, Outside magazine, the Village Voice and many other publications. His award-winning articles have been included in anthologies of America’s best crime writing, best political writing an d best science writing. Mr. Kennedy is a graduate of Harvard University. He studied at the London School of Economics and received his law degree from the University of Virginia Law School. Following graduation, he attended Pace Un iversity School of Law, where he was awarded a master’s degree in environmental law. *Sponsored by the David Sheperd Family Endowment Fund and Trent University

PAGE 16

15SCHEDULED EVENTS Monday, May 19th 8:30 am-4:30 pm IAGLR Workshops: Aquatic Invasive Species Dispersal and Barriers Workshop Informing Coastal Conservation: Integrating and Advancing Science for Great Lakes Conservation Planning and Action Improving Success in Securing Grants Improving Success in Securing Employment 6:00 pm-9:00 pm Welcome Reception Gzowski College Dining Hall (Robinson Hall) Tuesday, May 20th 10:30 am-11:20 am Opening Ceremonies Wenjack Theatre, Otonabee College 11:20 am-12:00 pm Keynote Addr ess: Dr. Dean Jacobs Executive Director, Walpole Island First Nation Natural Heritage Centre 12:00 pm-1:20pm Publications Committee Lunch Gzowski College Room 345 5:00 pm-6:30 pm Poster Session and Mixer Great Hall, Champlain College 7:30 pm-9:00 pm Graduate Student Mixer and Pub Crawl Splice Restaurant, Downtown Peterborough Buses Provided! Wednesday, May 21st 11:20 am-12:00 pm Plenary Presentation: Dr. Al Kristofferson, Managing Director, Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium “Our Lakes Our Community, The Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Inc.” 12:00pm-1:20pm IAGLR Business Lunch 7:00pm-10:00pm IAGLR Annual Banquet Guest Speaker: Dr. Roberta Bondar “Between the Sheets, Lakes from Space” Silent Auction in Support of Student Scholarships

PAGE 17

16 Thursday, May 22nd 11:20am-12:00pm Plenary Presen tation: Rick Findlay, Director, Water Programme, Pollution Probe “Sustaining the Sweetwater Seas: A New Vision for the Great Lakes” 5:30pm-7:00pm IAGLR Barbeque Great Hall and Riverside, Champlain College 7:30pm-8:30pm David Sheperd Family Lecture Series special presentation Robert F. Kennedy Jr. “Our Environmental Destiny” Peterborough Memorial Centre Friday, May 23rd 3:00pm-5:00pm IAGLR CAN/AM Hockey Game Evinrude Centre In support of IAGLR Scholarship Fund

PAGE 18

17CONFERENCE OVERVIEW Tuesday, May 20 8:20 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Ecosystem approaches to managing Great Lakes aquatic resources: conceptual and practical methods Room Rm 203 8:20 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Room Rm 114 8:20 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Avian Ecology and Research Room Science Lecture Hall 8:20 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Development of models for ecosystem forecasting in Lake Erie Room Wenjack Theatre 8:40 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Sustaining Involvement The role of the NGO in the RAP process Room Rm 117 8:40 a.m. 10:20 a.m. Remote Sensing, Visualizatio n, and Spatial Data Applications for the Great Lakes Room Rm 115 1:20 p.m. 4:40 p.m. Restoring and Delisting Areas of Concern: local community engagement is the key Room Rm 117 1:20 p.m. 5:00 p.m. Remote Sensing, Visualizatio n, and Spatial Data Applications for the Great Lakes Room Rm 115 1:20 p.m. 3:00 p.m. Ecosystem approaches to managing Great Lakes aquatic resources: conceptual and practical methods Room Rm 203 1:20 p.m. 5:40 p.m. Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Room Rm 114 1:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Room Science Lecture Hall 1:20 p.m. 4:20 p.m. Development of models for ecosystem forecasting in Lake Erie Room Wenjack Theatre 3:20 p.m. 5:40 p.m. Physical processes and fish recruitment in the world's Great Lakes Room Rm 203

PAGE 19

18 Wednesday, May 21 8:20 a.m. 10:00 a.m. Environmental and economic indicators Room Rm 117 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Progress with Watershed Planning in the Great Lakes Basin Room Rm 115 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Room Wenjack Theatre 9:00 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Room Rm 114 9:00 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Room Science Lecture Hall 10:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes Room Rm 203 10:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Great Lakes Wetlands: advances in mapping, assessment, ecology and restoration Room Rm 117 1:20 p.m. 5:00 p.m. Great Lakes Wetlands: advances in mapping, assessment, ecology and restoration Room Rm 117 1:20 p.m. 4:40 p.m. Human health risks associated with recreational activities and drinking water quality Room Rm 115 1:20 p.m. 3:00 p.m. Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes Room Rm 203 1:20 p.m. 4:20 p.m. Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Room Rm 114 1:20 p.m. 3:00 p.m. Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Room Science Lecture Hall 1:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Room Wenjack Theatre 3:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Natural systems in an urban environment Room Rm 203 3:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Restoration of Nearshore Habitats & Species Room Science Lecture Hall

PAGE 20

19 Thursday, May 22 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Room Rm 117 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Room Rm 115 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Natural systems in an urban environment Room Rm 203 8:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Lake Simcoe Room Science Lecture Hall 10:20 a.m. 11:20 a.m. Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Room Wenjack Theatre 1:20 p.m. 5:00 p.m. Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Room Rm 117 1:20 p.m. 3:00 p.m. Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Room Rm 115 1:20 p.m. 5:00 p.m. Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes Room Rm 203 1:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Room Rm 114 1:20 p.m. 5:20 p.m. Lake Simcoe Room Wenjack Theatre 1:20 p.m. 5:40 p.m. Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Room Science Lecture Hall

PAGE 21

20 Friday, May 23 8:20 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Room Rm 117 8:20 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Building Toward a Science Strategy for the Great Lakes Basin under the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement Room Rm 115 8:20 a.m. 10:00 a.m. Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes Room Rm 203 8:20 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Room Rm 114 8:20 a.m. 11:40 a.m. General Contributions Room Science Lecture Hall 9:00 a.m. 11:00 a.m. Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Room Wenjack Theatre 10:20 a.m. 12:00 p.m. Fish disease ecology in the Great Lakes Room Rm 203 1:20 p.m. 2:00 p.m. Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Room Rm 117 1:20 p.m. 2:40 p.m. Fish disease ecology in the Great Lakes Room Rm 203

PAGE 22

21SESSIONS BY DAY Tuesday, May 20 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Sustaining Involvement The role of the NGO in the RAP process Co-Chairs: Lisa Tulen and Derek Coronado Remote Sensing, Visualization, and Spatial Data Applications for the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: George Leshkevich and Barry Lesht Ecosystem approaches to managing Great Lakes aquatic resources: conceptual and practical methods Co-Chairs: Emily Cloyd and Jack Manno Aquatic Protected Areas CoChairs Chantal Vis and Bev Ritchie Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 8:20 a.m. C. Masson The Great Lakes Gordian Knot: Governance for Aquatic Ecosystem Health, Integrity and Risk Management 8:40 a.m. P.L. Weghorst et al. Exploring Great Lakes Controversies with High School Students D.M. O'Donnell et al. Spectral Measurements of Absorption, Beam Attenuation and Backscattering Coefficients, and Remote Sensing Reflectance in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie C. McLaughlin Is Natural Resources Management in the Great Lakes Pathological? 9:00 a.m. S. Simoliunas et al. The Mirage of Public Involvement F. Peng et al. Individual Particle Analysis of Suspended Minerogenic Particles in Lake Erie: Implications to Water Clarity and Remote Sensing J.P. Manno and G. Krantzberg Toward a Management and Accountability Structure for the GL Ecosystem 9:20 a.m. L.A. Tulen and D. Coronado The role of the NGO in the Detroit River RAP M.G. Perkins et al. Patterns of Light Ab sorption in the West Basin of Lake Erie E.T. Cloyd and J.P. Manno Ecosystem approaches to managing the Great Lakes: conceptual and practical differences 9:40 a.m. J.J. Ridal and M.B.C. Hickey The Role of NGOs in the RAP process: The Evolution of the St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences in the St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) RAP. S.W. Effler et al. Minerogenic Particles and Light Scattering in La ke Ontario and Pursuit of Optical Closure E. LaPlante et al. Illuminating the Great Lakes: LaMPs as the Model for Ecosystem Management 10:00 a.m. J.A. Jackson The Experience of Ontario Activists in the RAP Process R.A. Shuchman et al. Development of a Robust Hydrooptical Model for the Great Lakes for the Extraction of Chlorophyll, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Suspended Minerals from MODIS Satellite Data J.L. Frye The Blue Flag Canada Program: An ecosystem based approach to managing the Great Lakes and coastal ecosystems 10:20 a.m. BREAK 10:30 a.m. Conference Opening Ceremonies, Wenjack Theatre, Otonabee College

PAGE 23

22 Tuesday, May 20 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Co-Chairs: James Pagano, Thomas Holsen, Michael Milligan, and Bernard Crimmins Avian Ecology and Research Chair: Nancy Seefelt Development of models for ecosystem forecasting in Lake Erie Co-Chairs: Joseph DePinto, Tomas Hook, and Don Scavia Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time D. Lembcke et al. Use of Semi Permeable Membrane Devices to measure the bioconcentration potential of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the Holland Marsh, Lake Simcoe N.E. Seefelt Comparing Decadal Census Trends and Yearly Variation in the Abundance and Distribution of Breeding Double-crested Cormorants: the Importance of Monitoring a Managed Species D. Beletsky and D.J. Schwab Modeling thermal structure in Lake Erie 8:20 a.m. J.J. Pagano Utilization of Salmonid Eggs as Bioindicators of Organohalogen Pollutants in Lake Ontario J.P. Ludwig Evidence for source sink regions in the Great Lakes Caspian Tern Population 1966 1995. D.K. Rucinski et al. Long-Term Application of a Climate-Driven Dissolved Oxygen Model for the Central Basin of Lake Erie 8:40 a.m. M.L. Diamond et al. Lipid declines in fish due to freezing D.J. Moore et al. Competition within treeand ground-nesting guilds and serial replacement of species at Great Lakes waterbird colonies. D.K. Rucinski et al. Development and Application of 1D Eutrophication Models for the Central Basin of Lake Erie 9:00 a.m. M.S. Milligan et al. Analysis of PCDD/F and WHO Coplanar PCBÂ’s in Great Lakes Fish C. Pekarik et al. Population trends for colonial waterbirds nesting on the detroit river, lake Erie and the niagara river during the last three decades, 1976-2007. E.L. Jones et al. Three-dimensional modelling of lake-wide nutrient and chlorophyll dynamics in Lake Erie using ELCOM-CAEDYM 9:20 a.m. B. Crimmins et al. Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program: Toxaphene results using GC-MS/MS G.D. Campbell et al. Canadian Experience Type E Botulism in Fish-eating Birds on the Lower Great Lakes: A Consequence of Invading Alien Species? S.W. Wilhelm et al. Winter Assessment of Microbial Biomass and Metabolism (WAMBAM): A First Look at Winter Pelagic Biology in Lake Erie and the Implications of Climate Change. 9:40 a.m. E. Smith et al. Developing Analytical Methodology for P, B and T substances a systematic process for identificatio n of important chemicals in the Great Lakes basin. D. Derbyshire et al. Bird Study in CanadaÂ’s Largest City: A Balance of Fundamental Research and Education at Tommy Thompson Park Bird Research Station C.C. Clevinger et al. Causes of hypoxia in Lake Erie: Potential role of nitrification 10:00 a.m. BREAK 10:20 a.m. Conference Opening Ceremonies, Wenjack Theatre, Otonabee College 10:30 a.m.

PAGE 24

23 Tuesday, May 20 11:20 a.m. KEYNOTE SPEAKER: DR. DEAN JACOBS Executive Director, Walpole Island First Nation Natural Heritage Centre Wenjack Theatre 12:00 p.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Rooms (meal cards required) Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Restoring and Delisting Areas of Concern: local community engagement is the key Co-Chairs: Susan Humphrey and Vicki Thomas Remote Sensing, Visualization, and Spatial Data Applications for the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: George Leshkevich and Barry Lesht Ecosystem approaches to managing Great Lakes aquatic resources: conceptual and practical methods Co-Chairs: Emily Cloyd and Jack Manno Aquatic Protected Areas CoChairs Chantal Vis and Bev Ritchie Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 1:20 p.m. J. Marsden and M. Elster Remedial Action Plans for Great Lakes Areas of Concern: Status, Current Issues and Delisting Outlook P.L. Weghorst et al. Monitoring Lake Erie Chlorophyll-a Concentration with MODIS: An Assessment of Two Algorithms D.T. Kraus and D.F. Klein A Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Lake Ontario 1:40 p.m. G. Krantzberg Civic Engagement in Delisting Areas of Concern G.K. McCullough et al. Using ship-borne spectral remote sensing reflectance data to compare accuracy of chlorophyll determinations by MODIS, MERIS and VIIRS satelliteborne sensors over a highly eutrophic lake, Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada K.M. Stewart Freshwater Protected Areas (FPAs), Great Lakes and elsewhere 2:00 p.m. B.M. Fox Conservation Authorities and the engagement of the Watershed Community in Canadian AOCs C.E. Binding et al. Suspended Particulate Matter in Lake Erie Derived from MODIS Aquatic Colour Imagery. K.J. Hedges et al. Aquatic Protected Areas in the Great Lakes: Inventory, Evaluation and GAP Analysis 2:20 p.m. P.K. Kovalcik Muskegon Lake, Ruddiman Creek and Nearby Shoreline Ecological Restoration Master Plan: Using Stakeholder Involvement to Derive the Goals and Objectives for Addressing Beneficial Use Impairments in an Area of Concern L.K. Liversedge Turbidity Mapping and Prediction in Glacial Lakes S.R. Parker A Legacy in a Sweetwater Sea: Experience from Canada’s First National Marine Conservation Area. 2:40 p.m. J.D. Hudson From Toxic Soup to ‘Sleeping with the Enemy: How a Stakeholder Approach Helped Hamilton Harbour Become a Model for Community Engagement J.L. Lekki et al. Update on Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne monitoring of Algal Blooms S. Jessen and E. Ferrari Establishing an Aquatic Protected Areas Network in the Great Lakes 3:00 p.m. BREAK

PAGE 25

24 Tuesday, May 20 11:20 a.m. KEYNOTE SPEAKER: DR. DEAN JACOBS Executive Director, Walpole Island First Nation Natural Heritage Centre Wenjack Theatre 12:00 p.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Rooms (meal cards required) Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Co-Chairs: James Pagano, Thomas Holsen, Michael Milligan, and Bernard Crimmins Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Co-Chairs: Michael Fox and Lynda Corkum Development of models for ecosystem forecasting in Lake Erie Co-Chairs: Joseph DePinto, Tomas Hook, and Don Scavia Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time R. Razavi et al. Does gas bubbling from sediments increase the transfer of mercury to aquatic food webs? E.A. Sopkovich et al. Temporal and Spatial Population Genetic Structure of the Eurasian Round Goby: Inva sion Patterns in the Great Lakes S.A. Ludsin et al. Historical exploration of hypoxia effects on fish recruitment and production in Lake Erie 1:20 p.m. M. Fathi et al. Benthic flux of total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) between contaminated sediments and the overlying water column in the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario C.A. Stepien et al. New Names, Evolutionary Resolution, and Founding Sources for Exotic Great Lakes Gobies S.B. Brandt et al. Spatially-Explicit Growth Predictions to Assess Habitat Quality of Walleye during Hypoxia in Lake Erie 1:40 p.m. R.A. Lavoie et al. Insights on the distribution of mercury in a Gulf of St. Lawrence food web from stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis L.D. Corkum et al. Fish Assemblages and Environmental Factors Associated with Gobiids in the Huron-Erie Corridor J.J. Roberts et al. Bioenergetics Model to Explore the Effects of Hypoxia on Yellow Perch Habitat Quality in Lake ErieÂ’s Central Basin. 2:00 p.m. E.J. DeLong et al. Analysing a long-term environmental dataset: Fish tissue mercury burden trends in Ontario D.J. Jude et al. Synergistic Effects of PontoCaspian Invasive Species on Warm-water Stream Fish Fauna in Southern Michigan H. Han and D. Allan Phosphorus Loading to Lake Erie Watersheds: A Mass Balance Approach 2:20 p.m. C.E. Hebert et al. Ecological tracers reveal pathways of contaminant transfer to avian predators L.F.G. Gutowsky et al. The Distribution, Movement and Life History of Round Gobies in the Trent River: A Dynamic Invasive Population in its Expansion Phase C. DeMarchi et al. Performances of the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model for Different Watersheds in the Great Lake Basin 2:40 p.m. BREAK 3:00 p.m.

PAGE 26

25 Tuesday, May 20 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Restoring and Delisting Areas of Concern: local community engagement is the key Co-Chairs: Susan Humphrey and Vicki Thomas Remote Sensing, Visualization, and Spatial Data Applications for the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: George Leshkevich and Barry Lesht Physical processes and fish recruitment in the world's Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Stuart Ludsin and Ralph Smith Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 3:20 p.m. K. Sherman Severn Sound Remedial Action Plan: five years after de-listing Y. Zhu and A. Vodacek Monitoring Inland Water Quality using MODIS and WASP-Lite Data D.M. Mason et al. Physical processes and fish recruitment in the World's Great Lakes 3:40 p.m. G.W. Peterson et al. Sustainable Development and Restoration Opportunities at AOC Sites S.V. Nghiem and G. Leshkevich Using Satellite Scatterometer Data to Map and Monitor Variations in Great Lakes Ice Cover S.D. Mackey et al. Preliminary Assessment of Lake Trout Spawning Habitat in the Eastern Basin of Lake Erie 4:00 p.m. A.D. Freeman and K.E. Montgomery Involvement in the Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan J.M. Preston and G.J. Wyatt Acoustic remote sensing and classification of sediments C.G. Wellington et al. Physical and Biological Factors Influencing Foraging Success of Age-0 Yellow Perch 4:20 p.m. L.M. Cargnelli and T. Briggs Delisting the Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern H. Yu et al. Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Relati ve Abundance Index of Yellow Perch ( Perca flavescens ) by Standardization and Interpolation from Fisheryindependent Survey Data in Lake Erie J.M. Reichert et al. River plume effects on yellow perch growth, survival, and recruitment in Lake Erie 4:40 p.m. G. Leshkevich and S. Liu CoastWatch Great Lakes Program Update: 2008 Y.M. Zhao et al. A Biophysical Model of Lake Erie Walleye Explains Inter-annual Variations in Recruitment 5:00 p.m. T.O. Hook et al. A linked hydrodynamic and individual-based model to simulate alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan 5:20 p.m. E.S. Rutherford et al. Effects of Urban Development in the Muskegon River Watershed on growth, survival and potential recruitment of a Lake Michigan steelhead population: results of a multi-modeling approach

PAGE 27

26 Tuesday, May 20 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminants in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Co-Chairs: James Pagano, Thomas Holsen, Michael Milligan, and Bernard Crimmins Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Co-Chairs: Michael Fox and Lynda Corkum Development of models for ecosystem forecasting in Lake Erie Co-Chairs: Joseph DePinto, Tomas Hook, and Don Scavia Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time D.V. Weseloh et al. Spatial and temporal trends in legacy contaminants in Great Lakes Herring Gulls, 1974-2005 J. Poulopoulos and L.M. Campbell Analysis of archived fish from Lakes Nipigon, Simcoe and Champlain to assess impacts of exotic fish species on food webs and Hg biomagnification D.M. Dolan et al. Updated Total Phosphorus Load Estimates for Lake Erie 20052007 3:20 p.m. W.W. Bowerman et al. Trends of Contaminants and Effects in Bald Eagles from Michigan, 1986-2007 D.C. Chapman Effects of bighead and silver carp on invaded environments. R.P. Richards et al. Record-setting Phosphorus Loads from Agricultural Watersheds in Ohio 3:40 p.m. L.M. Campbell et al. Food web contaminant trends in Great and large lakes of the world N. Miljkovic Analyses of morphological variation in the gobiid Neogobius melanostomus – a comparison of populations from original European and invaded Northamerican habitats D.C. Rockwell et al. Long-Term Trends of Great Lakes Chloride 4:00 p.m. P. Helm et al. Concentration Trends of Pastand Current-Use POPs in Lake Trout from the Great Lakes C.M. Pennuto et al. Seasonal Abundance and Summer Energy Consumption by Round Gobies ( Apollonia melanostoma ) in Lake Erie Tributary Streams. 4:20 p.m. E.M. Verhamme et al. Application of LOTOX2 for the development of a PCB TMDL for Lake Ontario L.A. Velez-Espino et al. Invasion dynamics of round goby ( Neogobius melanostomus ) in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario 4:40 p.m. N.K. Diep and D. Boyd Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination in Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern J. Perdue and M.G. Fox Age determination in the round goby; comparison of scales and otoliths 5:00 p.m. P. Fuchsman et al. Innovative Evaluation of Risks to Mink from PCBs in Muddy Creek, Wheatley Harbour Area of Concern, Lake Erie, Ontario 5:20 p.m.

PAGE 28

27 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Environmental and economic indicators Chair: Patricia Chow-Fraser Progress with Watershed Planning in the Great Lakes Basin Chair: Patrick Lawrence Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes Chair: Roger Gauthier Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 8:20 a.m. S.R. Hensler et al. Documentation of the Incidences of Herniations in Great Lakes Copepods S.B. Dierks The Triple Bottom Line in Watershed Planning: The River Raisin Watershed Management Plan 8:40 a.m. J.D. Rothlisberger et al. Ship-borne NIS Diminish Ecosystem Services of the Great Lakes: A Structured Expert Judgment Study A.F. da Silva and E.J. SzarletaYancy Citizen Participation in Watershed Management: Northwest Indiana as a Case Study 9:00 a.m. J.J.H. Ciborowski and K.R. Sherman Benthic Invertebrate Community Composition in Severn Sound, (Georgian Bay) Lake Huron – 2007. H. Simpson et al. The Ontario Environmental Farm Plan A Case Study of a Successful Community Water Resource Stewardship Program 9:20 a.m. E.T. Howell Influence of a small agriculturallydominated watershed on the nearshore of SE Lake Huron S.M. Del Granado et al. The Development and Use of Predictive Models in Great Lakes Decision-Making: An Interdisciplinary Synthesis 9:40 a.m. T.P. Hollenhorst et al. An Integrated, Watershed Based, Anthropogenic Stressor Gradient for the Great Lakes T.A. Dahl and J.P. Selegean The Right Tool for the Job: Creating a Full Suite of Models to Help the Clinton River Watershed Decrease Sediment Loading 10:00 a.m. BREAK

PAGE 29

28 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Martin Stapanian and Jean Adams Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Co-Chairs: Michael Fox and Lynda Corkum Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Co-Chairs: Juli Dyble and Gary Fahnenstiel Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time J. Dyble et al. Cyanobacterial HABs in the Great Lakes: environmental stressors, genetic diversity and impacts on human health 8:20 a.m. G.L. Boyer et al. Analysis of Cyanobacteria Toxins in Lake Champlain; What this tells us about Harmful Algal Blooms in Other Large Lake Ecosystems. 8:40 a.m. O.E. Johannsson et al. Large Lake Monitoring: Assessment of Key Links in the Food Web B.F. Lantry et al. Occurrence of the Great LakeÂ’s Most Recent Invader, Hemimysis anomala, in the diet of fishes in southeastern Lake Ontario M.F. Satchwell et al. Using the Microcystin mcyA Gene to Track Toxin Movement in Northern Lake Champlain 9:00 a.m. N.E. Dobiesz and N.P. Lester The importance of long term datasets: A case study from the Great Lakes J.M. Questel et al. Genetic Determination of the Origin of Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario C.J. Allender and S.W. Wilhelm Identifying the source of unknown microcystin genes and predicting microcystin variants by linking multi-gene diversity within uncultured individual cyanobacteria 9:20 a.m. D.G. Uzarski et al. Status and Trends of Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Health: A Basin Wide Monitoring Plan K.L. Bowen et al. Monitoring the spread of the invasive crustacean Hemimysis anomala in the Great Lakes E.D. Rogers et al. Global Gene Expression in Larval Zebrafish Exposed to Microcystis aeruginosa : More Than Just Microcystin 9:40 a.m. BREAK 10:00 a.m.

PAGE 30

29 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Great Lakes Wetlands: advances in mapping, assessment, ecology and restoration Co-Chairs: Brian Potter and Pat Chow-Fraser Progress with Watershed Planning in the Great Lakes Basin Chair: Patrick Lawrence Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes Chair: Roger Gauthier Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 10:20 a.m. D. Shrestha et al. The effects of temperature and plants in simulated Arctic treatment wetland D. Young et al. Turning Recommendations Into Actions The Humber River Watershed Plan J.P. Bruce Water Levels of the Upper Great Lakes 10:40 a.m. J.M. Gilbert and B. Locke Ecological Assessments of Canadian Lake Erie Coastal Wetlands Identify Threats and Required Remediation Strategies K.E. Montgomery and A.D. Freeman Aligning Remedial Action Plans with Watershed Plans, it is a good idea? C.A. Stow et al. Analysis of Water Level Changes in Lakes Michigan and Huron 11:00 a.m. S.N. Yantsis and P. Chow-Fraser Understanding zooplankton distribution and plant associations in Georgian Bay P.L. Lawrence Twenty Years Later: Reflections on the Great Lakes RAP Experience for Watershed Planning in the Maumee Area of Concern 1987 to 2007 J.D. Lenters Long-term Trends in the Seasonal Water Balance of Lakes Erie and Michigan-Huron: Is There a “Disconnect” at the St. Clair River? 11:20 a.m. PLENARY PRESENTATION: Dr. Al Kristofferson Managing Director, Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium “Our Lakes, Our Community: Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Inc.” Wenjack Theatre 12:00 p.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Halls (meal cards required)

PAGE 31

30 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Martin Stapanian and Jean Adams Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Co-Chairs: Michael Fox and Lynda Corkum Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Co-Chairs: Juli Dyble and Gary Fahnenstiel Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time C.K. Minns et al. Modelling Great Lakes Surface Temperatures and Predicting Future Values with Climate Change B.L. Bodamer and J.M. Bossenbroek Wetlands as Barriars: Effects of vegetated waterways on the downstream dispersal of zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha ) J. Hagar et al. Detection and quantification of cyanobacteria and microcystin in recreational waters of two west Michigan Lakes: Muskegon Lake and Bear Lake using three different methodologies 10:20 a.m. P.M. Yurista et al. Lake Superior zooplankton LOPC biomass prediction compares well with a probability based net survey A.Y. Karatayev et al. How Freshwater Macroinvertebrate Invaders Differ From Native Species A.E. Poste et al. Microcystin in Water and Fish from East African Lakes 10:40 a.m. D.J. McDonell et al. Demonstrating the Ecological Benefits of Habitat Restoration in the Canadian Areas of Concern Using Breeding Bird Atlas Data W.L. Chadderton et al. Intervention Strategies for Limiting the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species by Recreational Boaters T.T. Wynne et al. Cyanobacterial Monitoring System for Lake Erie 11:00 a.m. PLENARY PRESENTATION: Dr. Al Kristofferson Managing Director, Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium “Our Lakes, Our Community: Lake Winnipeg Research Consortium Inc.” Wenjack Theatre 11:20 a.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Halls (meal cards required) 12:00 p.m.

PAGE 32

31 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Great Lakes Wetlands: advances in mapping, assessment, ecology and restoration Co-Chairs: Brian Potter and Pat Chow-Fraser Human health risks associated with recreational activities and drinking water quality Co-Chairs: Sonia Joseph and Stephen Brandt Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes Chair: Roger Gauthier Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 1:20 p.m. E.K. McGauley Wetlands that Work: A Comparative Assessment of the Ecological Potential of Treatment Wetlands Using Macroinvertebrate Indicators D.C. Rockwell and H. Wirick An Overview of the 2007 Pilot Sanitary Surveys. B.M. Lofgren Atmospheric and Hydrologic Impacts of Increased Greenhouse Gases on the Great Lakes Simulated Using CHARM2 1:40 p.m. M.J. Cooper et al. Invertebrate Biomass and Community Composition in the Muskegon River Drowned River Mouth Wetland: Variability Throughout the Growing Season T.S. Hunter et al. Forecasting Grand River (Michigan) discharge and pollution loads C. DeMarchi Estimating Over-Lake Precipitation: Traditional Approaches and Alternative Methodologies 2:00 p.m. R. De Catanzaro and P. ChowFraser Use of ecological indices to predict occurrence and abundance of turtle species in Grat Lakes coastal marshes E. Gungor et al. Dynamics of the Grand River Plume Entering Lake Michigan M.M. McPherson and T.A. Dahl Modeling the Routing of Water Through the Upper Great Lakes Using HEC-RAS 2:20 p.m. M. Cvetkovic and P. Chow-Fraser Relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting species composition of the fish communities in coastal wetlands of eastern Georgian Bay N. Nekouee et al. 3D Numerical Prediction of the Grand River Plume M.S. White et al. Characterizing water level fluctuations in large lakes of Ontario 2:40 p.m. L.D. Bouvier et al. Relating Species Traits to Habitat Characteristics in Coastal Wetlands of the Lower Great Lakes T.A. Edge et al. Occurrence of waterborne pathogens at offshore drinking water intakes in Lake Ontario M.P. Stainton et al. Effects of Climate Change on Phosphorous and Nitrogen Loading to Lake Winnipeg 3:00 p.m. BREAK

PAGE 33

32 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Martin Stapanian and Jean Adams Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed Co-Chairs: Michael Fox and Lynda Corkum Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Co-Chairs: Juli Dyble and Gary Fahnenstiel Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time M.A. Stapanian et al. Summer and autumn abundances of young-of-year yellow perch and walleye: Time of day matters R.A. Sturtevant et al. Recent History of Great Lakes Saltwater Vessel Traffic, Delivery of Ballast Water, and the Effect of Ballast Water Exchange on Aquatic Species Invasions M.A. Evans and E. Litchman Physical and biological controls on abundance of Microcystis a harmful algal bloom (HAB) species 1:20 p.m. M.A. Stapanian et al. Diel Shift in Young-of-year Yellow Perch: Association with Increased Oligotrophication B. Miller et al. Great Lakes Regional Research Information Network Lake Michigan L.A. Molot et al. Iron Regulation of Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria Abundance 1:40 p.m. P.M. Kocovsky et al. Evaluating Sampling Regimens for Indices of Yellow Perch Abundance in Lake Erie W.H. Nelson et al. An evaluation of viability assays using a continuous imaging particle analyzer (FlowCAM) for ballast water analysis and regulatory compliance J.D. Chaffin et al. Quantification of Microcystis sp. blooms in western Lake Erie (2002-2007) and relation to tributary flow. 2:00 p.m. G.B. Yunker et al. Evaluation of Single-Pass Electrofishing and Rapid Habitat Assessment for Monitoring a Species-at-Risk Stream Fish, Redside Dace ( Clinostomus elongatus ) A. Drake et al. Quantifying the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species, Genes and Pathogens: The Baitfish Industry in Ontario as a Model Pathway H.J. Kling et al. Succession of Phytoplankton in Lake Winnipeg 2003-2007 2:20 p.m. G.J.A. Hansen and M.L. Jones A Comparison of Two Methods of Larval Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) Assessment in the Great Lakes: How Much Information Is Needed to Effectively Rank Streams for Treatment? O. Birceanu et al. Different Effects of TFM on Gill Function and Toxicity in Larval Sea Lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) Compared to Rainbow Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) J.A. Berges et al. Are nuisance blooms of benthic algae reshaping nearshore silica cycling in Lake Michigan? 2:40 p.m. BREAK 3:00 p.m.

PAGE 34

33 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Great Lakes Wetlands: advances in mapping, assessment, ecology and restoration Co-Chairs: Brian Potter and Pat Chow-Fraser Human health risks associated with recreational activities and drinking water quality Co-Chairs: Sonia Joseph and Stephen Brandt Natural systems in an urban environment Chair: Brent Wootton Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 3:20 p.m. T. Hurley and P. Chow-Fraser Fish community changes associated with water-level decline in wetlands of Severn Sound, Georgian Bay S.J. Choc et al. Escherichia coli and Sediment Load Monitoring in Berger Ditch with Implications for Reduction of Water Quality Advisories at Maumee Bay State Park, Oregon, Ohio R.F. Marek et al. Assessment of Surficial Sediment Hydroxylated PCBs in the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal 3:40 p.m. L.A. Smith and P. Chow-Fraser Monitoring Wetland Birds in Great Lakes Coastal Marshes R.E. Hicks et al. Waterfowl Abundance is not a Reliable Predictor of the Dominant Avian Source or Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria at Lake Superior Beaches K.C. Hornbuckle and A. Martinez PCBs in Surficial Sediments in East Chicago, Indiana 4:00 p.m. J.D. Midwood and P. Chow-Fraser Automated approach using Definiens Developer 7.0 for classification of aquatic vegetation in the coastal wetlands of Georgian Bay G.A. Meek and A.S. Crowe Role of Groundwater-Lake Interaction on E. coli Levels at Beaches of the Great Lakes S.S. LeBlond et al. Metal Contamination Sources and Fate within the Rideau River Waterway 4:20 p.m. D. Rokitnicki-Wojcik and P. ChowFraser Use of logic-based decision tree analysis and IKONOS imagery to classify coastal high marsh and inland wetland vegetation A.S. Crowe and V. Balakrishnan Antibiotics in Groundwater below Beaches of the Great Lakes D. Hu et al. Prevalence and Distribution of Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Chicago 4:40 p.m. S.K. Pernanen Using Regional Coastal Wetland Monitoring to Support Restoration and/or Adaptive Management at a Site Level K. McDonald and R. Toninger Tommy Thompson Park – Toronto’s Urban Wilderness 5:00 p.m. D.A. Woolnough et al. Transitions from Agricultural to Urban Ecosystems: A Nutrient Approach

PAGE 35

34 Wednesday, May 21 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Martin Stapanian and Jean Adams Restoration of Nearshore Habitats & Species Co-Chairs: Eric Sager and Chris Wilson Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions Co-Chairs: Juli Dyble and Gary Fahnenstiel Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time T.B. Johnson et al. Nearshore, small fish monitoring in the Great Lakes basin R.J. Bobrowski et al. Survival, Growth and Emigration of Stocked Atlantic Salmon in Lake Ontario Streams T.B. Bridgeman and W.V. Sigler Lyngbya wollei Blooms in Western Lake Erie 2006-2007 3:20 p.m. S.C. Riley and E.F. Roseman Deepwater demersal fish community collapse in Lake Huron: implications for monitoring of Great Lakes fish communities. P.A. Ryan and T. MacDougall Habitat Objectives to Support Rehabilitation of Percids in Lake Effect Zones of Lake Erie and Detroit R Corridor S.B. Watson et al. Cyanobacterial Impairments In The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River: Benthic Fingerprints Of Anthropogenic Activity 3:40 p.m. D.L. Yule et al. Development of a New Lake-wide Multiple Gear Survey Design to Assess Status and Trends of the Lake Superior Fish Community S. Usjak and J.D.S. Witt Genetic Differentiation of Diporeia Populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Implications for Conservation and Management R.R. Redisker et al. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in West Michigan Drowned River Mouth Lakes 4:00 p.m. D.G. Fitzgerald et al. Expansion of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Lakes and Rivers Across The Great Lakes Basin: Evidence For Increased Water Clarity and a New Management Challenge M.R. Gretz and D.S. Domozych ItÂ’s Only a Matter of Time: When Will the Diatom Didymosphenia geminata Become a Nuisance Alga in the Great Lakes Basin? 4:20 p.m. R.D. McCulloch et al. Innovative Methods in Riverbank Stability Characterization: Classification of the Tittabawassee and Saginaw River Banks T.F. Bidleman et al. Chiral Taste and Odour Compounds in the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario 4:40 p.m. R. Toninger and K. McDonald Shoreline Restoration at Tommy Thompson Park: A Case Study of Essential Habitat Creation S.B. Watson et al. Cyanobacterial Impairments Following Remediation in a Eutrophic Area of Concern: Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario 5:00 p.m.

PAGE 36

35 Thursday, May 22 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Co-Chairs: David Carpenter, Christopher De Rosa, Michael Gilbertson, and Tom Muir Natural systems in an urban environment Chair: Brent Wootton Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 8:00 a.m. 8:20 a.m. B.G. Ludewig and J.A. Austin Upwelling in idealized stratified lakes T.A. Muir On the Need for H ealth Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement R.R. Rediske et al. Integrated Nutrient Assessment of Bear Lake, Michigan 8:40 a.m. C.D. Troy et al. Hydrodynamic modeling of large stratified lakes M. Gilbertson Effects of Diversionary Reframing on the Selection of GLWQA Indicators D.J. Gefell and D.J. Hughes An Integrated Assessment of Water Quality in Onondaga Creek, Syracuse, New York 9:00 a.m. J. Wang et al. Developing Great Lake Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled IceOcean Model) in Lake Erie P.W. Stewart et al. Intelligence (IQ) in Children Exposed to PCBs, MeHg and other contaminants in the Great Lakes N.F. Manning Hydrology and Plant Community Alterations in Wetlands of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park 9:20 a.m. V.T. Nguyen et al. Numerical simulation of nonlinear internal waves generated by wind forcing over a surface of the Lake Erie D.O. Carpenter Health effects of PCB exposure at Akwesasne A.S. Chiandet and M.A. Xenopoulos Determinants of Water Quality and Plankton Communities in Urban Stormwater Ponds of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin 9:40 a.m. Q. Liao et al. In-Situ PIV Measurement of Turbulent Flow Structures over a Mussel Bed in Lake Michigan N.A. Nadia Abdelouahab et al. Gender differences in the effects of organochlorines, mercury and lead on thyroid hormone levels in lakeside communities of Quebec (Canada) M.S. Poos et al. Using meta-population viability analysis to quantify risks of urbanization on two populations of redside dace (Clinostomus elongatus) 10:00 a.m. BREAK

PAGE 37

36 Thursday, May 22 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Lake Simcoe Co-Chairs: Stephanie Guildford, Jenny Winter, David Depew, and Tedy Ozersky Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time 8:00 a.m. J.G. Winter et al. Trends in the Water Chemistry of Lake Simcoe over Three Decades and Changes in Phytoplankton Community Composition 8:20 a.m. R.J. Baldwin and M. Walters Lake Simcoe Assimilative Capacity Study (ACS) – Growth Management through Informed Decision Making 8:40 a.m. R.J. Baldwin et al. Natural Heritage Planning in the Lake Simcoe Basin – A Foundation for Science, Research and Planning 9:00 a.m. F. Duckett et al. Numerical Modeling in Support of Source Water Protection Zone Delineation on Lake Simcoe 9:20 a.m. B. Gharabaghi et al. Atmospheric Sources of Phosphorous to Lake Simcoe 9:40 a.m. BREAK 10:00 a.m.

PAGE 38

37 Thursday, May 22 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Co-Chairs: David Carpenter, Christopher De Rosa, Michael Gilbertson, and Tom Muir Natural systems in an urban environment Chair: Brent Wootton Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 10:20 a.m. Q. Lu et al. 3D Hydrodynamic Modeling in Huron and Erie Corridor (HEC) D.S. Henshel and A. Da Silva Using Landscape Scale Modeling as a Tool to Assess Potential Health Indicators P.J. Steen et al. Variation in the effect of urbanization on Michigan and Wisconsin stream fish: How can good fish communities exist in urban areas? 10:40 a.m. E.J. Anderson et al. An Operational 2-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the St. Clair-Detroit River Waterway: Implementation into the Great Lakes Forecasting System (GLFS) J.P. Ludwig Survival and Recruitment in Double-crested Cormorants from the Upper Great Lakes 19772007: Relationships with contaminants. C.A. Bach Toronto Waterfront Aquatic Habitat Restoration Strategy 11:00 a.m. D. Beletsky et al. Nested grid circulation modeling in southern Lake Michigan D.S. Henshel and D.W. Sparks Developing Avian Delisting Criteria for the Great Lakes AOCs T.J. Dekker et al. Integrating Hydrology, Ecology and River Geomorphology into Urban Landscape Design: The Lower Don Lands Naturalization Project 11:20 a.m. PLENARY PRESENTATION: Rick Findlay Director, Water Programme, Pollution Probe “Sustaining the Sweetwater Seas” Wenjack Theatre 12:00 p.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Halls (meal cards required)

PAGE 39

38 Thursday, May 22 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Lake Simcoe Co-Chairs: Stephanie Guildford, Jenny Winter, David Depew, and Tedy Ozersky Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time A.E. Haponski et al. Molecular and Biogeographic Resolution of Cryptic Taxa in the Greenside Darter Etheostoma blennioides Complex S.J. Guildford et al. Seasonal and spatial trends in TP and Chlorophyll in Lake Simcoe: Impact of dreissenids? 10:20 a.m. T. Bollin et al. Genetic Divergence Patterns of the Rainbow Darter Etheostoma caeruleum : A Watershed Analysis using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences and Nuclear Microsatellites C.F.M. Lewis et al. Lake Simcoe Sediment Architecture: Evidence for a Lowstand During Early Holocene Dry Climate 10:40 a.m. J.A. Banda and C.A. Stepien A temporal analysis of walleye genetic stock structure D.L. Rod and R. Quinlan A paleolimnological reconstruction of historical Lake Simcoe coldwater fish habitat 11:00 a.m. PLENARY PRESENTATION: Rick Findlay Director, Water Programme, Pollution Probe “Sustaining the Sweetwater Seas” Wenjack Theatre 11:20 a.m. LUNCH Otonabee and Gzowski College Dining Halls (meal cards required) 12:00 p.m.

PAGE 40

39 Thursday, May 22 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Co-Chairs: David Carpenter, Christopher De Rosa, Michael Gilbertson, and Tom Muir Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Paul Helm and Chris Marvin Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 1:20 p.m. R.R. Yerubandi et al. Application of a numerical model for circulation and thermal structure in Hamilton Harbour W.W. Bowerman and G.A. Fox Analysis of Wildlife Indicators to Measure Impaired Reproduction and Deformites W.G. Booty and G.S. Bowan The Determination of Stream Loadings and the I dentification of Sources of Contaminants Along the North Shore of Lake Ontario 1:40 p.m. M.G. Wells et al. Residence timescales and the underlying hydrodynamic processes in Frenchman’s Bay, a Lake Ontario coastal embayment. P. Martin et al. Assessment of beneficial use impairments in a model amphibian, northern leopard frogs, in the St. Clair Area of Concern V. Pileggi et al. A Survey of Ontario Sewage Treatment Plant Discharges and Landfill Leachates in the Great Lakes Basin 2:00 p.m. L. Boegman et al. Modeling Lake Ontario Hydrodynamics: Performance of Basin-Scale and Nearshore Simulations J. Sherry et al. Are Fish in the St. Clair River Exposed to Environmental Estrogens? J.L.A. Hood and W.D. Taylor Significance of riverine macrophytes as a sink for watershed derived phosphorus loading to lake Erie 2:20 p.m. C.D. Troy et al. Richardson Number Measurements in Breaking Internal Waves J. Sherry et al. Is the thyroid status of wild-fish impaired in the Lake Erie Areas of Concern? H.F. Wilson and M.A. Xenopoulos Landscape determinants of DOC concentration and character in streams of the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin 2:40 p.m. C.H. Wu et al. Study of Potential Erosion in Lower Sheboygan River G. Soucy et al. Evaluating the potential health impacts of multi-compound emissions within the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence region C. DeMarchi et al. Sediment and Nutrient Load Simulation for the Saginaw Bay AIF 3:00 p.m. BREAK

PAGE 41

40 Thursday, May 22 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Co-Chairs: David F. Reid, Thomas Nalepa, and Henry A. Vanderploeg Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Lake Simcoe Co-Chairs: Stephanie Guildford, Jenny Winter, David Depew, and Tedy Ozersky Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time D.F. Reid and D. Wilkinson The Zebra Mussel: Catalyst for National Policy on Aquatic Invasive Species M.A. Koops et al. Implications of Ecosystem Change for the Life History of Lake Whitefish F.J. Longstaffe et al. Stable Isotope Evidence for Groundwater Seepage into Kempenfelt Bay, Lake Simcoe 1:20 p.m. J.S. Nalbone Stopping the Next Zebra Mussel: 20 Years Later, Policy Gaps Remain J.E. Marsden et al. Lake Whitefish and Zebra Mussels in Lake Champlain: One Up, One Down, No Connection? E.A. Stainsby et al. Trends in the Thermal Dynamics of Lake Simcoe from 1971 to 2007 1:40 p.m. H.J. MacIsaac Developments in Invasion Ecology J.E. Ryman et al. Spatial and temporal analysis of Hamilton Harbour food web components using 15N and 13C D.O. Evans et al. Hypolimnetic Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Lake Simcoe Before and Afte r Invasion by Zebra Mussels and Implications for Lake Trout 2:00 p.m. A. Ricciardi Ecological distinctiveness as a driver of exotic species impacts: bivalves as a case study C.E. Lumb et al. Distribution and Abundance of Small-Bodied Fishes in Lake Winnipeg J.K.L. La Rose et al. Historical Trends and Current Status of the Lake Simcoe Coldwater fish Community 2:20 p.m. T.F. Nalepa A Chronological Perspective on Ecological Impacts of Dreissenids in the Great Lakes: Some Expected and Unexpected Outcomes B. T.J. Stewart et al. Invasive species disruption of the Lake Ontario food web affects alewife diet, production and consumption of zooplankton and Mysis relicta W. Metcalfe et al. Assessing Nearshore Small-Fish Community Biodiversity in Lake Simcoe 2:40 p.m. BREAK 3:00 p.m.

PAGE 42

41 Thursday, May 22 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Health Indicators for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Co-Chairs: David Carpenter, Christopher De Rosa, Michael Gilbertson, and Tom Muir Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Paul Helm and Chris Marvin Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 3:20 p.m. V. Bennington et al. Climate Impacts on the Circulation and Thermal Structure in Lake Superior E.W. Murphy et al. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), Hormones, and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEs) in the North Shore Channel of the Chicago River Part 1: Concentrations in Fish Tissue and Analysis of Reproductive Impairment 3:40 p.m. J.A. Austin Observed increases in Wind Speed over Lake Superior C.M. Zuccarino-Crowe et al. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), Hormones, and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEs) in the North Shore Channel of the Chicago River – Part II: Concentrations in Effluent and the Receiving Stream 4:00 p.m. N. Atilla et al. The Carbon Budget of Lake Superior: First Results from the CyCLes Project H. Li et al. Monitoring Nearshore Contamination in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie Using Polar Passive (POCIS) Samplers 4:20 p.m. N.R. Urban et al. CO2 Fluxes Across the Lake Superior Surface: Coupling of Physics, Chemistry and Biology T.L. Labencki and D. Boyd PCB Contributions to Hamilton Harbour 4:40 p.m. B.V. Y adav and J.F. Atkinson Circulation and Mixing in Lake Champlain L.E. Melymuk et al. Comparison of Chemical Profiles in Urban Rivers during Base Flow and Storm Events

PAGE 43

42 Thursday, May 22 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Co-Chairs: David F. Reid, Thomas Nalepa, and Henry A. Vanderploeg Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Lake Simcoe Co-Chairs: Stephanie Guildford, Jenny Winter, David Depew, and Tedy Ozersky Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time C.R. O'Neill Operational and Economic Impacts of Zebra Mussels on Great Lakes Water-Dependent Infrastructure M.S. Ridgway et al. Using Hydroacoustics to Infer Spatial Patterns of Lake Huron Coastal Pelagic Fish S.P. Bhavsar et al. Temporal Trends of Legacy Contaminants in Lake Simcoe Fish 3:20 p.m. D.O. Kelch and F.L. Snyder Twenty Years Post-Invasion: Overview of Impacts from Dreissenids on Recreational Users in Lake Erie O.T. Gorman et al. Population Trends in Lake Herring ( Coregonus artedi ) in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior, 1974-2007 K. Mason and D.O. Evans The influence of predation by crayfish on over-wintering lake trout eggs and recruitment success in Lake Simcoe 3:40 p.m. C.Y. Swinehart et al. Reflections on Outreach In Uncharted Waters: How the discovery of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes has changed public outreach and involvement in the region. K.A. Kayle Population Dynamics of Steelhead in Lake Erie A.J. Skinner et al. Invasion history of zebra mussels in Lake Simcoe 4:00 p.m. D.F. Reid Oregon Public Broadcasting Video: The Silent Invasion: Quagga Mussels (Lake Mead). G. Paterson et al. Latitudinal and temporal declines in Great Lakes lake trout energy densities T. Ozersky et al. Post-dreissenid changes in Lake SimcoeÂ’s crayfish community 4:20 p.m. A.N. Cohen and R.A. Moll Quagga Mussel Invasion West of the 100th Meridian B.A.F. Turner et al. Salmonid cannibalism in Lake Ontario: testing the predator curtain hypothesis A. Houben et al. Benthic Algal Nutrient Dynamics within Lake Simcoe 4:40 p.m. C. Johns Total Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Zebra Mussels of the Upper St Lawrence River, 1994 through 2005 X. Zhu et al. Reconstruction of biomass trends of American eel Angullia rostrata, population in Lake Ontario and upper St. Lawrence River, 19592004 D.C. Depew et al. Macrophytes in Cooks Bay: Effects on water quality and nutrient cycling 5:00 p.m. T.M. Neeson et al. River Network Structure Influences Sea Lamprey Distribution in a Simple Model 5:20 p.m.

PAGE 44

43 Friday, May 23 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Building Toward a Science Strategy for the Great Lakes Basin under the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement Chair: Rob Messervey Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Paul Helm and Chris Marvin Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 8:20 a.m. J.F. Atkinson and J.A. Austin Particle Tracking Applications to Link Physical and Biogeochemical Transport H.W. Reeves and J.R. Nicholas Water Availability and Use in the Great Lakes Basin B.F. Scott et al. PFAs in Lakes Erie and Superior and their Tributaries 8:40 a.m. M.R. Twiss et al. The CACHE: A Unique Limnological Feature in Ice Covered Lake Erie A. Mayer et al. Modeling and Analyzing the Use, Efficiency, Value, and Governance of Water in the Great Lakes Region through an Integrated Approach M. Venier and R.A. Hites Brominated Flame Retardant and Dioxin Concentrations on the Shores of the Great Lakes 9:00 a.m. J.C. May et al. Total Areal Extent of Anoxia within the Central Basin of Lake Erie 1997-2007: a Geographic Information System (GIS) Based Analysis B. Hodgins et al. Challenges of Developing Adaptive Environmental Regulatory Policy X. Zhang et al. Estimation PBDEs' emission from sources in the indoor environment 9:20 a.m. W.J. Edwards et al. Oxygen dynamics within Chironomus spp. burrows and the potential impact on Lake Erie central basin seasonal hypoxia S. Chiblow Engaging Ontario's First Nations in Scientific and Water Policy Initiatives T.F. Bidleman et al. Chiral Current Used Pesticides In Ontario Streams And The Great Lakes 9:40 a.m. K.A. Krieger et al. Nearshore Hypoxia in Lake ErieÂ’s Central Basin: a Proposed Lake Quality Indicator M. Deleary et al. Ontario First Nati ons Perspectives on the Science Strategy of the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement A.E. Dove Trace Organic Contaminants in the Open Waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes How Low Can We Go? 10:00 a.m. BREAK

PAGE 45

44 Friday, May 23 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Co-Chairs: David F. Reid, Thomas Nalepa, and Henry A. Vanderploeg General Contributions Chair: Patricia Chow-Fraser Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time H.A. Vanderploeg et al. Dreissenids as nearshore and offshore engineers: predicting direct and indirect effects of mussels on pelagic food webs S.A. Bortone et al. Recent Trends in Great Lakes Research: Information for Those Who Suffer from Lake Envy! 8:20 a.m. L.E. Burlakova and A.Y. Karatayev The Effect Of Zebra Mussel Invasion On Benthic Communities In North American And European Lakes J.W. Johnston et al. How do ancient shorelines help in regulation efforts of the upper Great Lakes? A. Sandstrm What is the potent ial of protected areas in large lakes? An evaluation of fishery closures in Lake Vttern. 8:40 a.m. K.M. DeVanna and C.M. Mayer Hexagenia use of Dreissena colonized habitat: Opposing effects of hypoxia and fish predation W.T. Kline and A.R. Lashaway Rapid Shifts in the Great Lakes Region's Cloud Cover associated with the approach of Winter H. Wang et al. Inter-stock variation of maturation schedules of walleye in the Great Lakes region 9:00 a.m. B. Zhu et al. Local and Lake-wide Effects of Dreissenids on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Lakes R.A. Shuchman et al. Automated Lagrangian WaterQuality Assessment System (ALWAS) K.B. Reid et al. Bioeconomic Risk Assessment of the Lake Erie Walleye Commercial Fishery 9:20 a.m. R.P. Barbiero et al. An Overview of Possible Dreissenid Impacts in the Offshore Waters of the Great Lakes H.J. Carrick et al. Remnants of the spring diatom bloom may regulate hypoxia in Lake Erie K.B. Reid et al. Risk Assessment of Alternative Initial Allocations of Lake Erie Walleye Using Catch at Age Simulation and a Bayesian Approach to Uncertain Stockrecruit Dynamics 9:40 a.m. BREAK 10:00 a.m.

PAGE 46

45 Friday, May 23 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Building Toward a Science Strategy for the Great Lakes Basin under the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement Chair: Rob Messervey Fish disease ecology in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Stephen Riley and John Dettmers Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 10:20 a.m. L.F. Leon et al. Simulating Water Quality in Eastern Lake Erie for Coupled Modelling D. Dumoulin Calculating the Consumptive Use of Water Withdrawals in the Great Lakes Basin – Status of current methodologies and recommendations for enhancement S.C. Riley et al. Fish health and ecosystem dysfunction in the Great Lakes 10:40 a.m. G.B. Arhonditsis et al. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystem dynamics L. Milford et al. A Tiered Water Budget Approach J.I. Tsao et al. Epidemiological models can guide fish health research and management: bacterial kidney disease in free-swimming fish 11:00 a.m. S.T. Kendall et al. Physical–Chemical Characterization of a Nearshore Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystem in Lake Huron S.M. Damaia and K. Todd Lflow A Data Collection and Analysis Package to Support Low Streamflow Surveys D.E. Tillitt et al. A review of the occurrence and consequences of thiaminase in the Great Lakes ecosystem 11:20 a.m. T.G. Sanders et al. An Ecological and Stable Isotope Study of Food Web Linkages in Submerged Vent Ecosystems of Lake Huron L.E. Kaminski et al. Case Studies of Successful Public Sector Water Conservation Strategies: Technologies and Practices for Conserving Water E.F. Fenichel et al. How Many Fish to Screen – No Easy Answer 11:40 a.m. B.A. Biddanda et al. Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems of Lake Huron: Insights into System Metabolism L.A. Wojnarowski and J. Jonas Developing Water Conservation and Efficiency Objectives for the Great Lakes Basin M.L. Jones et al. Natural mortality patterns in Lake Huron and Michigan lake whitefish populations 12:00 p.m. LUNCH

PAGE 47

46 Friday, May 23 Rm 114 Gzowski College Science Lecture Hall Otonabee College Wenjack Theatre Otonabee College Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Co-Chairs: David F. Reid, Thomas Nalepa, and Henry A. Vanderploeg General Contributions Chair: Patricia Chow-Fraser Ecology and Management of Great Lakes Fish Populations Chair: Scott McNaught Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Time D.A. Culver and J.D. Conroy Twenty years of Dreissena on western basin Lake Erie hard substrate – why is there any phytoplankton left? J. Gerlofsma et al. Abundance and Population Dynamics of Mysis relicta in Lake Huron 2007 E.K. Joshua et al. Physiological response of airbreathing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch) to coconut husk retting effluent from Lake Paravur of southern India 10:20 a.m. L. Boegman et al. Coupling between stratification, mixing and dreissenid grazing impacts in western Lake Erie M. Finch et al. Population Dynamics of Eastern Sand Darter ( Ammocrypta pellucida ) on the lower Thames River, Ontario M.C.S. Peter et al. Mechanism of stress tolerance in fishes living in coconut husk retting ground of Lake Paravur in south India 10:40 a.m. S. Adlerstein et al. Zebra mussel impacts on the lower food web in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron: 1990-1996. P.J. Joosse et al. Agri-environmental research for water protection 11:00 a.m. J.V. DePinto et al. Cladophora and open-water “desertification”: Do Dreissenids play a role? 11:20 a.m. H.A. Vanderploeg et al. Dreissenids in North America: 20 Years of Consequences Synthesis And Open Discussion 11:40 a.m. LUNCH 12:00 p.m.

PAGE 48

47 Friday, May 23 Rm 117 Gzowski College Rm 115 Gzowski College Rm 203 Otonabee College Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes Co-Chairs: Dmit ry Beletsky, Chin Wu, and George Arhonditsis Fish disease ecology in the Great Lakes Co-Chairs: Stephen Riley and John Dettmers Time Presented by / Title Presented by / Title Presented by / Title 1:20 p.m. L.A. Rukhovets et al. The influence of climate changes and antropogenic loading on Lake Ladoga ecosystem M.E. Wright and J.S. Lumsden Surveillance for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHS) in wild fish populations in Ontario 1:40 p.m. N. Filatov et al. Ladoga and Onego--Great European Lakes: Investigations of Effects of Global Changes on Ecosystem Dynamics J.A. Hoyle et al. Response of Freshwater Drum to a Disease Outbreak in Lake Ontario 2:00 p.m. J.L. Shutt et al. Impacts of Exposure to Type E Botulism on the Health of Colonial Waterbird Populations in Eastern Lake Ontario. 2:20 p.m. D.J. Taillon and M.E. Wright Responding to a Large-Scale Fish Die-off: Kawartha Lakes Carp 2007 3:00 p.m. CONFERENCE PROGRAM ADJOURNS

PAGE 49

POSTER SESSION Nuisance Algae in the Great Lakes: Causes, consequences and future directions LASHAWAY, A.R. and CARRICK, H.J. Diatom Rejuvenation and Hypoxia in Lake Erie LOWES, C.I. and YOUNG, E.B. Alternative Sources of Phosphorus for Freshwater Cyanobacteria and Lake Michigan Phytoplankton PAVLAC, M.M. and BOYER, G.L. Monitoring Cyanobacteria in the Lower Gr eat Lakes Using Continuous Real-time Fluorescence SAXTON, M.A. TRUITT, D.B., MCKAY, R.M.L., BOURBO NNIERE, R.A., and WILHELM, S.W. Defining the Role(s) of Phosphorus in Promoting Toxic Cyanob acterial Blooms THOMAS, S.P. JONES, J., PERSHYN, C., ALLEN, E., GREENE, M., MIHUC, T.B., SATCHWELL, M.F., and BOYER, G.L. A Geospatial Mapping Method to Detect Lake Champlain Cyanobacteria Blooms Aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes watershed ARCAGNI, M. ARRIBRE, M., CAMPBELL, L., KYSER, K., KLASSEN, K., and RIBEIRO GUEVARA, S. The role of native Galaxias maculatus in a food web with introduced North American salmonids (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina) JAMES, L.A.H. ARNOTT, S.E., and CASSELMAN, J.M. Effect of the invasive predator, Bythotrephes longimanus, on growth of fishes in Ontario shield lakes LIEBIG, J.R. VANDERPLOEG, H.A., POTHOVEN, S.A ., CAVALETTO, J.F., KRUEGER, D., MASON, D., LANG, G.A., PANGLE, K., PICHLOV, R., and PEACOR, S. Interactions of the Invasi ve Predatory Cladocerans, Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi with zooplankton and fish along an onshore-offshore transect in southern Lake Michigan OLSON, A. and FREELAND, J.R. Hybridization facilitates cattail invasions around the Great Lakes. PAUL, J. and FREELAND, J.R. Invasive Phragmites in the Great Lakes region. II. Population genetics of invasive and native lineages, and the role of local adaptation. VACHON, N. and FREELAND, J.R. Invasive Phragmites in the Great Lakes regi on. I. Emerging evidence on the relationship between environmental variabl es and invasion potential.

PAGE 50

49 Avian Ecology and Research LAKFARD, S. and FRASER, G.S. Nesting Ecology of Common Terns at To mmy Thompson Park, Toronto, Ontario MIKODA, P. WESELOH, D.V., and PEKARIK, C. Satellite tracking of breeding Great Blackbacked Gulls from eastern Lake Ontario. SEEFELT, N.E. and SHAW, H.L. Initial Development of an Avian Monitoring Site at the Central Michigan University Biological Station on Beaver Island Ecology and Management of Gr eat Lakes Fish Populations COLLINGSWORTH, P.D. and MARSCHALL, E.A. Yellow perch spawning behavior in the western basin of Lake Erie FAGAN, K.M. KOOPS, M., ARTS, M.T., SU TTON, T.M., and POWER, M. The effects of trophic disr uption on the diet and condi tion of lake whitefish MARKLEVITZ, S.A.C. MORBEY, Y.E., and FRYER, B.J. The differentiation of Chinook salmon in natal streams of Lake Huron: the use of otolith microchemistry as a natural tag MCDONALD, E.A., MCNAUGHT, A.S. and ROSEMAN, E. Susceptibility of Larval Fish to Entrainment in the Detroit River MORBEY, Y.E. ANDERSON, D.M., and HENDERSON, B.A. Progress Towards the Rehabi litation of Lake Trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) in South Bay, Lake Huron NEESON, T.M. ADLERSTEIN, S.A., and WILEY, M.J. Regression Tree Modeling of Sea Lamprey Ammocoete Habitat in Michigan Rivers Lake Simcoe KING, J.W. SHUMCHENIA, E.J., MOE, H., LEWIS, C.F.M., SL ATTERY, S.R., GOODYEAR, D.R., and KILGOUR, B. Characterizing habitat in Ke mpenfelt Bay, Lake Simcoe ONI, S.K. OUELLETTE, J.C., FUTTER, M.N., and DILLON, P.J. Modelling DOC Fluxes and Runoff Changes in Pefferlaw River Watershed A study of Climate Change Impact Trends in Legacy and Emerging Contaminan ts in Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife GEWURTZ, S.B. HELM, P.A., CROZIER, P.W., REIN ER, E., HOWELL, T.E., and MARVIN, C.H. Spatial and Temporal trends of Perfluorinated Compounds in Sedim ents and Surface Waters of the Great Lakes

PAGE 51

50 HOLSEN, T.M. CRIMMINS, B., and MAYER, M. Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program: Mercury MARTIN, P. SVERKO, E., and BARRETT, G. Current-Use Flame Retardants in the Eggs and Plasma of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) from Southern Ontario. OPFER, S.E. FARVER, J.R., MINER, J.G., and KRIEGER, K. Sediment Heavy Metal and Burrowing Mayfly Distribution in Western Lake Erie Watershed Contributions to Chemical Contamination in the Great Lakes BYER, J. STRUGER, J., KLAWUNN, P., and SVERKO, E. Analytical Evaluation of the ELISA Method as a Water Qualit y Monitoring Tool for Surface Water Samples BYER, J., STRUGER, J. KLAWUNN, P., SVERKO, E., and TODD, A. Large Scale Field Utilization of the ELISA Met hod as a Water Quality Monitoring Tool for Surface Water Samples in Ontario GRABUSKI, J.M., CAGAMPAN, S.J., STRUGER, J. and RONDEAU, B. Automated Solid Phase Extarction of Sulfonyl ur eas and Related Herbicides in Fortified Water and Natural Water Samples Using LC-ESI/MS/MS ROSSO, N. WOOTTON, B., METCALFE, C., and ANDERSON, B. Assessing the ability of treatment wetlands to mitigate contaminants from wood waste leachate SHEN, L. GEWURTZ, S., REINER, E., KOLIC, T., MACPHERSON, K. BURNISTON, D., HOWELL, T., HELM, P., BRI NDLE, I., and MARVIN, C. PBDEs in Surficial Sediments of Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan Human health risks associated with recreational activities and drinking water quality FANG, T. CAMPBELL, L., WANG, Y.X. COLE, L., and CHAN, W.W. Assessing human exposure from mercur y in fish from east China lakes MCNINCH, R.M. VERHOUGSTRAETE, M.P., and ROSE, J.B. Using fecal indicator, source tracking and GIS tools to asses fecal contamination in MichiganÂ’s waters Assessing and Improving Monitoring Programs in the Great Lakes KRAMKOWSKI-EPNER, V. and CULOTTI, J. Is C. elegans a promising bioindicator for water qualit y studies? Examining its use in Toronto river systems Physical limnology and physical-chemical-biological coupling in lakes TROY, C.D. Evaluation of low-cost the rmistor chains for vertical temperature measurement

PAGE 52

51 Remote Sensing, Visualization, and Spatia l Data Applications for the Great Lakes KREMENS, R.L. DRAKE, R., HOVEY, A., BOVE, G.E., and TOMKINS-TINCH, C.H. Inexpensive Buoys for Environmental Educ ation and River Water Quality Assessment O'DONNELL, D.M. QUARING, G.F., SPADA, M.E., E FFLER, S.W., and LESHKEVICH, G.A. An Optics Survey of the Western Basin of Lake Erie OUELLETTE, J.C. DILLON, P.J., and AHERNE, J. Spatial Landscape-Scale Modelling of Dissolv ed Organic Carbon (DOC) Flux in the Lake Simcoe Watershed Determination of the water balance, its components and impacts for Great Lakes CHATTERJEE, A., DEMARCHI, C. and MICHALAK, A.M. Improving Estimation of Over-Lake Precip itation – An Application to Lake Erie KAO, Y. DE MARCHI, C., ADLERSTEIN, S.A., and WILEY, M.J. Comparison of Two Hydrological M odels Used in the Great Lakes Basin Natural systems in an urban environment MARCUS, M.A. and FROST, P.C. Suitability of urban pond ecosyst ems for zooplankton growth MURPHY, S.C. COLLINS, N.C., and DOKA, S.E. Seasonal and interannual vari ation in growth rates of pum pkinseed and largemouth bass in Lake Ontario Embayments General Contributions CAVALETTO, J.F. and VANDERPLOEG, H.A. Effect of hypolimnetic ox ygen concentration on vertical migration and abundance of zooplankton in the central basin of Lake Erie FOY, H.D. WILSON, H.W., and XENOPOULOS, M.A. Variations in Leaf Litter Decomposition Rate s of Riparian and Crop Plants in Streams Along an Agricultural Gradient HANSON, A.M. YOUNG, E.B., and BERGES, J.A. Viruses in Lake Michigan: Examining the viru s community and the role of viruses in the phosphorus cycle KAMINSKI, L.E. CRANE, T.R., and OVERMIER, G.L. Potential Impacts of Increased Corn Production for Ethanol in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Region LICHTKOPPLER, F. SNYDER, F., and RIESEN, K. Results of the 2006 Ohio Lake Erie Charter Captains Survey

PAGE 53

52 MARCARELLO, K.T. CLEVINGER, C.C., BADE, D.L., and HEATH, R.T. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity as an Indicato r of P-Limitation in Sandusky Bay/Subbasin OZERSKY, T. BARTON, D.R., HECKY, R. E., and GUILDFORD, S.J. Nutrient flux through invasive mussels: dreiss enids as a benthicpelagic nutrient linkage PAYTON, A., WATSON, S.B. ELSBURY, K., and KENDALL, C. Phosphate Sources and Cycling in Lak e Erie an Isotope Signatures Approach POTHOVEN, S.A. and NALEPA, T.F. Fish diets and condition in Lake Huron STURTEVANT, R.A. and REID, D.F. GLANSIS: The Great Lakes Nonindigenous Aquatic Sp ecies Information System WARREN, G.J. HORVATIN, P.J., and ROCKWELL, D.C. Where have all t he Daphnia gone? ZHANG, J. CIBOROWSKI, J.J.H., DROUILLA RD, K.G., and HAFFNER, G.D. Zoobenthic Community Indicators of Sediment Contamination in the L. HuronL. Erie Corridor: Application of the ReferenceDegraded Continuum Multivariate Approach “GREEN” INITIATIVES AT THE 51ST CONFERENCE AT TRENT UNIVERSITY Trent University has implemented a number of green initiatives with respect to the 51st annual IALGR conference. These include: Providing the conference abstract book on reusable USB flash drives to save paper Providing a reusable small tote for the “conference bag” Working with our food services providers to have as much of the conference food sourced locally. o The beef and chicken served at the banquet are both locally produced o All milk is locally produced o Sourcing of food products from as close to Ontario as possible for those items not available locally. Use of biodegradable plastics and fully recyclable materials for the BBQ Composting of food wastes Materials printed on recycled paper Provision for mass transportation for conference attendees to and from their hotels and special events.

PAGE 54

53DRIVING DIRECTIONS AND MAPS From the Peace Bridge in Buffalo Peace Bridge becomes QEW (Q ueen Elizabeth Way) W. Follow the QEW to the Highway 403 east exit Follow Highway 403 east to Highway 401 east Merge onto Highway 401 express east. Take Highway 401 east through Great er Toronto to Highway 115/35 N. Take the HWY-35/ HWY-115 exit, EXIT 436, toward Peterborough Follow detailed directions in Pe terborough from section below From Toronto Take Highway 401 east to Highway 35/115 Follow Highway 115 north At Peterborough, exit at The Parkway Continue on The Parkway until it ends at Clonsilla Avenue Turn right (east) at Clonsilla Avenue Clonsilla Avenue will become Charlotte Street Follow Charlotte Street into downtown Peterborough Turn left (north) at Water St reet immediately following the clock tower (Market Hall) Continue north on Water Street for 6.5km Turn right on Nassau Mills Road Turn left on West Bank Drive for Conferen ce Services, Blackburn Hall, Bata Library, Athletics Building, Champlain College, Lady Eaton College, and the Bookstore For the Science Complex, Wenjack Theatre, and Otonabee College continue past the 4 way stop to East Bank Drive (Nassau Mills Road becomes River Road) and turn right to the parking lots For Gzowski College go past 4 way stop and turn right on Pi oneer Road to the University entrance From Ottawa Follow Highway 7 west (Lansdowne Street) to George Street Turn right (north) on George Street immediately following the Peterborough Memorial Centre Follow George Street as it turns right in to Water Street at Sherbrooke Street Continue north on Water Street for approximately 7km Turn right on Nassau Mills Road

PAGE 55

54 Turn left on West Bank Drive for Conferen ce Services, Blackburn Hall, Bata Library, Athletics Building, Champlain College, Lady Eaton College, and the Bookstore For the Science Complex, Wenjack Theatre, and Otonabee College continue past the 4 way stop to East Bank Drive (Nassau Mills Road becomes River Road) and turn right to the parking lots For Gzowski College go past 4 way stop and turn right on Pi oneer Road to the University entrance LOGISTICS Parking Parking passes will be available at the regi stration desk for conference attendees. The charge is $4.00 per day and must be picked up at the registration desk and displayed in the car. For residence guests, the parking is incl uded in their registration and they will be provided with a parking pass. Meals Registration includes the welcome reception on Monday evening (cash bar), the Business lunch on Wednesday, and dinner at the IA GLR Banquet on Wednesday evening and the IAGLR BBQ on Thursday evening. Lunches for th e other days will be available for conference attendees through purchase of meal cards du ring registration. Please be aware that the campus is not in an urban area and therefor e there will be limited meal alternatives available without transportation to and from the downtown core. On Tuesday evening, attendees are free to make their own dinner arra ngements at a Peterborough restaurant. Graduate students are encouraged to atte nd the Graduate Reception in downtown Peterborough on Tuesday night. Coffee, te a and juice are available at morning and afternoon breaks. Internet There will be an internet caf available in Ot onabee College for those without computers. Wireless service is available in many areas of the University. Details regarding connection will be available at registration.

PAGE 56

55 CAMPUS MAP Symons Campus, Trent University

PAGE 57

56LOCATION OF CAMPUS, PETERBOROUGH

PAGE 58

57FLOOR PLAN OF GZOWSKI COLLEGE Main Conference Floor North

PAGE 59

58FLOOR PLAN OF OTONABEE COLLEGE Main Floor

PAGE 60

59 Mark your calendar for IAGLR 2009at the University of Toledo Bridging Ecosystems and Environmental Health Across our Great Lakes May 18-22, 2009