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Rice Creek Research Reports, 1999-2000

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Title:
Rice Creek Research Reports, 1999-2000
Series Title:
Rice Creek Research
Creator:
Weber, Peter ( author )
Holy, Michael ( author )
Valentino, David ( author )
Stamm, Alfred ( author )
Connor, Benjamin ( author )
Thomas, JoAnn ( author )
Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey ( author )
Chepko-Sade, Diane ( author )
Nelson, Andrew ( author )
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English

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Rice Creek Field Station
SUNY Oswego

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Abstract:
Contains the Following Research Reports: Butterfly Populations at Rice Creek Field Station, 1999 Season; The Impact of Precipitation on Electrical Properties of the Shallow Subsurface at Rice Creek Field Station: Experimental Design and First Results; A Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Field Station (Year 4)
General Note:
Peter Weber, collaborating in 1999 with Oswego State alumnus Mike Holy, continues to add new species to the known butterfly fauna of Oswego County through studies at Rice Creek. A new topic in the butterfly study this year was consideration of the way in which butterfly populations react to the management practices used at Rice Creek for maintenance of open field habitats. To keep large fields open we mow patches every year in a sequence that takes four years to complete. Initial results from Peter and Mike's studies suggest that butterflies prosper best in those sections of the field that are in the second and third year of regeneration after mowing. Our management practice has been based on the presumption that providing a mosaic of habitats in different stages of development would result in the greatest diversity of wildlife on the property. It is gratifying to have this concept supported by detailed studies of a specific group of animals. David Valentino and his colleagues are literally exploring new territory with their studies of the effect of precipitation and soil moisture on the electrical properties of the soil as determined by use of electrical resistivity techniques. The experimental instrumentation installed during the summer of 1999 has enabled David's group to chart the day by day progress of moisture from a rainstorm as it moves down through the soil. The instruments have been left in place and used for monitoring the presence and movement of soil moisture under the snow pack during the winter of 2000-2001. I look forward to hearing of new discoveries when this winter's results are analyzed. Diane Chepko-Sade's report from the small mammal study concentrates on the use of this work as a focus of class exercises and research projects in biology courses. I was privileged to participate in this endeavor. As someone who has spent much of his adult life personally or professionally involved with field oriented natural science I find few experiences more rewarding than that of accompanying young students on their first forays into this world. Navigating through the woods after dark or taking field notes in the rain is not everyone's idea of a good time, but whether it turns out to be a milestone in the development of a life-long interest or an experience never to be repeated, it engenders a sense of excitement, anticipation, and pride of accomplishment not often equaled in classroom education. --- Andrew P. Nelson, Director Rice Creek Field Station June 18,2001
General Note:
Submitted by Shannon Pritting (pritting@oswego.edu) on 2011-06-21.
General Note:
Made available in DSpace on 2011-06-21T14:08:03Z (GMT).
General Note:
Rice Creek Associates; SUNY Oswego Office of Research and Sponsored Programs; SUNY Oswego Division of Continuing Education

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SUNY Oswego
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SUNY Oswego
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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http://hdl.handle.net/1951/51740

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Rice Creek Research Reports 1999 2000 Rice Creek Field Station Oswego State University Oswego, New York 13126 June 18, 2001

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Rice Creek Research Reports 1999-2000 Peter Weber, collaborating in 1999 with Oswego State alumnus Mike Holy, continues to add new species to the known butterfly fauna of Oswego County through studies at Rice Creek. A new topic in the butterfly study this year was consideration of the way in which butterfly popu lations react to the management practices used at Rice Creek for maintenance of open field habitats. To keep large fields open we mow patches every year in a sequence that takes four years to complete. Initial results from Peter and Mike's studies suggest that butterflies prosper best in those sections of the field that are in the second and third year of regeneration after mowing. Our management practice has been based on the presumption that providing a mosaic of habitats in different stages of development would result in the greatest diversity of wildlife on the property. It is gratifying to have this concept supported by detailed studies of a specific group of animals. David Valentino and his colleagues are literally exploring new territory with their studies of the effect of precipitation and soil moisture on the electrical properties of the soil as determined by use of electrical resistivity techniques. The experimental instrumentation installed during the summer of 1999 has enabled David's group to chart the day by day progress of moisture from a rainstorm as it moves down through the soil. The instruments have been left in place and used for monitoring the presence and movement of soil moisture under the snow pack during the winter of 2000-2001. I look forward to hearing of new discoveries when this winter's results are analyzed. Diane Chepko-Sade' s report from the small mammal study concentrates on the use of this work as a focus of class exercises and research projects in biology courses. I was privileged to par ticipate in this endeavor. As someone who has spent much of his adult life personally or pro fessionally involved with field oriented natural science I find few experiences more rewarding than that of accompanying young students on their first forays into this world. Navigating through the woods after dark or taking field notes in the rain is not everyone's idea of a good time, but whether it turns out to be a milestone in the development of a life-long interest or an experience never to be repeated, it engenders a sense of excitement, anticipation, and pride of accomplishment not often equaled in classroom education. Andrew P. Nelson, Director Rice Creek Field Station June 18,2001 Contents Butterfly Populations at Rice Creek Field Station, 1999 Season 2 The Impact of Precipitation on Electrical Properties of the Shallow Subsurface at Rice Creek Field Station: Experimental Design and First Results 11 A Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Field Station (Year 4) 23 3

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Butterfly Populations at Rice Creek Field Station, 1999 Season 1 Peter G. Weber, Professor of Biology, Oswego State University 2 Michael Holy, Chairman, Science Department, Hannibal High School, Hannibal, NY Purpose & Scope of Project The Rice Creek Butterfly Project is what the lepidopterist H. K. Clench (1979) referred to as a "local study": that is, an intensive long-term investigation of a small area. The main aim of the project continues to be to characterize the Rice Creek Field Station's (RCFS) butterfly commu nity over seaSOl1S, within habitats and between seasons. The 1999 season completed the fourth year of what we anticipate to be a five-year study: five years is the lower end given by some au thorities for long-term studies (e.g. Likens, 1983). Additionally, as an adjunct to our main study, we describe our efforts to date in using our moni toring data to determine the effects of field mowing upon butterfly numbers. Methods and Materials We maintained the sampling protocols established in the previous three years (Weber & Weber, 1998). Sampling commenced on 10 April, a week earlier than in previous years and continued weekly until 31 October. We sampled biweekly from mid May until the end of August, and weekly before and after that time. At the start of each sampling session micrometeorological N N N N N N N N NNW conditions, includil1g insolaa a w a W m W ro N ro a N m a Day of Year W a W ro m m ro a tion, temperature, relative hu midity and wind speed, were Figure 1. Species count on each sampling day in the year. monitored in the field station parking lot. To document species occurring on the RCFS grounds, we have continued to photograph as many as possible using a Canon EOS-Elan with an EF 100 mm-f/2,8-macro lens. We obtained 203 slide photos of 33 species in 1999. These slides will be archived at RCFS. 1 This investigation was carried out at Rice Creek Field Station with financial support by Rice Creek Associates and by the Division of Continuing Education and the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Oswego State University. 2 Nick Weber's help with photography, and with locating and identifying butterflies in the field was invaluable. Our thanks go to Scott Preston for continued help with the design and analysis of the mowing study. John Daly's quick solution to linear equations enabled us to estimate the theoretical expected number of species. Discussions with Scott Preston and Eric Burton about mowing effects on butterflies were very useful. Randy Little helped collect data on one trip. 4

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45 40 35 (J) Q) 30 c. en o 25 Z 20 () 15 10 / -<>96 -I::r97 98 -B99 I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\) I\)c:; c; a; 0; ......, 0 I\) w 0> ex> CI) ......, m w CI) 0> ex> ......, w I\) C; 0> 0> I\) I\) w ......, Day of Year Figure 2. Cumulative number of species on each sampling day in each year. 200 175 ':::J 0125 I (/) Cc3 75 .....,--C :::J 50 0 () 25 0 --1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Figure 3. Count of individuals per census hour in each year as a percent of the 1996 count. How Many Species Can be Expected on the RCFS Grounds? Results Overall Description ofthe RCFS Butterfly Community The 1999 season was charac terized by consistently higher species counts on most sam pling dates than in each of the previous years (Figure 1). In tum, the season was also distinguished by overall more species (42) than in any of the previous years as reflected in the species-effort curve (Figure 2). In addition to the highest spe cies count of any year, the 1999 season also enjoyed the highest counts of individuals. This is reflected in Figure 3, which gives the count per cen sus hour as a percent of the first year's count. The early season peak in rela tive abundance (i.e. count of individuals) was somewhat delayed in 1999. However, the bimodality of the relative abundance over the season was again evident, and seems to be a consistent pattern of the butterfly assemblage on the RCFS grounds (Figure 4). Along with high species and individual counts, the 1999 season was notable for the addition of eight new species to the RCFS grounds, two of which to our knowledge had not previously been reported in Oswego County. With the addition of these eight the total number of butterfly species recorded from the Station grounds over the four years of our study is 47 (Tables 1 & 2). How mallY butterfly species might one, ill theory, expect on the RCFS grounds? Clench (1979) recorded 73 species over 23 years and 820 hours of sampling on a 4942 Ha preserve in south western Pennsylvania. He estimated that 94% of the species expected there had been found. Figure 5 compares our data, on the smaller (130 Ha), more northerly, RCFS grounds, to his. 5

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96 97 98 99 100 50 350 -...& 300 -mI250 () >t (J.) ;150 CO N NN N N N N NNNW o WW mm 00 00 ID0 N WW mm 00 0 o ID 0 IDmW ID N IDmm 0 0 00mmm Day of Year Figure 4. Count of butterflies on each sampling day in the season. 80 70 60 (f) w 1999 50<:5 w Q.. (f) 40 w > 30 --l ::::) ::::) 20 0 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 CUMULATIVE CENSUS HR. Figure 5. Cumulative nurrlber of species with census effort for RCFS and for Powdermill Nature Preserve (PNR), Ligonier, PA. PNR data approximated from Clench (1979). Lines fitted by "supersmoother" (Statview, 1999). Se is the theoretical expected number of species for the RCFS grounds. Using Clench's approach we calculated that the theoreti cally expected number of species for RCFS is 60. We thus, to date, have sampled approximately 78% of the expected number of species on the Station grounds. As Clench pointed out, the ex pected number of species de pends in part upon the size of the "universe" one is sam pling. In our case this is mainly Oswego County. The actual number of Oswego County species, to our knowledge, presently stands at 69, 61 given in Shapiro (1974) plus the eight added by us (Tables 1 and 2). Through further sampling we should in time closely ap proach 60 species. However, as Clench perceived, one will approach but never attain the theoretical number of species. Some of the Oswego County species listed in Tables 1 and 2, such as the bog copper (Epidemia epixanthe), be cause of specialized habitat requirements are unlikely to ever appear on the RCFS grounds. On the other hand, species not native to the Northeast, such as the fiery skipper (Hylephila phylaeus), have dispersed onto the Sta tion grounds: sixty species, therefore, seems like a rea sonable estimate. 6

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------------------------------------------------------------Species Highlights ofthe ReFS Butterfly Assemblage in 1999 After adding only a single new species in the preceding two years, we added eight new species to the Station's butterfly fauna in 1999 (Figure 5). We present here an abridged account, taken from Glassberg (1999) and Opler and Malikul (1998), of the natural history of the species new to the Station grounds. In the sequence of their appearance over the season, these species were: Table 1. Skipper species at Rice Creek Field Station 1996-1999, compared to total Oswego County species (Shapiro, 1947). Species new to Oswego County denoted by a bold X Juvenal's duskywing (Erynnis juvenalis) is a large early season spread-0___ ___ __ wing skipper common-----------------------------------------------__J9._?? __ J9.?_9. across New York State. The males of this species h1 hd f perc a ong tee ges 0 oak woods where they ag gressi vely patrol terri to-__ ries for intruders and __ mates. Their major larval -----------__x 25-,J<: L -------------------------------------------------__________x x_ x_ )(, x------skipper species is there fore unlikely to be abun dant on the Station Northern pearly-eye (Enodia anthedon) is a widespread Satyrnid in New York State. This species favors the edges _Iay;nj':e(jge(j_Sl
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Harvester (Feniseca tar quinius) is widespread in Eastern North America, _but nowhere common. This butterfly is uniquely _specialized as a carnivore on woolly aphids as a larva, and as a feeder of aphid "dew" as an adult. It is our only butterfly that makes no use of plants directly for food as either a larva or adult. Ollr individual first ap_peared in the vicinity of the Herb garden. Coral hairstreak (Satyrium titus) is a widespread species in the _Northeast. Most hair_ _streaks possess asmall hair-like tail on each hindwing that resembles an insect antenna and functions to attract preda_ tors to the wrong end of _the butterfly. The coral _hairstreak is easily identi_fied, as it is one of the few members of this .group that lacks this char_ acteristic hil1dwing tail. Fiery skipper (Hylephila phyleus) is a highly migratory tropical and sub. _tropical grass skipper. This species has only been recorded in the state north of the New York City region twice. Our individuals appeared in the lower two fields a few days after the passage of Hllrricane Dennis. Table 2. Butterfly species at Rice Creek Field Station 1996-1999, compared to total Oswego County species (Shapiro, 1947). Species new to Oswego County denoted by a bold X .. x..X XX ._ .. _.. _. __ _._._ _.. .__ .. .. _.. Qsw.e1!Q_C.Q__ _. ._. _. .__. _.. _.. _.. __ __ . .. __ .. _-.-.---.----.. -.. ---'-."-"-.-"'-.'-'-'-"'--.--.-----.------1 __ __ _. __ .__ .. __ _ _.. __ __ .. _. __ _.. _.. __ __ __ .__ _.. .. .x __ x _._._ x __ .. _.. __ .x_ __. __ ._._ _X_ X_ .. _._ .. _X .__ _.. __ .. _... _._ ... X.. _.. _X_ .. X X._ .. _.. _.. X .RiJ}gJe.L. X ._.. _ 999.-.Ny.Q!P.ll. _.( _. X ... _. .._ ... _ X X X X X __ _. .__ .. .. __ __:pr.!.!!U'!!y __. .. ... .. __ ... ... _. .. _. __ ... ... ___ ... __X__. ... ._X ... _... __ __ .__ ._X_. __ X _.. __{\_ _.. __ ._X __ ._ __ ._ _X__ .. __ .. _.. _. ._. __ 2\ _. __ ____ .__ __ ___ ._ .. ._ .. .. __ __ ._ __. __ _. _.. __ .. .__. ?t_ __ ._ __ .. __ .. _._. .__._ __ __ X _X ._. __.__.__ X. __ __ . __ ((;hfl.rj4r;:g_.s:_f}y.t;!(}jJ. _._. __ __ .. ___ .__ _._. __. ._. __ __ .__ __ .__. __ __ .. __ .__ _.. ___ .__ _ .__. . X .__ .cfhy.c;iQ_4(}_Jhfl.r..Q.l __ __ X __ __ __ X ._X_.. __ .__ __ .__ .._._. ._. __ _. .__ _.. __ .. .. _. __ _.. 2\ ._. .__ .__. .X__ __ X_ X ._. X__ __ .. _._. .. __ ._ _X !5 . ._.X ._. ._.__ X__ .. {!JHY!_Y!iq... ... ... .. ._ ... ._x_._. .__._ .. .. ....{rp.lJ!gQ!!z:q_fQ!!J-'!lQJ__ ._ ... __ . .__X .X __ X X ._._. .X._... _... .. ._ ._ . _. ._. .__ ._.X .__ C::.QJ:l}pr9l}. .__ ...X X .. __ _X f!YYrrJPhqlis. !rtHkl}!tiJ.. .__ ". _.. __ X .. X.. __ X .. .X._ .. X _. .. -------.__ .. __ .__ X .. __ x:.. ___ X ___ .__. ._x: _.. .. .. __ .__ __ ._X __ X_ __ _X . ._X __ ._ .. __ ._. ._. .. _. __ __. .__ __._._. ._.__ X_. .. .. f/ifl..tY..rfl}_'!! .. __ ._. __ __ .__ .__ .. . ._._. .__. ._X. ... ... ... ... __ .__ .. _... _.. X . ..__. .sm.Re.Q... ._. __ LS.f!0!t.i!::l.'_f!.l.iRgT9J!J.l_ .__ _X X __.__ ._. .__.__ __. __ _.. __ .. .__. ._. .__.__._.__?L .. __ .__ __ ... _.. .. __ _. .. .__ .__X_.__. ._ .. ._ ... __ .__ ... .. __ __ x: .__ .__ __ X ... .__ x:_. .. ..__ __ .__ .. __ .__ __ ._. _ .X__. .. __ __ .. .__. .. __ .__ ._ .. X._._. ._.. .. _. ... _. __ K_ __ ._X "'_'_ ... _. __ __ ... .__. .. .. .. .. _. __X _. ._ .. __ __ .__ .. _. LCl/.19_t.tz:fJ.g..P!gjQll1l._ .. X.. __{\ __ .. 2\ __ X. __ ._ __ .__ .. _X .. X .. .. __.__ ._ ._ _. __ .. __ __ .. _.. __ .. .. ... .__ ._ ... X__ .. X _.. X _X_... x: ... .__. ._ _X. X.. X__ X_. __ .__ ",_,,_, !S. ._ .. __ .__ ._ X__ .. __K .. __ ..Wh!Je._ _'" J X _.X X X X _ X X X.. 1\ "_ __ ..X _ .__ _.. .__ _{\_ __ .__ __ .X X. __ .. _. __ ____ ._ .. ... __ ._. .__ ._ ... _. ... _. __ ._._ ... __ ..._... ... __._ ... _. __ __ ... __ ._ New to County Since 1974 3 0 0 1 8

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Common buckeye (Junonia coenia) is rare in the state north of the Atlantic coastal plain. Several individuals of this species appeared in the larger lower field a few days after Hurri cane Dennis. Buckeyes are migratory and common in the southern parts of New York State. To our knowledge the latter two species represent new records for Oswego County (Shapiro, 1974). Does Mowing Affect Butterfly Numbers? The fields and selected woodland openings on the RCFS grounds have been maintained through mowing since the 1980's (Weeks, 1988). The mowing is scheduled as to keep up these areas in various stages of old field and shrub stage succession, thereby enhancing the Station's overall biodiversity. Mowing was done with a rotary blade on an International Harvester "Brush Hog" to a height of 18 em. (ca. 7 in.). While we did not specifically set out to determine the effects of mowing, our main purpose being to characterize the RCFS butterfly fauna, our sampling proto col may enable us to determine whether or not mowing influences butterfly numbers on a site. Mowing removes the shoots of plants and with it potential nectar and oviposition sites for but terflies. We consequently hypothesized that mowing would cause an immediate reduction in the number of butterfly species and individuals on the site. However, one could envision a 9 "ea "w -07 "ell-g6 ell 005 +1_4 C :::J 03 () c2 ell Q) o T T I-CIl o c.. C\l 1 competing hypothesis whereby butterflies in creased shortly after mow ing, if mowing, by remov ing taller shading plants, were to provide access to plants which flower closer to the ground. The open areas that we sampled for butterflies var ied in their size, elevation, mowing schedule, nature of the surrounding habitat, and in the combination of their plant species. This varia tion, in turn, we presume Iresults in variation in the -CIl o magnitude of the effect that c.. mowing will have on but terfly numbers in a particu lar field or woodland open mg. We analyzed data collected from sampling sessions Figure 6. Mean butterfly count and standard error before mowing (Pre-Mow), after mowing (Post-Mow), and the following year on approximately the same dates (Folwg within a two week period yr. Preand Post-Mow). Data is composite from several mowed areas. before and after mowing in 9

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the year that an area was mowed (designated as preand post-mow), and on approximately the same dates the following year (designated as following year at pre-and post-mow). Presently we are analyzing the effects of mowing by three statistical methods: Poisson test, permutation test, and bootstrap method (Krebs, 1989). Although the results vary from one field to the next, our preliminary analysis indicates that there is a slight reduction in butterfly numbers immedi ately after mowing, supporting our first hypothesis. Moreover, butterfly numbers appear to be higher in the following year on the same dates. This pattern is shown in Figure 6, a composite of various fields. Yahner (1996) concluded that lepidopteran diversity would be enhanced if mowing were lleld off until early September (in PA). However, he provided no data pertaining directly to the issue of whether or not mowing enhances or diminishes butterfly numbers. Our data imply that mowing is not very harmful in the immediate sense (i.e. weeks), but is helpful in enhancing but terfly numbers in the long-term sense (i.e. seasons). Our results seem to be congruent with those of Bramble, Yahner and Byrnes (1997) who found increased counts in mowed powerline right-of-way plots compared to similar, unmowed, plots subjected to various combinations of herbicide spraying. References Bramble, W. C., R. H. Yahner & W. R. Byrnes (1997). Effect of herbicides on butterfly popu lations of an electric transmission right-of-way, Journal ofAboriculture, 23, 196-206. Clench, H. K. (1979). How to make regional lists of butterflies: some thoughts, Journal ofthe Lepidopterists' Society, 33,216-231. Glassberg, J. (1999). Butterflies through binoculars, the East, NY: Oxford University Press. Krebs,C.J. (1989). Ecological methodology, NY.: Harper & Row. Likens, G. E. (1983). A priority for ecological research. Bulletin ofthe Ecological Society of America, 64,234-243. Opler, P. A. & V. Malikul (1998). Afield guide to Eastern butterflies, NY.: Houghton-Mifflin. SAS Inc. (1999). StatView Reference. 3d Edit. SAS Institute, Inc, NC.: Cary. Shapiro, A. M. (1974). The butterflies and skippers of New York (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea), Search: Agriculture, Entomology, 12, 1-60. Weber, N. F. A and P.G. Weber (1998). Butterfly populations at Rice Creek Field Station: The 1997 season., In Rice Creek Research Reports 1997, Ed. A. P. Nelson, pp 1-15. Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, NY. Weeks, J. A. (1988). Guidelines for Environmental Management at Rice Creek Field Station, Bulletin No.6. Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, NY. Yahner, R. H. (1996). Butterfly and skipper communities in a managed forested landscape. Northeast Wildlife, 53, 1-9. 10

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The Impact of Precipitation on Electrical Properties of the Shallow Subsurface at Rice Creek Field Station: Experimental Design and First Results 1 David Valentino, Alfred Stamm, Benjamin Connor, JoAnn Thomas, and Jeffrey Chiarenzelli Department of Earth Sciences, Oswego State University Abstract An experiment to study the physical relationships between precipitation, surface water infiltration and the electrical properties (resistivity) of the shallow subsurface is being conducted at the Rice Creek Field Station (SUNY Oswego). The goals of the project are: 1) Isolation of environmental factors that influence near-surface resistivity measurements. 2) Quantification of seasonal fluctuations in measured resistivity. 3) Determination of infiltration rate associated with subsurface saturation under the influ ence of local weather phenomena. A permanent Wenner resistivity array (42 take-outs, A=0.5m) was laid out at a site within the field station for frequent monitoring. Precipitation and ground moisture are regularly monitored using a tipping-bucket rain gauge, moisture sensors and a weighing lysimeter. The duration of the experiment is anticipated to last 24 months, and this paper is a report of data collected during the 1999 Summer-Fall transition. Resistivity and moisture monitoring started in September with a frequency of two to three times weekly. In early October the monitoring frequency was increased to once per day to collect data on high frequency weather events including the potential of imaging infiltration using resistivity measurements. Early in the experiment, domains of high (400-1000 ohm-m) resistivity appeared throughout the pseudosections. These are interpreted to represent very dry subsurface conditions due to the summer 1999 drought period. Through Sept. and Oct. the resistivity of the site lowered although the general form of data contours was maintained. Discrete precipitation events were usually followed by low (50-150 ohm-m) resistivity anomalies that migrated downward through sequential pseudosections over a period of three to four days. In some cases multiple low anomalies appear at different levels in the pseusdosections during periods of frequent rain. If these anomalies represent groundwater pulses moving through the subsurface, then the local rate of infiltration ranges from 0.5 to 1 meter per day at the site. By early November the entire site was characterized by low resistivity values suggesting subsurface saturation. Introduction Electrical geophysical methods have been used for decades to study the shallow subsurface in mineral and energy resource exploration (Telford, 1990). In the environmental industry I This investigation was carried out at Rice Creek Field Station with financial support by Rice Creek Associates and by the Division of Continuing Education and the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Oswego State University. 11

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electrical resistivity is used for site assessment, contamination monitoring, and remediation programs (Knight, 1991; Frangos, 1997; Knight, 1997). The non-invasiveness of electrical geophysical methods make the application cost effective in environmental projects, ill contrast to costly invasive boreholes and monitoring wells used to study the shallow subsurface. Conduction of electricity through the ground is strongly influenced by subsurface moisture content, and fluid chemical composition (Hem, 1985; Drever, 1988). It is this property of resistivity that makes it ideal for monitoring landfill breakouts or other types of environmental spills. However, a serious pitfall is that electrical resistivity is equally influenced by groundwater, or precipitation percolating through the ground. Therefore, understanding how precipitation influences electrical resistivity measurements is critical to the application of the technique to environmental problems (Emston and Scherer, 1986; Erickson et aI., 1997). To document influences of precipitation on subsurface electrical conduction, a long-term systematic study of electrical resistivity at a permanent site, located within the grounds of Rice Creek Field Station, began during the Fall 1999 and will continue until Fall 2001. Presented herein are 1) the experimental design and 2) some of the interesting findings for the summer to fall transition of 1999. Experimental Design In the Summer of 1998 a grant from the Rice Creek Associates funded the first stages of this research project which included regional mapping of the electrical resistivity variability at the field station grounds. Peavy and Valentino (1998; 1999) and Valentino and Peavy (1999) delineated systematic variability in the subsurface materials, and the distribution of regional and perched groundwater at the field station. Based on their results, and refined by the mowing schedule at the field station, a permanent site for long-term study was established approximately 75 meters west of the Blue Trail where the trail enters the open meadow (Figure 1). The second stage of the project is to repeatedly monitor the electrical resistivity along with other weather factors such as precipitation, air and ground temperature, and soil moisture, to establish possible correlations between variations in resistivity and these other weather-related variables (Sen and Goode, 1992). Wenner Resistivity Array A 42 electrode permanent Wenner (Barker, 1981; 1989; Telford et aI., 1990) array was installed with a take-out interval of 0.5 meters (Figure 1). The electrodes are made of 18 inch sections of galvanized reinforcement bar and are attached with 12 gauge copper wire to a common switch board. The switch board is mounted on a stationary table that is located at the center of the survey enabling each electrode to be accessed from a common point (Figure 2). The Wenner technique requires two low frequency current electrodes (II and 12) spaced evenly from two interior potential electrodes (PI and P2). During each reading the input current is monitored using a sensitive amp meter and the potential electrodes are monitored using an equally sensitive volt meter. Taking into account the geometry of the survey, the resistivity is calculated for a point that is located in the subsurface at about 50% of the electrode spacing (a spacing). Therefore, wider spaced current and potential electrodes result in progressively deeper readings for the electrical resistivity. Every possible combination of current and potential electrodes results in a subsurface data distribution that is "V" shaped. With 42 electrodes spaced 0.5 meters, the vertical spacing of data rows is about 25 cm, the horizontal 12

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Figure 1: Infrared satellite photograph of the grounds at Rice Creek Field Station. The study site is shown in the center of the photo with the approximate length of the Wenner survey. spacing between points is about 50 cm and the deepest penetration is about 3.25 meters. This survey was designed to examine potentially small changes in resistivity and therefore, requires the data point resolution previously described. Figure 5 illustrates points of data distribution in a full survey. POWER SOURCES Electrical resistivity requires a low frequency (less than 100 Hz) mobile power supply (Robinson and Coruh, 1988) that is capable of running for up to 2.5 hours. Additionally, running current in one direction for an extended period polarizes the ground and results in a residual charge buildup. This residual charge can eventually obscure resistivity readings. To satisfy the field conditions and to overcome the potential problems, two power sources were tested for this study. Portable power modules capable of 200 volts (DC) at 30 milliamps from a 12V automobile battery were built into the resistivity switch box. With the addition of subsequent power modules the system was capable of inducing 200 DC volts and 120 milliamps for deeper surveying. The unidirectional nature of direct current required that reverse surveys be run periodically to eliminate residual electric charge in the subsurface. A power inverter capable of 115 volts at 66 Hz (similar to the power of a common household outlet) from a 12V automobile battery, was also used for comparison with the direct current source. Although the alternating current left little residual subsurface charge, the source was 13

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40' Weather Tower Monitoring Local Atmospheric Conditions Above ground Humidity Temperature Sensors Sensors Monitoring Moisture Input & Output Resistivity Table Electrical Properties . . . .. :::::::.::::::: :::::::e:::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : :::: Inside: :::: :::: : ::: :::: Subsurface Temperature ... ::::::::::::::::::::: & Moisture :::::::: :: Pressure :: :::::::::::::::::::: :: Monitoring :::::::::: Measuring ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::: :::::: Device :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::: .. .. .... .. ... Low ::::::: :: Resistivity :: . .. Zone . .. ........ ...... ... .... ........ .. .. ..... .... ..... .... .... ..... ... .. ... ...... ... ... ....... .. .. . . . .. . ..... ..... ..... ........ .... . ... . . . ...... .. Figure 2: Experimental design, including the various instruments used to monitor weather conditions, ground moisture, and electrical resistivity. 14

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AC Source DC Source 0.25 353 333 313 240----293 220 273 200 '" .... ----253 180 ....S 233 '-' 213 140..c:: 160 S.... 193 I1200.. 173 100 S 153 ..c::Cl 80 133 600 113 40 93 73 53 3.25 Figure 3: Comparison of alternating and direct current sources used in monitoring electrical re sistivity variations at the study site. These diagrams are the results of electric drilling on No vember 11, 1999. Both diagrams show low and high resistivity anomalies in the same posi tions although absolute values are higher for the AC source. All measurements are reported in units of Ohm-meters. See text for the explanation of power sources and electric drilling techniques. considerably more hazardous to use in wet field conditions. Figure 3 is a comparison of results from AC and DC power sources run consecutively at the site on the same day. The DC source resulted in considerably higher overall resistivity values, but the electrical "structure" of the subsurface was basically the same for both power sources. For the reason of portability and the lack of subsurface polarization, the AC power source was used during this study. 15

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PSEUDOSECTIONS AND ELECTRIC DRILLING Periodically full sllrveys were run at the site using the 42 electrode Wenner array resulting in a V -shaped data set (Figure 5). When contour diagrams are produced from the resistivity values, the resulting diagrams are referred to as pseudosections. The diagrams represent subsurface profiles of electrical properties. Each full survey takes between 2.5 and 3 hours to complete. By selecting specific electrode combinations, a narrow swath of data can be collected from just the deepest portion of the survey. This technique is referred to as electric drilling and takes approximately 20 minutes to complete. Although full surveys were run about once every few weeks, the time effectiveness of electric drilling allowed for data to be collected more frequently. Most of the results presented in this article are represented by electric drilling profiles. Lysimeter Calibration 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 Total volume H20 added (ml) . ".. If' .'" ->I11III .lJ" '". .J" .. ,...27.69 27.68 o 27.87 27.86 27.85 27.84 27.83 27.82 27.81 27.80 >8 27.79 "'-" 27.78 r/J0 27.770 r/J 27.76 27.75 27.74 27.73 27.72 27.71 27.70 Figure 4: Calibration line for the weighing lysimeter piezoelectric pressure gauge. Addition of 250 ml of water results in a 0.02 mV response. A response of 0.01 mV would represent a moisture change of 125 ml inside the lysimeter. Integration of 125 ml of water over the sur face of the lysimeter would be equivalent to 0.3 mm of precipitation. 16

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Weighing Lysimeter and Soil Conditions A weighing lysimeter (Figure 2) was inserted at the site to monitor moisture input and output associated with evapo-transpiration and shallow evaporation. The lysimeter was constructed out of pressure treated lumber and comprises an exterior and interior container. The exterior container holds back the exterior soil, while the interior container, filled with soil, rocks, plants, etc. (material extracted from the ground) is suspended on a sellsitive pressure gauge. Changes in moisture content in the interior container fill-material will result in higher-pressure values that produce a microvoltage with a piezoelectric film on the pressure gauge. Calibration of the lysimeter was completed by systematically pouring small known quantities of water (250 ml) into the lysimeter and reading the voltage output. Figure 4 is a grapll that shows the electrical response of the pressure gauge when water was added to the lysimeter. Approximately 250 ml of water resulted ill a 0.02 mV response. The slope of the calibration line suggests that a voltage change of 0.01 mV would be equivalent to 0.3 mm of precipitation over the surface of the lysimeter. Multiple moisture and temperature sensors were installed inside the lysimeter and in the ground surrounding the lysimeter at depths of 20 and 40 cm. These sensors were installed to quantify the moisture content of tIle shallow soil for comparison with the lysimeter, and to monitor the variation in soil temperature. Additionally, a tipping-bucket rain gauge was placed at the site to track local precipitation. Figure 2 portrays the various components at the site. Survey Results The first part of the long-term study was to test and calibrate the resistivity equipment. From mid-Septerrlber until later November resistivity measurements and precipitation data were collected using the full Wenner spread and electric drilling, alld the tipping-bucket rain gauge. Utilization of the lysimeter was minimal durillg this time period because the site had been recently mowed, and plant foliage was receding due to the onset of the fall season. An immense amount of data was collected during the early stage of the study and it is not practical to present all that data in this forum. Therefore, presented here are some of the more important and interesting filldings thus far. Readers interested in more infoffilation can contact the authors directly for access to more results. Figures 5 and 6 show pseudosections from mid September, 1999. Figures 7, 8 and 9 (pgs. 19-20) show the results of electric drilling through October 1999, and Figure 10 (pg. 21) is a histogram of the precipitation data over the same time period. Data reduction Each resistivity measurement requires monitoring the current input (milliamps) and the potential output (voltage). For the Wenner array, relative resistivity is calculated with the following relationship, (J = 27fa(f1V/i) where cr is resistivity, a is the electrode spacing, av is the voltage potential, and i is the input current. The 21t factor is related to the geometry of current flow in the Wenner array (Telford et aI., 1990). For each survey, data files were generated that link resistivity measurements to 17

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specific points in the pseudosections or in the electric drill logs. These files were imported into the program SURFACE 111+ (Kansas Geological Survey, 1993) and contour diagrams were generated. Interpretations This study clearly documented that precipitation can drastically impact electrical resistivity measurements. Although large precipitation events have a large impact on subsurface electrical conductivity, small events are also very important. September 13, 1999-before Floyd 0.00 r-----,-----,---,--,.------,----,----,--.,---,.----,-----,---,--,.------,----,----,---,---,--------.,-----, -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 Figure 5: Pseudosection showing electrical resistivity variation at the RCFS site on September 13, 1999, prior to the precipitation event associated with tropical storm Floyd. Notice the zone of low conductivity on the right side of the survey. This zone probably represents a pile of boulders. September 17, 1999-after Floyd 0.00 ,------.,-----,---,--,.------,,-----,----,---,--,.------,.----,-----.--.,---,.------.,-----,---.---,-----,--, -2.00 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 Figure 6: Pseudosection showing electrical resistivity variation at the RCFS site on September 17, 1999, after the precipitation event associated with tropical storm Floyd. Notice the zone of low conductivity on the right side of the survey of Sept. 13 is substantially reduced in this survey. Additionally, the overall values of this pseudo section are lower than the Sept. 13 section. 18

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Impact ofa large precipitation event In early September 1999, the eastern coast of U.S.A. was impacted by hurricane Floyd. The tropical storm that reached central New York produced 52 mm of precipitation at the study site (Figure 10). Figures 5 and 6 show full Wenner pseudosections before and after Floyd. Overall resistivity values drop from the pseudosections of September 13 and 17, 1999. The zone of high resistivity values on the right side of Figure 5 is not apparent in Figure 6. These changes in resistivity are attributed to infiltration of precipitation related to Floyd. Dry rocks and soil are poor electrical conductors and typically result in resistivity values of greater than 300 ohm meters. Following the precipitation from Floyd the average resistivity values at the site ranged between 100 and 200 ohm-meters and high anomalies (interpreted as boulders) were electrically invisible. Groundwater percolation rate Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the results of electric drilling at the site through the month of October 1999. Periodic rain was followed by resistivity low anomalies that migrated downward through the surveys over time. We interpret these low anomalies to represent plumes of precipitation infiltrating downward into the ground. For example, the electric drilling diagrams from October 8th and 12th show sequential migration of a resistivity low anomaly following a minor precipitation event on October 8th (Figure 7). On October 13th a large precipitation event (Figure 10) was followed by a large low anomaly in the electric drill log on October 14th. Over a period of 4 days, the anomaly migrated from 0.25 meters to a depth of about 2 meters as seen in the log ofOctober 18th(Figure 8). Additionally, the log ofOctober 18thcontains a second low resistivity anomaly near the surface that appeared after a minor rain event on October 17th We interpret the appearance and migration of resistivity low anomalies through the section to represent fluid migration in the subsurface suggesting a rain infiltration rate of 0.5 to 1 meter per day at the site. References Cited Barker, R. D., 1981, The offset system of electrical resistivity sounding and its use with a multi core cable, Geophysical Prospecting, 29, p.128-143. Barker, R. D., 1989, Depth of investigation of collinear symmetrical four-electrode arrays, Geo physics, 54, no. 8,1031-1037. Drever,1. 1., 1988, The Geochemistry of Natural Waters, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 437 p. Erickson, C., Fox, J, Gray, B, Horne, M. Lafferty, 1., Sizemore, B., Smith, N, and Valentino, D, 1997, Geomorphology, resistivity variability and rate of mass wasting for a debris flow in the Appalachian Plateau, southern West Virginia, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, no. 1, p. 43. Ernston, K., and Scherer, H.D., 1986, Self-potential variations with time and their relation to hydrogeologic and meteorological parameters, Geophysics, 51, no. 10, p.1967 -1977. 19

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Frangos, W., 1997, Electrical detection of leaks in lined waste disposal ponds, Geophysics, 62, no. 6,1737-1744. Hem, J. D., 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, 3rd Ed., U.S.G.S. Water-Supply Paper 2254,264 p. Kansas Geological Survey, 1993, Surface 111+ Coutour Program, Lawrence, Kansas Knight, R., 1991, Hysteresis in the electrical resistivity of partially saturated sandstones, Geo physics, 56, no. 12, p.2139-2147. Knight, R., 1997, Introduction to this issue: Near-surface geophysics, The Leading Edge, 16, no.11, p.1589. Peavy, S. T. and Valentino, D. W., 1998, Electrical resistivity variations at the Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, New York, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, p. A179. Peavy, S. T. and Valentino, D. W., 1999, Electrical resistivity survey of the Rice Creek Field station, implications for groundwater distribution in the glacial terrain of north-central New York, Proceedings for SAGEEP meeting, San Diego, California. Robinson, E. S. and Coruh, C., 1988, Basic Exploration Geophysics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 562 p. Sen, P.N., and Goode, P.A., 1992, Influence of temperature on electrical conductivity on shaly sands, Geophysics, 57, no.1, p.89-96. Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., and Sheriff, R. E., 1990, Applied Geophysics, 2nd Ed., Cam bridge U. Press, New York, 770 p. Valentino, D. W. and Peavy, S. T., 1999, Variability of electrical resistivity at Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, New York: implications for the distribution of groundwater, Rice Creek Research Reports 1998, p. 1-19. 20

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October 1, 1999 October 8, 1999 October 12, 1999 0.25 --336 v:l I-< ----Q) S Q)'-' 236..t:: S.... 0.. 1 Q) ]Cl 136 Figure 7: Electric drilling results at Rice Creek Field Station for October 1, 8, and 12, 1999. All resistivity values are reported in units of Ohm-meters. 21 0 36 3.25 .............

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October 14, 1999 October 18, 1999 October 21, 1999 0.25 --3.25 .... ...1__ 58 581 Figure 8: Electric drilling results at Rice Creek Field Station for October 14, 18, and 21, 1999. All resistivity values are reported in units of Ohm-meters. en en ,-.. 334 '"' '"' S E E '-" Il) Il) ..c:: 234 E E..... I IQ., ] Ed) Cl 134 0 0 34 3.25-October 25, 1999 October 26,1999 0.25 -----, -----Figure 9: Electric drilling results at Rice Creek Field Station for October 25 and 26, 1999. All resistivity values are reported in units of Ohm-meters. 22

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30252015103025201510 o 60..,......--------------------------------. September October Date Figure 10: Precipitation data at the field site at Rice Creek Field Station during the months of September and October 1999. The spike in the data on September 16 is related to tropical storm Floyd. A Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Biological Field Station: Opportunities for Undergraduate Education 1 B. Diane Chepko-Sade, Department of Biology, Oswego State University A Survey of Small Mammal Populations has been carried out at Rice Creek Field Station each summer and fall from 1996 through 2000. The survey has consisted of live-trapping small mammals at 2-4 week intervals during the spring, summer and fall using medium sized Sherman live traps on four grids. Trapping stations in the grids are placed 10 meters apart to form a square 70 meters by 70 meters with 64 traps on each grid. Grid locations represent four different habitats at the Rice Creek Field Station: a pine plantation, an open field maintained by mowing on four year rotations in a mosaic pattern, an open field/early succession deciduous woods transition, and a mature deciduous forest. Results of the trapping surveys from 1996 1998 are reported elsewhere (Chepko-Sade, 1997, 1998, 1999). The research purpose of the survey has been to census the populations of small mammals present in four representative habitats at the field statiol1 to compare characteristics such as species composition, population densities and adult weights and measurements with those of small mammal populations in other environments that may be similar or different both geographically and ecologically. 1 This investigation was carried out at Rice Creek Field Station with financial support by Rice Creek Associates and by the Division of Continuing Education and the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Oswego State University. 23

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A second purpose of the study has been to provide undergraduate students at Oswego State University with an opportunity to participate in scientific research. It is in this area that the greatest advances have been made in the last two years (1999 and 2000). Since the beginning of the project, numerous volunteers have participated in the field work of setting and checking traps, but it is only in the 1999 and 2000 trapping seasons that students have actually designed and carried out their own research projects based on the data they have collected themselves supplemented by data collected during the annual trapping surveys. Prior to 1999, many students had participated in the project by assisting with the trapping as volunteers. I would post announcements when I would be trapping and students would volunteer to assist. Volunteers included my advisees, students in classes in which the opportunity was announced, and friends of students who had been trapping before. Many students told me that they welcomed the opportunity for hands-on work in biology. Their interest in animals was what had brought them to OSU, but their courses (particularly at the introductory level) seemed theoretical and distant from their real interest. The opportunity for fieldwork renewed their interest and gave them an opportunity to do biology instead of just learning about biology. In the fall of 1999, Dr. Andy Nelson, Rice Creek Field Station Director, and I decided to use the small mamnlal survey as the basis for student projects in a Problems in Biology course. Stu dents in Biology 392, Problenls in Biology: Small Mammal Populations, not only participated in field research, but also designed their own research projects. They were required to identify a topic to research, identify the data needed, decide 110W to collect it, and tllen work in teams to carry out the project. Data were transcribed into a database, and searches of the database were designed to obtain the necessary information. The classroom component of the course was taught in the Biology Computer Lab and the field component at Rice Creek Field Station. Student Research Projects of 1999 The students trapped all four grids four times during September and October of 1999. There were 12 students in the class, and Biology major David Niven, my trapping assistant from the summer of 1999, served as teaching assistant. Four to six students helped with each trapping session. Traps were set on two grids about an hour before sunset and checked at first light for nocturnal animals. Traps were reset and checked at noon or 1 :00 PM for diurnal animals. After the afternoon check, traps were removed from the first two grids and then set at dusk on the other two grids. Traps were checked on these grids at dawn and midday, and then removed. After the first trapping session students were encouraged to develop tlleir own research projects within the context of the small mammal survey. They could work in groups and could use any information that the class collected, any additional information that they wished to collect, and any information that had been collected on the mammals at Rice Creek Field Station prior to the course. The following projects emerged: Effects of botfly infestations on the survivorship of the White footed mouse, (Peromyscus leucopus). Life history characteristics of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus). Effects of mowing (in fields) on trapping success. 24

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Home range size of Peromyscus leucopus in different habitats. Are small mammals more likely to enter clean traps or dirty traps, and does it matter what species occupied the trap previously when traps were not cleaned? I will briefly summarize the methods used by each group and their findings. Most projects con cluded with suggestive but inconclusive results, but while their results were typically inconclu sive, all students completed the course wit4 a deeper understanding of scientific research. Many of these pilot studies are being redesigned or refined and are being followed up by subse quent groups of students. Effects ofbotfly infestations on the life history ofthe White footed mouse, (Peromyscus leucopus) The students studying botfly infestations in white-footed mice had noticed that the botfly larvae (at 1-1.5grams) are huge in relation to the 18-22 gram mice, and they wondered how having these parasites might affect survival of the mice. They read extensive literature on the subject, and found that there was no difference reported in survivorship of wild mice with and without botflies. Experimental evidence from a laboratory setting indicated that there was no difference in survivorship, however the mice tested were in captivity throughout the experiment, and each had been infested with only one botfly. Infestations of up to three botfly larvae are not uncom mon in the field, and may so severely encumber an animal as to make it at greater risk of preda tion. The students calculated survivorship curves for all of the Peromyscus leucopus that were trapped at Rice Creek in 1999 and found that mice with zero or one botfly larvae showed a greater life expectancy than those with two or three botfly larvae (based on whether or not they were trapped on subsequent trap dates in the season). The results were not statistically signifi cant, however, because the sample size was too small, and no animals marked in one year were ever seen the following year. The students pointed out that since trapping typically ends in Oc tober and begins in June, there is a 7-8 month hiatus during which we have no information on the mice. Since members of this species seldom survive longer than a year in the wild, they suggested that we shorten the interval between the end of fall trapping and the beginning of trapping in the spring to get a better understanding of Peromyscus survivorship in this locality. A paper reporting these results was presented at Quest 2000 (a research symposium for faculty and students held yearly at OSU) by Biology major Heather Hibbert who then worked as a field assistant helping me with the trapping during the season of 2000. In the 2000 trapping season we started trapping in April and continued up to November 8th Life history characteristics ofthe eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) The students studying Tamias striatus found that the longest-lived chipmunks that we had been able to document by fall of 1999 had reached only two years of age. As the survey continues, data from additional years should give us better information on the question of lifespan. The literature on Chipmunks indicates that chipmunks in Vermont and Pennsylvania may live as long as 7 years (Tyron and Snyder, 1973). A comparison between chipmunks at Rice Creek Field Station (RCFS) and those at Cranberry Lake Field Station (CLBS) (in the Adirondack State Park in Northern New York State) revealed that spring juvenile chipmunks from RCFS weighed significantly less than spring juvenile chip munks at CLBS during the same years. The chipmunks at RCFS live in three habitats: a scotch 25

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pine plantation, an old field undergoing succession into woods, and a mature deciduous woods dominated by beech trees and sugar maples. Chipmunks at CLBS live in a mature beech-maple yellow birch forest. A survey of trees species and sizes at RCFS was compared with a similar survey carried out at CLBS. This comparison did not reveal major differences in forest compo sition, but the mature forest at RCFS covers only a few acres and is surrounded by younger for est and fields while the forest at CLBS extends over thousands of acres of the Adirondack Park. It seems likely that the chipmunks at CLBS are able to gather much more mast in the fall than those at RCFS. Perhaps additional stored food at CLBS is enough not only to sustain mothers over the winter but also to provide food for their young in early spring. This project was pre sented by Biology major Christine Short at Quest 2000, and was further expanded in an intern ship by her during the summer of 2000. Effects ofmowing on trapping success This student group analyzed the mowing records for two fields at Rice Creek Field Station and compared trapping records for areas that had been mowed within one year, 2 years, 3 years and 4 years. They found that few animals were trapped in areas that had been mowed within a few months, but areas mowed within 2-3 years yielded more animals than those that had been mowed less recently. These findings suggest that the field voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) and jumping mice (Zapus hudsonius) require some cover, but may be able to get more food from the tender shoots of plants in the earlier stages of recovery from mowing. Data again were too sparse for significant results, but interesting enough to warrant further study. Home range size ofPeromyscus leucopus in different habitats To study home ranges, students powdered animals trapped with a phosphorescent powder be fore releasing them where they were trapped. The phosphorescent powder came off or was brushed off onto limbs and leaves where the animal walked, providing trails that the students could follow after dark by illuminating the area with an ultraviolet light. This was one of the more exciting parts of the course, as the students met after dark at the field station and trooped out into the woods with flashlights, then turned all the flashlights off and turned the UV light on to find first a large glowing spot where the animal was released, then perfect little pink or green glowing mouse footprints, then smaller and smaller bits of phosphorescent powder left by the animals. A numbered flag was placed each place that the trail turned and students returned to map the trails later in daylight. Direction and distance were recorded and entered into Turbo Cad, a computer assisted drawing program which gave accurate maps of each animal's powder trail in relation to the grid on which it was trapped and the trails of others caught on the same grid. The trails provided useful information on how animals use the forest or field (students were surprised and intrigued to find that about half of the white-footed mouse trails went up trees, sometimes 5 meters or more). The method also provided a means for estimating home range of the animal. Unfortunately, it takes at least three trappings and powdering of the same individual to obtain reliable home range estimates, and variances were simply too great to see if there were any differences between home ranges of animals in different habitats or of different genders. 26

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Are small mammals more likely to enter clean traps or dirty traps, and does it matter what species occupied the trap previously? This project was one of the most ambitious, and ultimately failed for lack of records on the con dition of the traps that animals didn't enter. It provided a valuable lesson, however, in that it is just as important in science to record what didn't happen as to record what did. After the first weekend we washed all the traps in bleach water. Then at the beginning of the second trapping session all traps were clean. Each time an animal was trapped, a sticker was put on the trap in dicating what species was trapped and when. As dirty traps accumulated, grids were set with dirty and clean traps alternating. Then, each time an animal was trapped, it was recorded whether the animal had entered a clean trap or a dirty trap, what the species trapped was, and what animal had been in the trap previously. The students had hypothesized that rodents would 110t enter traps previously occupied by shrews (a predator) but would enter traps previously oc cupied by other rodents. It was expected that shrews would enter traps previously occupied by rodents, but might not enter a trap previously occupied by shrews, depending on whether the previous occupant was of the same sex or the opposite sex. They found differences between the number of clean traps entered and dirty traps entered, but were unable to perform meaningful statistics because they had failed to record how many clean traps and how many dirty traps had been set on each grid and so were available to enter. Learning Outcomes of the Problems Course in 1999 Four trapping sessions over a two-month period gave the students enough data to work with, but not so n1uch that they were overwhelmed. Data were transcribed by the students into an Ex cel spreadsheet from data collection sheets that they had designed and from the field notebook in which I record trapping data. Data were sorted in Excel and a new spreadsheet was created which included only those variables necessary for the student's own analysis. This spreadsheet was read into StatView, a statistical application, in which students carried out their statistical tests. All of the students were juniors and sel1iors and most l1ad had statistics, but most were unsure of how to use even the most basic statistical tests on real data. Once they were shown, however, I think that they not only understood their data better, but also had a better under standing of the application of statistics. We find that most undergraduates do not like to read articles in scientific journals. Material they find in popular magazines such as National Geographic or Discover is much more accessi ble to them. They are stopped by technical language and by mathematical treatment of data. Going through all the steps of collecting, organizing and analyzing their own data gave the stu dents a deeper appreciation of procedures that had beel1 used in collecting the data discussed in journal articles they read. With deeper understanding came a greater ability to critique and evaluate articles tl1ey were reading. What had been incomprehensible to read before began to make sense. Students are accustomed to reading and comparing articles written by different authors, but have little experience comparing what they read with what they observe. Perhaps the greatest value of the course was the opportunity to collect data and analyze results and then see how they compare with results that others have obtained using similar methods. When students try to understand why their results differ from those in the literature they begin to really understand the importance of sample size and consistency of data collection methods and analyses. This is when science becomes transformed from something they learn about to something they can do. 27

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Expansion of Teaching Objectives for the 2000 Season Andy Nelson and I felt that the experience of designing and carrying out research projects of their own was extremely valuable for the juniors and seniors in our Problems in Biology course. We decided to expand the experience the following year. Inquiry based learning in the sciences is being emphasized for students of all ages, and yet, for many of our students, this problems course was their first research experience. We felt that if students could be exposed to research during their freshman year, their experience in many of their subsequent biology classes would be altered. They might begin to see the material in their textbooks as conclusions drawn from inquiries like their own rather than simply "the facts" not to be questioned. We decided to design a course for freshmen that would provide training in the use of computers in biology within the context of designing and carrying out their own research projects. Each computer exercise in the course was related to data collected as part of the small mammal popu lation survey. One writing assignment was a paper comparing popular literature to scientific journal articles. We took the students to the library to see how and where to look for biological literature, and had them search the library's databases for literature on the topics they had cho sen. We introduced them to Rice Creek Field Station and the small mammal population survey, and required them to participate in the fieldwork at least twice. Many returned again and again to help with setting and checking traps. Many had never gotten up so early before, but were re warded for their efforts by getting to see flying squirrels, jumping mice, and, in one session, a weasel. One student helped as much with the powder tracking as the upperclassmen. We had the freshmen assist in data collection, and then develop an experimental design for their own research projects, using data that had been collected during that field season or any of the previ ous four field seasons. The database that students had worked with in 1999 was a large Excel spreadsheet with all the trapping data from 1996 through 1999. We wanted students to have the experience of working with a relational database system, both in entering the data they had collected and in designing searches and reports to obtain subsets of the data on which to carry out their analyses. We de cided to design a database in Access, an application in Microsoft Office. Zoology major Dori Falzano worked the summer of 2000 as an intern organizing all the data in an Excel spread sheet, proofreading it and removing errors and inconsistencies. Andy Nelson designed a data base for the data in Microsoft Access and entered the trapping data from 1996 through 2000 from Dori's spreadsheet. Zoology major Katie Costanzo worked as field assistant during the fall of 2000, helping with the trapping and entering the rest of the Fall 2000 data. Long Range Educational Objectives for Undergraduates Involved in Field Research at Rice Creek Field Station Many undergraduates majoring in Biology and Zoology at OSU begin their college career knowing that they are interested in biology, but knowing little about what jobs or lines of study are available to them in the field. Some know that they are interested in the el1vironnlent, but don't know how to go about pursuing their interest. Courses in which students engage in re search within the context of a larger ongoing research project give students the opportunity to not only learn about research, but to participate in it and see first-hand if it is something they are interested in. Katie Costanzo has just been accepted for graduate school in environmental con servation biology at Illinois State University. Christine Short is now working for the National 28

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Oceanic Atmospheric Administration helping to maintain populations of targeted fish species and keeping them from becoming depleted. She works aboard fishing ships off the coast of Alaska, recording species, taking measurements of fish caught, and making sure that only legal fish species are kept. The research skills that both students developed assisting in the small mammal survey at Rice Creek Field Station were important considerations in their acceptance into the programs they are now in. Not all of our students choose to go to graduate school or into research. Erica Lyons, a student in the 1999 Small Mammal Populations course graduated with a bachelor's degree in secondary education and is now teaching Biology in the Oswego School District. She told me that her ex perience in that course provided her with valuable training in how to teach her high school stu dents about biology as a process rather than as a compendium of facts to memorize. It is these educational impacts on our students that are perhaps the most valuable outcome of the ongoing survey of small mammal populations at Rice Creek Field Station. Literature Cited: Chepko-Sade, B. D., 1997. Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Field Station. In Rice Creek Research Reports 1996, Ed. A. P. Nelson, pp. 11-14. Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, NY Chepko-Sade, B. D., 1998. A Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Field Station (Year 2)., In Rice Creek Research Reports 1997, Ed. A. P. Nelson, pp 30-34. Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, NY Chepko-Sade, B. D., 1999. A Survey of Small Mammal Populations at Rice Creek Field Sta tion (Year 3)., In Rice Creek Research Reports 1998, Ed. A. P. Nelson, pp 20-24. Rice Creek Field Station, Oswego, NY Tyron, C. A. and D. P. Snyder, 1973. Biology of the Eastern Chipmunk, Tamias striatus: Life Tables, age Distributions, and Trends in Population Numbers. Journal ofMammalogy, Vol. 54, No 1. 29

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Research Related Publications from Rice Creek Field Station Bulletins: Shearer, R. I. (ed.)* 1974 Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin. Vol I. No.1. SUNYOswego. Contents: Limnological Data Collected From Little Sodus Bay 4 Kundell, J. E. A Chemical and Physical Comparison ofLittle Sodus Bay, Port Bay, Sodus Bay, and Ironde quoitBay 7 Spafford, R. A. The Distribution ofMicrocrustaceans at the MudWater Interface ofLittle Sodus Bay 32 Del Prete, K. Phosphate and Nitrate Study ofLittle Sodus Bay During Winter Ice Cover and Early Spring, 1972 45 Tritman, N. D. Chlorophyll and Phaeophytin Determination ofa Phytoplankton COl1zmunity During and After Ice Cover 52 Shearer, R. I. An Investigation of the Vertical Distribution ofthe Meiiobenthos ofLittle Sodus Bay 59 Bocsor, J. G. Seasonal and Vertical Distribution ofZooplankton in Little Sodus Bay 66 Hickey, John T. 1971. The Flora ofthe Vascular Plants ofthe Rice Creek Biological Field Station. IN: Shearer, Robert I. (ed.) 1974. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin Vol. 1 NO.2. SUNY Oswego. Maxwell, George R., Gerald A. Smith, Patricia A. Ruta, and Thonlas L. Carrolan. 1976. Prelbninary Bird and Associated Vegetational Studies for Navigation Season Extension on the St. Lawrence River. IN : Shearer, Robert I. (ed.) 1974. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin Vol. 3. SUNY Oswego. Smith, Gerald S., Andrew Bieber, Michael K. Bollenbacher, Joseph D. Brown, Theresa A. Dillon, Deborah Dosch, Carol 1. Elliott, Angelo Giordano, and Paul T. Meier. 1977. Habitat and Wildlife Inventory: Guide to Coastal Zone Lands, Oswego County, New York. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin Vol. 4. SlTNY Oswego. Smith, Gerald A. and James M. Ryan. 1978. Annotated Checklist ofthe Birds ofOswego County andNorthern Ca yuga County, New York. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin NO.5. SlTNY Oswego. Weeks, John A. 1988 Guidelines to Environmental Managel1zent at Rice Creek Field Station. Rice Creek Field Sta tion Bulletin No.6. SUNY Oswego Fosdick, Craig. R. 1995. The Birds ofOswego County: An Annotated Checklist. Rice Creek Field Station Bulletin No.7. SUNY Oswego Check Lists.(Pocket Format): Maxwell, George C. 2000 Birds ofCentral New York, Daily Field Check-List (revised). Rice Creek Field Station. SUNY Oswego. Weber, Nicholas. 1997. Field Check List of Butterflies. Rice Creek Field Station, SUNY Oswego. Research Reports: Nelson, Andrew P. (ed). 1997. Rice Creek Research Reports: 1996. Rice Creek Field Station. SUNY Oswego. _________ 1998. Rice Creek Research Reports: 1997. Rice Creek Field Station. SUNY Oswego. _________ 1999. Rice Creek Research Reports: 1998. Rice Creek Field Station. SUNY Oswego. Publication is out of print. Photocopies may be available on request. A fee will be charged. 30