Rice Creek Field Station Bulletin No. 3: Preliminary Bird and Associated Vegitational Studies for Navigation Season Extension on the St. Lawrence River

Material Information

Rice Creek Field Station Bulletin No. 3: Preliminary Bird and Associated Vegitational Studies for Navigation Season Extension on the St. Lawrence River
Series Title:
Rice Creek Research
Maxwell, George ( author )
Smith, Gerald ( author )
Ruta, Patricia ( author )
Carrolan, Thomas ( author )
Shearer, Robert ( author )
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Rice Creek Field Station


The avian component constitutes a visible and vital part of the St. Lawrence River Ecosystem. In numbers of species, birds are the most abundant vertebrates with 260+ species occurring regularly in the region. They range from common species such as the Herring Gull and Red-winged Blackb1rd to the rare and endangered Bald Eagle and Osprey. See Preliminary checklist and notes sections which follow this section. The ornithological history of the region is relatively brief and much of the area is poorly known. In recent years some light has been shed on the status of the birds of the river by observers in the Kingston, Ontario area (Quilliam 1973) and by other local observers. These observations, plus those derived from the study, have provided some preliminary data on the characteristics of the birds of the river region. Some of these aspects will be briefly noted in this report.
General Note:
This issue contains selected parts of the "Preliminary Bird Studies for Navigation Season Extension on the St. Lawrence River --1976" submitted to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service under Contract No. 14-160005-6067 through the Office of Sponsored Research, SUNY Oswego. This one aspect of the environmental study is being conducted in response to the proposed pl ans to modify the St. Lawrence River so that year round commercial shipping is possible. The authors formed a study team conducting field work along the river from late f1ay to late August. College and university teams from New York State and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation are in the process of conducting one of the largest environmental studies ever done on such a river system. In attempting to make year-round navigation possible, ice breakinq, dredging, and construction of ice booms and four nuclear power plants are planned. It is the goal of these teams to gather background data in their respective study areas so that assessments may be made of the possible effects such a project would have upon the avian fauna of the river ecosystem. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has deemed it necessary to conduct such studies for a six year period to adequately assess the potential impacts of the proposed project. Robert I. Shearer Editor
General Note:
Submitted by Shannon Pritting ( on 2011-06-22.
General Note:
Made available in DSpace on 2011-06-22T18:08:14Z (GMT).
General Note:
Office of Research and Sponsored Programs, SUNY Oswego

Record Information

Source Institution:
SUNY Oswego
Holding Location:
SUNY Oswego
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Related Items

Related Item:

OswegoDL Membership

Rice Creek Research


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text


\ \ 3 0263 00214358 2 State University of New York College of Arts and Science at I" ...--::::-:-..... /,"./' .. ---------====___..: Biological ; Field Station // .. ,--. .....:;..._. ':,' .i BULLfTln OSVVEGO


"I'.......v.3 CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION Volume 3 1976 Preliminary Bird and Associated Vegatational Studies for Navigation Season Extension on the St. Lawrence River by George R. r,1axwell 11* Gerald A. Smith Patri ca A. Ruta Thomas L. Carrolan Edited by Robert I. Shearer Assistant Director Rice Creek Biological Field Station State University College Oswego, NY 13126 *Dr. George R. Maxwell II is Director of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station and Professor of Zoology. Gerald A. Smith is a Research Associate at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station. Patrica A. Ruta is in undergraduate study at the Colleqe of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, NY. Thomas L. Carrolan is a science teacher at the Henderson Central School, Henderson, NY. 323728


Previous Bulletins: Volume 1 No.1 Limnological Studies Volume 1 No.2 Flora of Rice Creek Bioloqical Field Station Initially this publication was puhlished with a goal of producinq two issues per year. Two issues (the above) were published in 1974. Since then it hns been decided only one issue will be published each year. Volume 2 Ecological Study of Rice 1969-1975


IrITRODUCnOfI This issue contains selected parts of the IIPrel iminary Bird Studies for tlavigation Season Extension on the St. Lav/rence -197G II submitted to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service under Contract flo. 14-160005-6067 through the Office of Sponsored Research, SUrlY, OSHego. This one aspect of the environmental study is being conducted in response to the proposed pl ans to modi fy the St. Lawrence River so that year round commercial shipping is possible. The authors formed a study team conducting field '.'Iork along the river from late f1ay to late August. College and university teams from Ne\1 York State and the rlew York State Department of Environmental Conservation are in the process of conducting one of the largest environmental studies ever done on such a river system. In attempting to make year-round nav.igation possible, ice breakinq, dredging, and construction of ice booms and four nuclear power plants are planned. It is the goal of these teams to gather background data in their respective study areas so that assessments may be made of the possible effects such a project would have upon the avian fauna of the river ecosystem. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has deemed it necessary to con duct such studies for a six year period to adequately assess the potential impacts of the propos-;d project. Robert I. Shea rer Edi tor


2 TABLE OF CONTEnTS Introduction 1 Bird Characteristics of the St. Lav/rence River 3 Prel iminary checkl ist of the birds of the St. Lawrence River.. 23 tJotes on the birds of the St. La\'Jrence Ri vcr, York in 1976 Prel iminary sampl ing resul ts summary . 33 Prel iminary Study of the vegetation along the St. LavJrence River in Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties, fJew York 42


.1 Bird Characteristics of the St. Lawrence River The avian component constitutes a visible and vital part of the St. Lawrence River Ecosystem. In numbers of species, birds are the most abundant vertebrates with 260+ species occurring regularly in the region. They range from common species such as the Herring Gull and Red-winged Blackb1rd to the rare and endangered Bald Eagle and Osprey. See Preliminary checkllst notes sections which follow this section. The ornithological history of the region is relatively brief and much of the area is poorly known. In recent years some light has been shed on the status of the birds of the river by observers in the Kingston, Ontario area (Quilliam 1973) and by other local observers. These observations, plus those derived from the study, have provided some preliminary data on the characteristics of the birds of the river region. Some of these aspects will be briefly noted in this report. Historical Notes Samuel de Champlain, the first white man to visit the region, said he saw II many cranes white as swans ll (Grant 1907). The identification of these birds seen in 1615 is open to conjecture. P. A. Taverner, prominent Canadian ornithologist, believed these were Whooping Cranes, but a case could be made for Great Egrets. Champlains Whooping Cranes may regularly have passed through this area some three hundred years ago. The fact that his records of these birds are for September through late October may justify the term "many to describe their nunbers. There is a specimen to lend some credibility to the Whooping Crane idea (Quilliam 1973). Champlain mentioned white swams in his journals and the Whistling Swan and Trumpeter Swan (less in nunber than Whistling Swan) are what he was talking about. The Hudson Bay Company did quite a business in swan feathers between the years 1853, when trade was excellent, to around 1890 when they ran out of swans (Quilliam 1973). Writers at the turn of the century declared that Golden and Bald Eagles were in trouble. Beaupre had a hard time getting two museum specimens of Golden Eagle in 1901 (Whiteaves 1902). This may be because the Golden Eagle was not ever a common bird in our area. Young (Macoun 1909) wrote IIThis bird (Bald Eagle) is fast becoming scarce in eastern Ontario ll Quilliam (1973) documents the nesting decline up to the last nest in 1957 on the St. Lawrence River. The Bobwhite moved into the St. Lawrence River area in the 1840 as the land was cleared (Quilliam 1973). The advance was short-lived, as Eaton (1910,1914) attributed their decline to cats and hunters. The Piping Plover formerly bred in the St. Lawrence River area. The last nesting records occur in 1903, and human disturbance on the few sandy beaches along the St. Lawrence is the probable cause of its retreat south (Hyde 1939). Another shorebird species once enjoyed rare status along the River. The Eskimo Curlew strayed off its flyways along the Great Plains and Atlantic coast to be collected a number of times on the River (Qui11iam 1973).


4 The Passenger Pigeon had a sinlilar demise in the St. Lawrence River area as elsewhere. Its history ran from the first reports in 1842 to the last known nesting near Kingston in 1898 (Quilliam 1973). Alexander Wilson (1828) comments that the Common Raven was indeed common in this area in the early 1800's. Wilson visited Niagara Falls in 1804 and noted that crows were hardly seen and that ravens abounded. It may be an indication of what a lot of wilderness can provide, and the area of the St. Lawrence River probably provided suitable habitat at the time. Modern records of birds along the U.S. side of the St. Lawrence River began with liThe Kingbird ll N.V.S. Federation of Bird Clubs publication, in 1950. This ended a period of sporadic literature where only unusual or rare sightings were printed as isolated field notes. The first checklist of birds for this area was titled: "Checklist-Region VI: St. Lawrence, Lewi s, Jefferson Counti es II and it was put together by a comnittee of the North Country Bird Club. The list covered "all species actually seen in the region between January 1, 1950 and January 1, 1960" and lIis appended showing species reported previous to 1950 11 (Allen, et. ale 1960). The NVSFBC Winter Waterfowl Census published yearly in liThe Kingbird", now gathers information on wintering birds along the River. These censuses have contributed data on non-waterfowl species as well as the species they are intended to census. There are now two Christmas Counts on the river: One has its center at customs on Wellesley Island (Holroyd 1975) and the other is an unpublished count with its center at the Massena power dam. In summary, the decline of most species mentioned reflects the decline in the quality of the environment. There are, however, some ex ceptions. The declining Golden Eagle probably was not common in the first place. The Bobwhite received encouragement to enter this area, and succumbed to the winters as well as to cats and hunters. But the other former residents and visitors have truly been lost. Changes in conditions created intolerable situations not only here but in much of the area where species once claimed. Species composition Of the 260+ species regularly visiting the river a majority occur as migrants with slightly fewer birds breeding and still fewer wintering. A complete list of species with seasonal distribution may be found in the followinq sections. The species composition may be lumped into a variety of artificial non-taxonomic groups based mainly on general habitat preferences. The waterbirds, including loons, grebes, cormorant, herons, constitute a group of species frequently on the river. Waterfowl including swans, geese and ducks occur in considerable numbers at all seasons and provide an important group from an economic point of view. Raptorial birds, in cluding hawks and owls, constitute the higher trophic levels among the species of the area. In addition this group is of particular importance as environmental indicators as most species are quite sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Marsh birds including rails and herons of several species are common in areas of favorable habitat. Con


centrations of 25+ species of shorebirds may be seen along all parts of the river during migration. Among the most visible forms occurring on the river are the gulls and terns. Land birds, including most of the families of the order Passeriformes, frequent all habitat types on the islands and near shore river areas. The species composition of the birds of.the river exhibits marked seasonal variation as many of the forms are highly migratory. As maybe seen from the species list which follows, relatively few species occur in all seasons. From the available data, and comparable information from areas such as Oswego County, rJev!J York, a rough outline of seasonal occurrence may be considered. The Migration Periods Sprin g It appears that noticeable spring migration in the St. Lawrence River valley begins March 15 when numbers of early migrants such as waterfowl and some hawks begin to move north. Prior to this time some migration of Horned Lark and Snow Bunting and a few other species may occur but such movements are .highly dependent upon weather conditions and are difficult to document as these species winter in the area in some numbers. During March 15 to March 30 Red-winged Blackbirds, Common Grackles and a variety of other early migrants arrive and species that have wintered, including Tree Sparrow and Redpoll, begin to depart. The Anseriformes (geese and ducks) are the first-noticed order that is thoroughly represented in the spring. Wilson Hill Wildlife ManagementArea, near Waddington, and the Robert Moses Power Dam impoundments near Massena provide collecting points for returning species (Webb et al 1972). The Anatinae (surface-feeders) are the dominant group of early arrivals well into April, along with the Hooded Merganser. The Aythyinae (diving ducks) and other Merginae (mergansers) begin then and are recorded into mid-May. Spring data for the Aythyinae is not as complete as for the Anatinae. The Ruddy Duck is absent from the spring data. The Red-winged Blackbird and Eastern Meadowlark are welldocumented migrants in early March in adjacent areas. The Scolopacidae (shorebirds) is one of the largest migratory families, but only the Common Snipe, and American Woodcock are accurately documented for the spring period. Other shorebird records are spotty and scattered throughout From April 1 to April 15 the migratory tide swells when more waterfowl, waterbirds such as Common Loon and Great Blue Heron, and numbers of landbirds including Common Flicker and Eastern Meadowlark, arrive. After April 15 spring migration intensity increases in the area (T. Carrolan pers. comm.). It is likely that sizeable hawk flights occur, particularly in western sectors, with the Broad-winged Hawks as the dominant species. Other species such as Bald Eagle, Osprey, Golden Eagle and Peregrine Falcon probably occur more frequently than has been noted previously. The first species of insectivorous birds including


6 Tree Swallow, Barn Swallow and Myrtle Warbler should arrive in this period. Large movements of diurnal migrants probably occur along the south shore of the river at this time. Movement among the Corvidae (crows and jays), Sittidae (nuthatches), and Sylviidae (kinglets) shows early return from to the first week in May. May is the peak of migration throughout the northeast and no doubt this is the case along the river. The Vireonidae and Parulidae (vireos and warblers) are fairly well documented from May 1 to May 31 by the North County Bird Club1s May Census, but few records exist before 1. The May census does provi de good data, the bes t for any of the spring groups, and with some exceptions the best arrival date information. Among the Fringillidae (finches) the Savannah Sparrow, Song Sparrow, and Chipping Sparrow have consistent arrival data. The spring migration involves many more species than those described here, but adequate data are not available on them. The expansion northward of sorre southern species has reached the Massena end of the river and new spring records have been recorded. Near Kingston, some southern species have become new breeding species. The Turkey Vulture, Cardinal, Grasshopper Sparrow, and Golden-wingedWarbler have appeared since 1950 (Quilliam 1973). The Mockingbird, Cattle Egret and Blue-gray Gnatcatcher have made their appearance since 1965. The Golden-winged Warbler and Cattle Egret have not yet been observed at the Massena end of the river. Fa 11 The post-breeding migration is much longer than spring migration, lasting from early July to early December. In general it is the reverse of the spring with those species that arrived last departing first and those arriving first departing last. July is characterized by shorebird flights, and in August numbers of shorebirds, warblers, flycatchers and vireos occur in all sectors. The peak movements of terns, landbirds and probably Broad-winged Hawks occur in September. Sparrow flights of earlyOctober give way to species of waterfowl, crows' and sonle hawks by rronths end. In November, fl ights of species occur similar to those of along with the arrival of wintering birds, such as Rough-Legged Hawk and Snowy Owl. By early Decernber most migrants have left and winter populations are well established. Breeding Season Breeding data are gathered by repeatedly visiting an area to establish patterns of occurrence and territory. Hyde (1939 )vi sited Thousand Islands and Ogdensberg woodlands and reported the frequency of the species he observed. A standard procedure for taking such a census has been established (Hall 1964 Van Vel zen 1972). Eskine (1956) and Edwards (1970 a,b) followed this procedure in conducting breeding bird census on Wolfe Island and Pigeon Island, respectively. --\ I


7 It appears from the sketchy data available that the diversified habitats of the river provide an extremely important nesting area for birds. A variety of species of both northern and southern affinities find nesting areas. The river and marsh areas provide nesting areas for waterbirds and waterfowl, Pied-billed Grebes, a variety of dabbling ducks, and perhaps Double-crested Cormorant nest here. The many islands of the river provide nesting habitat for Great Blue Herons, perhaps Bald Eagle, a variety of gulls, terns and some landbirds of limited breeding distribution in New York such as Pine Warbler. Proof of nesting is lacking for most species found along the St. Lawr'ence River. Mervin1s (1918) description of nests and young of the Common Tern was the first published breeding record for the area. Common (1933,1934) described six Ruby-throated Hummingbird nests and habitat and circumstances around which a Red-eyed Vireo nest was located. In 1967, the first record of a Turkey Vulture nest on Picton Island (Belknap 1968) was a new northern limit for this species. A goshawk nest on Wellesley Island contained two young in 1968 and has been successful most years since then. A Barn Owl, three young at Alexandria Bayin 1972, was the last of the documented breeding records for the river area within the United States. The colonial island nesting species of Pigeon Island, Ontario have a well-documented history. This history is mainly one of declining numbers for the Black-crowned Night Heron. Herring Gull, Common Tern and Caspian Tern. On a positive note, Pigeon Island was the site of first nesting record for the Cattle Egret and Great Black-backed Gull on the St. Lawrence River (Edwards 1961-73). Common Tern nesting records on the Eaglewing Group of shoals off Clayton, New York are found in Bull (1974). These shoals have not been visited recently to gather more information. Again in the American channel, Van Reit has located Common Tern and Ring-billed Gull colonies in the (pers. comm.) Breeding bird populations were studied in two areas along the river in June, 1976. Near Morristown a total of 28 species and 146 territorial males were found in a 20 acre (8.1 ha) plot. Similar high breeding densities were found near Waddington along Coles Creek where 21 speciesand 109 territorial males were found. Vegetational studies were completed on 20 acre plots to assess the habitat types available to breeding species along the river. While the peak of nesting activity occurs in June, many species con tinue breeding until the end of July and even well into August. As the reproductive period is one of the most critical in a bird1s life cycle, the importance of the river to many bird populations cannot be overemphasized. Wi nter The characteristics of winter bird populations along the St. Lawrence River are probably the least known of any season and among the least known of any area in New York State. Despite the relatively inhospitable climate,


considerable numbers of individuals and species may occur. The Bald Eagle, Gyrfalcon and Hawk Owl are extremely rare throughout much of the state but perhaps are more frequent along the river than is presently known. In addition, large numbers of northern species including Snowy Owl and Rough-legged Hawk utilize the area. Most winter species appear to be closely attached to the river and use it in a variety of ways. The importance of such factors as ice, snow cover and water level changes to the bird populations is at present unknown. The vaue of this area in winter to some of the less common species occurring in New York State makes a complete understanding of the status of winter bird populations vital to understanding possible impacts of navigation season extension. Winter Records Winter records along the St. Lawrence River are from two main sources: 1. the New York State Federation of Bird Clubs Annual Waterfowl Census and 2. the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count. The Waterfowl census, begun in 1955, collects information about wintering Gaviiformes, Podicipediformes, and Anseriformes. The sightings along the river are from one day's observation each year within a two week period during January. The Christmas bird count consists of one day's observation within an established fifteen mile diameter. The Thousand Islands, Ontario count (Holroyd 1974, Davis 1975) was first taken December 21, 1974 and an unpublished count at Massena, New York was first conducted December 27,1971. The Thousand Islands, Ontario count has been held twice and the Massena, New York count has been taken four times. From six counts, a summary of occurrences of species was compiled. Table 1: Occurrence of Wintering Species for the St. Lawrence River Areas Around the Thousand Islands Bridge and at Massena. a. Species seen on all six counts (four Massena and two Thousand Is 1ands ) Mallard Common Crow Black Duck Black-capped Chickadee Corrmon Go1deneye White-breasted Nuthatch Common Merganser Red-breasted Nuthatch Great Black-backed Gull Starl ing Herring Gull House Sparrow Rock Dove Cardinal Hairy Woodpecker Evening Grosbeak Blue Jay Tree Sparrow


b. Species seen on five of six counts Ruffed Grouse Northern Shrike Gray Partridge Pine Grosbeak Ring-billed Gull Common Redpo 11 Downy Woodpecker Snow Bunti ng c. Species seen on four of six counts Rough-legged Hawk Brown Creeper American Kest re 1 American Goldfinch Great Horned Owl Song Sparrow d. Species (not yet listed) seen on both Thousand Islands counts Canvasback Red-winged Blackbird Greater Scaup Common Grackl e Red-ta iled Hawk Brown-headed Cowbird Turkey Dark-eyed Junco Mourning Dove White-crowned Sparrow Horned Lark Lapland Longspur Eastern Meadowlark e. Species (not yet listed) seen on three of four Massena counts Iceland Gull Pine Siskin Gl aucous Gull Incursions or irruption of a few species can occur with regularity(every other year), be less common (every five years), or be unpredictable. Helen Quilliam (1973) has highlighted these peaks. Table 2: Peak Winter Incursions of Selected Species (Quilliam 1973). Common Redpoll: 1952-53, 1955-56, 1957-58 1959-60, 1961-62, 1965-66, 1968-69, 1969-70, 1971-72. Pine Siskin 1960-61 1963-64, 1969-70, 1971-72 Snowy Owl 1960-61, 1964-65, 1966-67, 1967-68 1971-72 Rough-legged Hawk: 1961-62, 1964-65, 1970-71, 1971-72 Unpredictable incursions have occurred for Bohemian Waxwings, Boreal Chickadees, and Hawk Owls. Although individuals may be reported anywinter, multiple sightings and flocks (in the case of Passeriformes) represent incursions. Individuals of species normally regarded as non-wintering have remained during the winter. American Robins, Eastern Meadowlarks, Red-winged Blackbirds, Eastern Bluebirds, and Great Blue Herons are examples of these species.


10 Table 3: New York State Federation of Bird Clubs Winter Waterfowl Census Summary.l Mute Swan: in 167 Whistling Swan: 3 in 175 Canada Goose: 14 in 164; 36 in 165; 2 in 174; in 176 Mall ards: 79 in 160 30 in 173 38 in 176 110in 169 8 in 174 20 in 172 6 in 175 Black Duck: 3 in 157 28 in 164 210 in 174 5 in 158 350 in 169 142 in 175 275 in 161 80 in 172 305 in 176 10 in 163 140 in 173 Gadwall: in 175 American Wigeon: 30 in 161; 50 in 163; 1 in 175 Redhead: 100 in 160; 6 in 163 Canvasback: 655 in 160; 20 in 161 ; 700 in 176 Grea ter Scaup: 1500 in 157 25 in 163 150 in 160 45 in 164 (7425 in 160)2 24 in 168 2500 in 161 10 in 174 (6195 in 161 ) 1 in 175 210 in 162 Common Goldeneye: 423 in 158 500 in 164 7 in 159 600 in 165 200 in 160 858 in 169 (5773 in 160) 59 in 170 297 in 161 40 in 172 (3645 in 161 ) 150 in 173 100 in 162 498 in 174 1934 in 163 130 in 175 (3443 in 163) 175 in 176 Bufflehead: 27 in 161; 1 in 176 01dsquad: 16 in 160; 75 in 171; 2 in 175 Hood Merganser: in 163; 1 in 172 Common Merganser: 50 in 157 400 in 165 42 in 158 3578 in 169 20 in 160 500 in 170 115 in 161 1500 in 172 (4536 in 161 ) 3700 in 173 25 in 162 3800 in 174 (787 in 163) 3920 in 175 230 in 164 4440 in 176 I


11 Red-breasted Merganser: in 161 American Coot: 1 in 176 lAlthough the data were published in the Kingbird, figures relating to the St. Lawrence River were obtained from the raw data of A. Allen and R. Walker. 2These numbers are from the aerial survey conducted in conjunction with the regular ground survey. Bird Distribution Along the St. Lawrence River The nearly 125 miles of the St. Lawrence River lying within New York State provides an area where avian distribution may vary considerably from one area to the next. While, in general, most areas of the river are somewhat similar in what species occur there during the course of a year, other facets of this occurrence may vary greatly. A number of sectors may be defined and the more apparent avian features of each noted. A. Tibbets Point in Clayton This sector may be one of the best areas for migratory birds due to the width of the channel and proximity to Lake Ontario. Wolfe Island in the Canadian channel harbors some of the highest concentrations of wintering birds of prey on the North American continent. Nearby islands, mostly in the Canadian channel, provide some of the best colonial waterbird breeding concentrations along the river. Quilliam (1973) notes that colonies of Common Tern, Caspian Tern and herons including the rare nesting Cattle Egret and uncommon Black-crowned Night Heron occur in this area. The few large islands in the channel probably all harbor numbers of wintering raptors. The open country character of the area provides large amounts of habitat for brush and field birds in all seasons, although somewhat less so in winter. These open country species along with waterfowl and waterbirds characterize this section of the river. B. Clayton to Oak Point This sector is dominated by the Thousand Islands area and seems to have a slightly different variety of avian inhabitants. The generally wooded character of the islands and shore east of Alexandria Bay pro vides niches for woodland species. In sunmer a variety of thrushes, vireos and warblers probably occur there. Hawks of the genus Accipiter are probably more frequent here at all seasons than elsewhere along the river. The many islands and channels provide habitat for diving ducks, nesting Great Blue Herons, and nesting, resting, and feeding areas for the Bald Eagle and Osprey. No recent proof of Bald Eagle or Osprey nesting exists. Bull (1974) however notes occurrence of Bald Eagle nests nearbly in years past so the possibility of present or future activity in the area exists. The exact status of species utilizing the island is little known and future work will doubt find the area to be productive for as yet unknown avian uses.


The marshes in this sector are perhaps the best areas of this specialized habitat along the river. Species linked to marshes such as Virginia Rail, Common Gullinule, Black Tern, and Long-billed Marsh Wren are probably more abundant here than in other sectors. In addition, these areas provide productive feeding areas for species nesting or occurring elsewhere, including the Common Tern. In late fall and early spring, the numerous island channels provide feeding and resting areas for large numbers of waterfowl. Data regarding migration and winter use of the islands is virtually non-existant but it appears likely that northern species including the rare Gyrfalcon may occur here'in very small numbers in winter. c. Oak Point to Ogdensburg The changing character of the river is reflected by subtle changes in the avian component present here. The woodland birds remain in suitable habitat but open country species are probably somewhat more prevalent. The steep face of the river shore escarpment provides the best habitat for the woodland species with the top of the escarpment utilized by the bushland and open country birds. The river in this sector has few islands and those present have little vegetation and are small. These islands and shoals are probably used as nesting, feeding, and resting areas for several species of gulls and terns and loafing areas for waterfowl. The open character of the river provides a number of good observation areas for the species of waterfowl and other birds which probably occur in numbers. Apparently numbers of small landbirds may pile up along escarpment in fall migration. As with other areas the winter birds of this area are little known. D. Ogdensburg to Waddington The birds of this sector seem somewhat similar to those of the eastern portions of the previous sector. The area is somewhat open and contains a number of bushy areas. The birds of large islands, such as Galop, are virtually unknown and it may only be speculated that their open field habitat provides areas for numbers open country raptors and landbirds. Gull concentrations will be noted on the few shoal areas which exist and waterfowl occur in flocks throughout. Open scrub areas such as those near the Iroquois Dam may be favored by American Kestrel, Short-eared. Owl, Eastern Kingbird and other such species. In general, this sector is quite similar in its dominant avian species to that of the Oak Point Ogdensburg sector. E. Waddington to Roosevelttown This area is characterized by a variety of streams and small river related habitats, much open bush country and the shoreline areas around the area called Lake St. Lawrence. The numerous shallow embayments and creek outlets are important to a variety of species less frequent farther west. Shorebirds are more numerous here than elsewhere along the river. Large numbers of watefowl, particularly geese and dabbling ducks, are found in the Wilson Hill Game tanagement The waterbird contingent in the area is well represented by species, with requirements for shore and shallow areas. Extensive numbers of gulls of several species frequent the area, particularly near Waddington, and in Robert Moses State


13 Park. Osprey were noted several times during the course of the pre liminary study and a Bald Eagle was seen. The islands probably harbor a variety of breeding birds which may be quite different from those of the Thousand Islands. The more shallow shoreline character of these islands and their marshes may pro vide habitat for a variety of usual species. John Bull (pers. comm.)mentioned an unconfirmed report of nesting Yellow Rail and Wilson1s Phalarope in nearby Canadian waters. If either species were to occur as nesters in our area it would be an event of considerable significance. The species inhabiting this sector of the river are among those most likely to be affected by water level changes and other developments related to navigation season extension. Bird Habitat-Environment Requirements A brief synopsis of the habitat and environment requirements of the birds occurring along the St. Lawrence River follows. The general requirements are noted by family and representative species mentioned where appropriate. Gaviidae -Loons Two species occur mainly as migrants and frequent all open water areas. Loons feed upon small fish and invertebrates obtained by diving. The Common Loon might potentially breed in some secluded 'bays. in the area. Loons are generally elusive, shy birds of open water found most often as migrants on large bodies of water. The river probably provides important habitat for loons in migration. Reports from a number of sources indicated that loons are severely affected by oil and many loons are oiled during oil spills. Podicipedidae -Grebes Three species occur here; only one breeds here. They frequent all types of aquatic habitats and generally breed in marshes. Food is mainly fish and aquatic invertebrates obtained by diving. Unlike loons, which are basically found in singles or small groups in migration, grebes may occur in flocks, responding to schools of small fish present. Phalacrocoracidae -Cormorants One species occurs and another species may occur. These large diving birds feed upon small fish and some invertebrates. Colonies may occur on islands in the river which could be very important as the status of the species on the Great Lakes and vicinity appears tenuous (Shariff pers.comm.). Cormorants frequent all open areas of water but are not in marshes. Man-made structures are often used as perches by cormorants. Nesting requires islands with some trees and relatively free from disturbance.


14 Ardeidae -Herons About seven species occur and five may breed in the area. They nest on wooded islands, bushy islands, marshes and stream side areas. Herons feed on fish, frogs, invertebrates and a variety of other small animals usually obtained by stalking in shallow areas and spearing prey. They are both solitary and colonial nesters-requiring secluded areas for breeding. Anatidae -Waterfowl Sub-family Cyginae -Swans Two species are uncommon along the river in migration. They feed in shallow areas by dabbling and extending their necks below the surface to obtain aquatic vegetation. Most often they frequent bays, marshes and other shallow areas. Sub-family Anserinae -Geese The familiar Canada Goose and two other species occur here. Geese feed on aquatic vegetation and also feed in upland areas in cornfields. The nesting population around Wilson Hill probably prefers hummocks in marshes and other semi-aquatic areas for nesting. Large rafts of Canada Geese occur on all open water areas along the river. They feed in the marshes and uplands. Sub-family Anatinae -Dabbl ing Ducks Nine species occur in all parts of the area. These ducks feed in shallows by tipping up and IIdabbling ll in the mud and vegetation. They are omnivores consuming a variety of animal and plant foods. Nestingducks occur in marshes, uplands, and a variety of other mainland and island habitats. Dabblers frequent all areas of the river utilizing shores, shoals and islands for resting areas. The largest concentrations of dabblers occur in the shallow habitat of the Wilson Hill Game Management area. Sub-family Aythyinae and Oxyurinae Diving Ducks These groups frequent areas of open water and feed on small fish and other submerged goods including vegetation obtained by diving. With the exception of the introduced Redhead at Wilson Hill, no members of this group breed in the area. Divers often feed in fairlydeep channel areas and occur in large rafts in such areas during the non-breeding period. Sub-family Merginae Mergansers These "fish ducks" feed almost exclusively on fish and occur throughout the river system. The three species occur at all seasons being most abundant during migration. Flocks of mergansers may be seen in rocky shallows or deep channels engaged in a variety of activities. Nesting may occur on some secluded islands in the region but this has not been proven. 5--.k.


Cathartidae -New World Vultures Only one species, the Turkey Vulture, occurs. This bird is a carrion feeder and is found in a variety of situations. Turkey Vultures may nest in the area on islands or in marshes. The species is a recent occupant of the St. Lawrence River Valley having invaded the area from the south during the last quarter century. Accipitridae Eagles and Hawks A variety of species of several genera occur. In general these birds are flesh eaters capturing live prey. They frequent all habitats of the river ecosystem. The bird hawks of the genus Accipiter are mainly birdeating species of wooded areas. The hawks of the genus Buteo are mainly open area birds feeding on rodents although some species are swamp inhabitants that eat mainly reptiles and amphibians. These birds nest in wooded areas and feed elsewhere. The Bald Eagle is a consumer of both live and dead fish from the river. Nesting birds use large trees in both open and wooded areas. The eagle utilizes a variety of aquatic bordered habitats of all types. The Marsh Hawk is a bird of open areas both wet and dry, feeding on rodents and small birds. Generally marshes are the preferred nesting habitats. Although members of these species occupy most habitat types their population levels are fiarly low compared to other species.As a group they are highly sensitive to environmental changes. Pandionidae -Osprey The endangered Osprey is the only member of this family occurring along the river in migration and perhaps as a breeder. These "fish hawks" capture live fish by plummeting into the river from considerable heights. The Osprey may be found along all shore areas in very small numbers. If the species breeds, it could occur in a variety of situations where large nest trees occur. Falconidae Falcons Of the three species occurring, two are very rare and one, the Peregrine Falcon, is endangered. The two rare species feed on shorebirds and waterfowl and occur only as migrants. They frequent islands, shores and a variety of open habitats. The third species, theAmerican Kestrel, is faily conmon in open country. It feeds mainly on large insects, small birds and rodents. Nestin.g is usually in hollow trees. Tetraonidae -Grouse The Ruffed Grouse occurs throughout the area in wooded habitats. It nests and feeds on the ground. Its food is insects and vegetable matter of a variety of types. Grouse occur as year round residents in the area. Phasianidae -Quail and Pheasant The ring-necked Pheasant is a ground-dwelling bird of open country occurring in many parts of the area. Mainly a bird of uplands it probably


I I I I I I I 16 I I I I I Idoes not frequent river shore areas. The rare Bobwhite Quail occurs as I Ian introduction in parts of the area. I I I IMeleagrididae -Turkeys I I IThe Wild Turkey occupies woods, brush and edge areas on Wellsley IIsland. Feeding on a variety of food types, it is mainly a bird of I Iinterior upland areas. I I I IRallidae Rails, Gallinules and Coots I I I The four species of regular occurrence along the river are basically : I marsh birds. Most of the nesting and feeding activities of these species : are restricted to these specialized habitats, although the American Coot : does occasionally occur in large flocks on open water. Rails are secretive : birds whose population levels and very existence in a given area is Iintrinsicly tied to the state of their marshy environment. I I I I I ICharadriidae Plovers I I I IThese five species occur mainly as migrants along shores and mud Iflat areas. The breeding Killdeer prefers open areas such as plowed I Ifields and gravel roadsides for nesting. Plovers feed mainly on small Iinvertebrates plucked from mud or rocks. They are in general birds I Iof immediate shorelines, mudflats, and shallow flooder areas. I I I IScolopacidae Sandpipers I This is a large and varied group mainly occurring as migrants in all areas of shore type habitats. Some species breed in areas of rocky shore, damp woods, field and marsh habitats. In general, some sandpipers prob ably occur in most river related nearshore habitats from late April to late November and perhaps the Purple Sandpiper occurs in winter also. This extremely diversified group occurrence in the study area is closely tied to the river and immediate environs. Phalaropodidae Phalaropes The three species are basically open water swimming shorebirds. Small numbers may occur in migration in all types of aquatic habitats. These birds feed mainly upon small aquatic invertebrates. Laridae Gulls and Terns One of the most prominent groups along the river, the nearly dozen species occur in most types of aquatic habitats. Some are only winter visitors. Some occur in migration and a number of species occur through out the year. The breeding species, such as Herring Gull and Common Tern, nest on low islands with sparse vegetation in many parts of the area. Shoals, rocks and such habitats are extensively used by these species for resting. They feed in all areas of the river upon fish, invertebrates garbage and a variety of other foods. This group is so closely tied to the river that any changes in the environment due to developments mayhave severe effects on some species.


I 17 Columbidae -Doves and Pigeons The two species occurring are basically resident birds of a variety of bushy and successional habitat types. They are omnivorous feeders and nest in a variety of situations. Cuculidae -Cuckoos Two species, both of which nest in shrub areas, are highly insectivorous feeding on moths, caterpillars and may become quite common where outbreaks of tent caterpillar occur. Probably both nest in all areas of suitable habitat and food conditions throughout the area. Tytonidae and Strigidae -Owls These nocturnal birds of prey range through a variety of habitats and food preferences. They are mainly small mammal eaters, however the large powerful Great Horned Owl may consume skunk and foxes. While generally birds of wooded habitats, a number of species, including Snowy Owl and Short-eared Owl are found in field and marsh areas. A number of species, particularly those utilizing islands, might be affected by alterations in the river environment. Some species, such as the Snowy Owl, may prey extensively upon crippled waterfowl in duck concentration areas. Caprimulgidae Goatsuckers Two species of these aerial insectivores occur in a variety of habitats, such as wooded and urban areas. These species are virtually totally insect eaters and may be highly dependent on river generated insects. Apodidae Swifts The Chimney Swift is another species of aerial insectivore nesting in urban areas and woodlands. They may be seen feeding above open water and marsh areas on aquatic insects. Trochilidae -Hummingbirds One species, the Ruby-throated Hummingbird, occurs in a variety of shrub and wood habitats. Feeding basically on nectar and small insects, Ruby-throats probably occupy a variety of island and areas. Alcedinidae Kingfishers The Belted Kingfisher is a fish eating species frequenting shores, and shallows where it obtains food by diving from perches. Nesting kingfishers use burrows in banks along streams. As with most fish eating species, the kingfisher would probably be adversely affected by any increase in turbidity due to difficutly of prey visibility.


18 Picidae -Woodpeckers A variety of species occur occupying all habitat from fields and lawns to woodlands. They feed on a variety of insects and some vegetative matter often removed from trees. The nesting species often utilize holes in trees which they may drill. Some species, such as the Common Flicker, may feed extensively on rocks and grassy areas along shore. Many species occur all year round. Tyrannidae Flycatchers Aerial insectivores occupy all habitat types from wetlands to woods. Usually present May to September throughout the areas. As with all other aerial insectivores, these species are probably highly dependent upon flying aquatic insects generated by wet areas. Those individuals of the island populations are particularly closely related to the river. Hirundinidae -Swallows These six species of aerial insectivores occur from late April to October feeding on a variety of insects taken on the wing. Some speciessuch as the Purple Martin and Rough-winged Swallow are intimately tied to the river for nesting sites. All species use areas over water as primary feeding grounds. Swallows nest in a variety of sites both manmade and natural. Considerable numbers of all species use marshes as roost sites in late summer and fall. Corvidae -Crows and Jays Omnivorous species of a variety of habitats, Corvids are often found feeding along shorelines at all times of year. They nest in wooded areas throughout the region. In winter crows and perhaps a rare Common Raven may be found feeding on carcasses on the ice. Paridae (Chickadees), Sittidae (Nuthatches), and Certhidae (Creepers) Members of these three families are generally small insectivorous birds of shrub and wood habitats. They feed mainly upon bark insects gleaned from trees and berries. Occurring throughout the area in all seasons, these species are prominent menbers of theriver1s avifauna. Troglodytidae -Wrens These are small insectivorous birds occurring from May to early October in a variety of habitats, including shrubby areas and marsh. Species such as the Long-billed Marsh Wren are closely tied to the river for very important parts of its life cycle. Mimidae Catbirds, Thrashers, and Mockingbirds Two species of basically shrub dwelling birds are common to all such habitats throughout the area. These species feed on a combination of animal and plant matter.


19 Turdidae Thrushes The occurring species have been noted in all seasons although a majority are breeders and migrants. Some occur in all habitats while others are restricted to wooded areas. They vary from insectivores to omnivores. Nesting in a variety of situations, they comprise an important constituent of the areas avifauna. Sylviidae Kinglets Tiny wood insectivores, two species feed extensively in areas along the river including most islands. in the Thousand Islands area. One species may nest in some numbers Motacillidae -Pipits on The Water Pipit occurs aquatic insects. along shores and other areas in migration feeding Bombycillidae -Waxwings One species occurs year round in a variety of areas feeding on insects and plant material. The second species is a rare winter visitor. Laniidae Shrikes These two species of predatory songbirds feed on insects in summer and rodents and small birds in winter. They are birds of shrubby areas often found along shores. The status of the group along the river is uncertain. Sturnidae -Starling This introduced pest occurs widely throughout. Vireonidae (Vireos), and Parulidae (Warblers) These are very diverse groups of shrub and woodland insectivores. A variety of species occurs in all areas from April to October at various times as migrants and/or breeders. The importance of the river to these birds is one of the challenging areas of future study. Ploceidae -Weaver Finches The introduced House Sparrow occurs widely around human habitation ina11 seasons. Icteridae (Blackbirds) and Thraupidae (Tanagers) These are diverse groups whose members eat all types of foods. They are among the most abundant and successful groups in the area occupying almost all conceivable niches. The importance of the river to the life cycles of these species is unknown.


ZQ Fringillidae Finches This is of the largest and most diverse groups of the area occupying most habitats. Most finches eat mainly plant food such as seeds, however some animal matter is eaten. The relationships of these species to the river ecosystem in all seasons is undertermined. Future studies in depth will be required to ascertain status and relationships of these birds.


Literature Cited Allen, et. al. 1960. Checklist-Region VI: St. La\'/rence, Lewis, Jefferson Counties. 17 pp. Belknap, J.B. 1968. Turkey Vulture nest near Clayton. Kingbird 18 :25. l3ull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday Natural History Press, New York. 655pp. Common, ItA. 1933. A belated Humminqbird. Auk 50:408-413. 1934. Notes on a Vireo's nest. I\uk 51 :241-242. Davis, F. 1975. Thousand Islands, Ontario (Christmas Count). American Birds 30:202-203. Eaton, E.H. 1910. Birds of York. New York State Memoir 12, 1: 319 pp. 1914. Birds of New York. New York State Museum Memoir 12, 2: 543pp. Edwards, Birds of Pigeon Island. Blue Bill 8:22,23. 1962. Pigeon Island Birds. Blue Bill 9:25. _____ 1963. Pigeon Island Breeding Bird Census. Blue Bill 10:'7-19. 1964. Breeding Bird Census of Pigeon Island. Blue Bill 11 :29,30. 1968. Pigeon Island Birds, 1968--Cattle Egret Nesting. Bl ue Bill 15: 33. 1969. Pigeon Island Birds, 1969. Blue Bill 16:44,45. 1970a. Island Breeding Bird Census 1970. Blue ------,B"'""'i'""""l.....' .......'-=-7: 4648 1970b. Uninhabitated Island in Lake Ontario. Audubon .....24(6):767-768. 1972. 1971 and 1972 Pigeon Island Breeding Bird Blue Bill 19:37, 38. 1973. 1973 Island Breeding Bird Census. 20:37. Erskine, I\.J. 1956. Breeding Bird Census. Audubon Field Notes 10(6): 428-429. Grant, W.AL lYU7. Voyages of Samuel de Champlain 1604-1618. Charles Scribner, New York. pp.289,297,299. Hall, G.A. 1964. Breeding-bird Censuses--Why and Ho\'1. Audubon Field. Notes 18:413-416. Holroyd, G. 1974. Thousand Island, Ontario (Christmas count). American Birds 29:198. Hy\:e, Sidney A. 1939. The Ecology and Economics of the Birds along the Northern Boundary of State. Roosevel t Wil dl i fe Bulletin, v. 12, no. 2. Macoun, John and James M. 1909. Catalogue of Canadian Birds . Government PrintinCj Bureau, Ottawa. Second edition. 761 pp. fervi:l, M. 1918. Common Terns nes ting at Thousand Isl ands. Auk 35:74. Quilliam, Helen R. 1973. History of the l3irds of Kingson" Ontario. Published privately. Second edition revised, 209 pp.


22 Van Vel zen, Willet T. 1972. Breeding bird census instructions. American Birds 26(6):1007-1010. Webb, William L., J.R. Bart and C.A. Komarek. 1972. Technical Report Wildlife Resources. St. Lawrence-Eastern Ontario Commission. 65pp. Whiteaves, J.F. 1902. The Golden Eagle in Ontario. Ottawa Field Naturalist 15:249. Wilson, Alexander. 1828. American Ornithology or the Natural Historyof Bi rds of the Uni ted States. Coll ins and Company" New York York. 3 volumes.


SPECIES Gavi a immer Gavia s te11 ata Podiceps grisegena auritus Podily us podiceps Oceanodroma leucorhoa Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Phal acrocorax auri tus Ardea herodi as Butorides virescens Bub u1cus i bis Casmerodi'ilSatbus PRELIMINARY CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER KEY Season Definitions: Spri ng -20 March to 31 f1ay Summer -1 June to 10 Auqust Fall -11 August to 10 December Winter -11 December to 19 March Occurrence Code: x = recorded in the literature or observers in the area in unpublished field notes of XS = recorded by personnel during the course of this study SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Summer Fall Winter COJ1lTlOn Loon Red-throated Loon Red-necked Grebe Horned Grebe Pied-billed Grebe Leach I s Petrel Hhite Pelican Double-crested Cormorant Great Blue Heron Green Heron Cattle Eqret Great Egret X X X X X X X X X X X XS X X XS X X XS XS X XS XS X X X XS XS XS XS X XS X X X X X Breeds Uncerta in No No No Yes No No Uncerta in Yes Yes Yes No r" .. 1 '-'.'


N .,J:::. .. SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Summer Fa 11 Winter Breeds Egretta thula Nycticorax nycticorax Ixobrychus exilis Botaurus lentiginosus Plegadis falcinellus Cygnus olor 010r coTLiilif)i anus Branta canadensis Sno\A/Y Egret Black-crowned Night Heron Leas t Bi ttern American Bittern Glossy Ibis Mute Swan Whistling Swan Canada Goose X X X X X X XS XS XS X XS X XS X XS X X X No Uncerta i n Yes Yes No No No Yes Branta bemicla Brant X X X No Chen caerulescens Snow Goose X X X No Anas f'la 11 ard X XS XS X Yes Anas Anas Anas rubrlpes strepera acuta Black Duck Gadwall Pi ntai 1 X X X XS XS XS XS XS XS X X X Yes Yes Yes Anas crecca Anas discors Anas ameri cana Anas c1ypeata Aix sponsaAythya alTEri cana Aythya collaris Aythya valisineria Aythya marila Aythya affinis Bucephala clangulaBucephala islandica Bucephala albeola C1angula hyemalis Somateria mollissima Green-winged Teal Bl ue-winged Teal American WigeonNorthern Shovel lor Wood Duck Redhead Ring-necked Duck Canvasback Greater Scaup Lesser ScaupCorrmon Gol den eyeBarrow's Goldeneye Bufflehead OldsquawCorrrnon Ei der X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XS XS X XS XS X X X XS XS XS XS XS XS X X XS X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Uncerta in Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Somateria spectabilis King Eider X X No


SPECIES Melanitta deglandi Melan;tta persp;c;llata Melanitta nigra Oxyura jama;censisLophodytes cucullatus Mergus merganser Merfius serrator Cat artes aura Accipiter genfilis Accipiter striatus Acc;piter cooperi; Buteo jamaicensis Buteo lineatus Buteo f'atypterusButeo agopus Haliaeetus leucocephalus Circus c*aneus Pandionaliaetus Fal co rusti col us rarco peregr;nus Falco columbarius F'aTCO spa rve r; us umbel'us Col;nus virginianus Phasianus colchicus Perd;x Meleagrls gallopavo Rallus limicola Porzana carol ina Ga"inula chloropus White-winged Scoter Surf Scoter Black Scoter Ruddy Duck Hooded MerganserCommon Merganser Red-breasted r1erganser Turkey Vul ture Goshawk Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper's Hawk Red-tailed Hawk Red-shouldered Hawk Broad-winged Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Bald Eagle Marsh Hawk OspreyGyrfal con Peregrine Falcon Merlin Arnerican Kest re 1 Ruffed Grouse Bobwhite Ring-necked Pheasant Gray PartridgeTurkey Virginia Rail Sora Common Gallinule Spring X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Surrrner X XS X X X XS X XS X XS X X XS XS XS X X X X XS XS XS XS SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Fall Winter Breeds X X No X No X X No X X No XS X Yes XS X. Uncertain X X Uncertain XS Yes XS XYes XS XYes X X Yes XS XYes X Uncertain XS Yes XSX No XS X Uncertain XS XYes XS Uncertain X No X No X No XS XYes XS XYes Yes XS XYes X X Yes XS XYes X Yes X Yes XS Yes N


N Ci\ SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Sunrner Fall Breeds Fulica americana American Coot X X XS X Uncertain Charadr;us semipalmatus Charadr;us voc;ferus Semiplamated Plover Killdeer X X XS XS XS XS X No Yes Pluv;alis dominica American Golden Plover X No Pluv;al;s squatarola Arenaria interpres Philohela minor Black-bellied Plover Ruddy American Woodcock .X X X X XS XS XS XS No No Yes Capella gallinago Numenius phaeoEusBartram;a longlcauda Act;tis macular;a Tringa solitaria Tr;nga melanoleuca Tr;naa flav;pes Ca 1i ri scan utus Common Snipe Whini;>rel Upland Sandpiper Spotted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs Red Knot X X X X X X X XS X XS XS XS XS X XS X XS XS XS XS XS X Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Calidr;s maritima Calidr;s melanotos Calidr;s fusc;collis Calidris bairdii Cal idris m;nutilla Calidr;s alpina Calidris mauri Calidris pusillaCalidr;s alba L;mnodromus-9riseus Purple Sandpiper Pectoral SandpiperWhite-rumped Sandpiper Bairdls Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Dunlin Western Sandpiper Semipalmated Sandpiper Sanderling Short-billed Dowitcher X X X X X X X X XS XS XS XS X XS X XS XS X X XS XS X X No No No No No No No No No No Limnodromus scolopaceus himantotus Tryngltes subruf;co lis L;mosa haernastica Long-billed Dowitcher Stilt Sandpiper Buff-breasted Sandpiper Hudsonian Godwit X XS X X No No No No Phalaropus fulicarius Red Phalarope Wilsonls Phalarope X X X X X No No


SPECIES Lobi pes 1oba tus Larus htperboreus Larus g aucoides Larus marinus Larus arfentatus Larus de awarensis Larus philadelfhia R;ssa tridacty a Xema sabini Stema fors teri Sterna h; rundo HfidrOprOgne cas pi a Clidonias n; ger Orla lomv;a 'COlUmba 1; vi a Zenaida macroura Coccyzus amer;canus Coccyzus erythropthalmus Tyto alba Otus asio BLiDO Vfrgi ni an us Nyctea scand;aca Sumia ulula Strix varia As;o otus As i 0 fl anmeus Aegol ius funereus Aegol;us acad;cus Caprimulgus voc;ferus Chordeiles minor Northern Phal arope Gl aucous Gull Icel and Gull Great Black-backed Gull Herri ng Gull Ring-bi Gull Bonaparte' s Gull Black-legged Kittiwake Sabi ne' s Gull Forster's Tern Conmon Tem Caspian Tem Black Tern Thick-billed Murre Rock Dove Mourning Dove Yellow-billed Cuckoo Black-billed Cuckoo Barn Owl Screech Owl Great Horned Owl Snowy Owl Hawk Owl Barred Owl Long-ea red Owl Short-eared 0\-/1 Borea 1 Owl Saw-whet CMl Whip-poor-\'/ill Common Nighthawk Spring X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sumner X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X XS X X XS X X X XS X SEASONAL Fall X X X XS XS XS XS X X XS X XS X XS XS X X XS XS X X X XS OCCURRENCE Winter Breeds No X No X No X Uncertain X Yes X Uncertain X No X No No No Yes Yes Yes No X Yes Yes Yes Yes X Yes X Yes X Yes X No X No X Uncertain X Yes X Yes X No X Uncertain Yes Yes f'..) '-....J


'4 N CO SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Surrmer Fall Winter Breeds Chaetura pelagica Archilochus colubris MefacerYle alcyonCo aptes auratus Dryocopus pileatus Centurus carolinus Melanerpes erythrocephalus Chimney Swift Ruby-throated Hummingbird Belted Kingfisher Common Flicker Pileated WoodpeckerRed-bellied WoodpeckerRed-headed Woodpecker X X X X X X X XS X XS XS X X X XS XS XS XS XS X X X X X X Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes varius n recopos villosus Dendrocopos pubescens Picoides arcticus Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Hairy Woodpecker Black-Backed Three-Toed X X X X XS XS XS XS XS X X Uncertain Yes Yes Picoides tridactylusTyrannus tyrannus Myiarchus crinitus Sayorn;s phoebeEmpidonax flaviventris Empidonax traillii Empidonax alnorum Empidonax minimus' Contopus virens Nuttallornis borealis Eremophila a1eestris I"rldoprocne blcolor Riparia riparia ruficollis Hirundo rustlca WoodpeckerNorthern Three-Toed WoodpeckerEastern Kingbird Great Creasted Flycatcher Eastern Phoebe Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Willow Flycatcher Alder Flycatcher Least Flycatcher Eas tern Wood Pewee Olive-sided Flycatcher Horned Lark Tree Swallow Bank Swallow Rough-winged Swallow Barn Swallow X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X X XS XS XS X XS XS X XS XS X X X No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Progne subis Cliff Swallow Purple Martin X X X XS XS XS Uncertain


SPECI ES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Summer Fall Winter Breeds Perisoreus canadensis Cyanocitta cristata Corvus corax Corvus brachyrhynchos Parus atricaeillus Parus hudsonlcus Sitta carolinensis Sitta canadensis familiaris Troglodytes aedon Troglodytes troglodytes Thryothorus ludovicianus Telmatodytes ralustris Cistothorus p atensis Mimus polyglottos Dumetella carolinensis Toxos toma rufum Oreoscoptes montanus Turdus migratorius Hylocichla mustelina Catharus guttatus Catharus ustulatus Ca,tharus minimus Catharus fuscescens Sialia sial is Polioptila caerulea Regul us satraaa Regulus calen ula Anthus spinoletta Gray JayBlue Jay COrTlT1On Ra ven Common Crow Black-capped Chickadee Boreal Chickadee White-breasted Nuthatch Red-breasted Nuthatch Brown Creeper House Wren Winter Wren Carol ina Wren Long-bi 11 ed r1a rsh Wren Short-bi 11 ed t1arsh Wren Mockingbi rd Grey Catbi rd Brown Thrasher Sage Thrasher Ameri can Robi n Wood Thrush Hermi t Th rus h Swainson's Thrush Gray-cheeked Thrush Veery Eas tern Bl uebi rd Bl ue-gray Gnatcatcher Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet Water Pipit X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XS XS XS XS XS X XS X X XS X X XS XS XS XS XS XS X XS X X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X XS XS XS XS X XS X XS X XS XS XS X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Uncertai n Uncertain Yes Yes No Yes Yes Uncertain No No Yes Ye.s No Uncertain No No r.:>


w o SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Sunmer Fall Winter Breeds Bonbycilla garrulus Bombyci 11 a cedrorum Bohemian Waxwing Cedar Waxwing X X XS XS X X No Yes Lanius excubitor Northern Shrike X X X No Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike X X Uncertain Stumus vul garis Starl ing X XS XS X Yes Vireo riseus White-eyed Vireo X No Vireolav;frons Yellow-throated Vireo X XS X Yes Vireo solitarius Solitary Vireo X XS No vi reo 01 i vaceus Red-eyed Vi reo X, XS X Yes Vireo phi1ade1phicus Philadelphia Vireo X XS No Vi reo gi' vus Warbl ing Vi reo X XS XS Yes Mniotilta varia Black and White. Warbler X XS XS Yes Vermivora chrysoetera Golden-winged Warbler X X Uncertain Vermivora peregrlna Tennessee Warbler X X XS No Vennivora celata Orange-crowned Warbler X XS No Vermivora rUficapilla Nashville Warbler X XS XS Uncertain Pa rul a ameri cana Northern Pa rul a X X No Dendroica petechia Yellow Warbler X XS XS Yes Dendroica magnolia Magnolia Warbler X XS XS Uncertain Dendroica tigrina Cape May Warbler X XS No Dendroica caerulescens Black-throated Blue Warbler X X XS Yes Dendroica coronata Yellow-rumped Warbler X XS XS Uncertain Dendroica virens Black-throated Green Warbler X X XS Yes Dendroi ca cerul ea Cerul ean Warb1er X X Uncerta in Dendroica fusca Blackburnian Warbler X XS XS Yes Dendroica pensylvanica Chestnut-sided Warbler X XS XS Yes Dendroica castanea Bay-breasted Warbler X XS No ..... Dendroica striata Blackpoll Warbler X X XS No Dendroica pinus Pine Warbler X XS XS Yes


SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Summer Fall Winter Breeds Dendroica palmarum Seiurus aurocapillus Seiurus noveboracensis Palm Warbler Ovenbird Northern Waterthrush X X X XS XS X XS XS No Yes Yes Oporopnis porornis p il adel phia Geothlypis trichas Wilsonia pusillaWilson;a canadensis Connecticut Warbler Mourning Warbler Common Yellowthroat Wilson's Warbler Canada Warbl er X X X X XS XS XS v 1\ XS XS XS XS No Yes Yes No Yes Setophaaga rut;cilla Passer domest;cus Dol;chonyx oryz;vorus Sturnell a magna Sturnella neglecta Agelaius phoeniceus Icterus spur;us Icterusga1bul a Euehagus carolinus ulscalus guiscula 10 loth rus ater Arne ri can Reds ta rt House Sparrow Bobolink Eastern r1eadowlark Western Meadowlark Red-winged Blackbird Orchard Oriol e Northern Oriol e Rus ty Bl ackbi rd Common Grackl e Brown-headed Cowbird X X X X X X X X X X XS XS XS XS XS X XS X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X XS XS X X X X X X Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Uncertain Yes No Yes Yes piranga olivacea Cardinalis cardinalis Searl et Tanager Ca rdinal X X XS XS XS XS X Yes Yes Pheuct;cus ludovic;anus Passerina cyanea Spiza americana Hesperiphona vespertina Careodacus purpureus Pinlcola enucleator Rose-breasted Grosbeak Indi go Bunti ng Di ckcissel Evening Grosbeak Purpl e Finch Pine Grosbeak X X X X X XS XS X XS XS X X X XS X X X X Yes Yes No No Yes No Acanthis hornemanni Acanthis flammea Spinus pinus Hoary RedpollCommon Redpo 11 Pine Siskin X X X X X X X No No No w I-'


W N SPECIES SEASONAL OCCURRENCE Spring Summer Fall Winter Breeds Spinus tristis Loxia curvirostra American Goldfinch Red Crossbill X X XS XS X X X Yes No Loxia leucoptera Pipilo erythrophthalmus Passerculus sandWichensis Ammodramus savannarum Ammodramus henslowii Pooecetes gramineusJunco hyemalis Spizella arborea Spizella passerina Spizella Eusilla Zonotrichla leucophrys Zonotrichia albicollis Passerella iliaca Melosp;za l;ncolnii Melosp;za georgiana Melospiza melodia Calcarius lapponicus Plectrophenax n;val;s White-winged Crossbill Rufous-sided Towhee Savannah SparrowGrasshopper Sparrow Henslowls Sparrow Vesper SparrowDark-eyed Junco Tree Sparrow Chipping SparrowField SparrowWhite-crowned SparrowWhite-throated Sparrow Fox SparrowLincolnls SparrowSwamp SparrowSong Sparrow Lapland LongspurSnow Bunting X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XS XS X XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS XS X X XS X XS XS XS XS X XS XS XS X X X X X X X X No Yes Yes Uncertain Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No No


33 Notes on the birds of the St. Lawrence River, New York in 1976 Preliminary Sampling Results Summary(Not all species and sightings are commented on in this report.) SPECIES cm1MENTS Common Loon One to two per day from late July to midSeptember. May indicate either breeding or summeringnon-breeders. First migrants mid-September. Pied-billed Grebe One to four per day per locale late July th rough study pe ri od. Most frequent Wilson Hill Game Management Area 9/17. Double-crested One near Wilson Hill Game Management Area Cormorant 9/17. Great Blue Heron Frequent throughout the study period, all areas, with average of 2-7 per day per locale. Great Egret One present Wilson Hill Game Management Area 8/1 to 8/17. Rare in that area. Green Heron Frequent in all sectors throughout the study period. 2-5 per day per locale. Leas t Bittern One, Wilson Hill Game Management Area 8/16/76. 'American Bittern Singles present in various locales throughout the period. Most frequent near marshes. Canada Goose nocks of 200-400 frequenting areas from Wilson Hill Game Management Area eastward, with 5-15 per day west to Alexandria Bay. Present throughout the period from introduced breeders Wilson Hill. Some apparent migrants mid-September. t1all ard 5-20 per day per locale on most of the river. 50-120 per day, Wilson Hill area. Present throughout the period. Bl ack Duck Present through the period with largest numbers near Wilson Hill and in the Alexandria Bay area. 5 to 15 per day per locale average.


34 Gadwall Pi nta i1 Green-winged Teal Blue-winged Teal Ameri can Wi dgeon Wood Duck Redhead Scaup Common Turkey Vul ture Goshawk Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper I S Hawk \ Abundant, Wilson Hill area with 200-500 per day and maxima nearly 1000 there in mi d-September. Flocks noted eastward with fewer to the west of Wilson Hill. One of the most abundant ducks in the study area. 5-10 per day from August through the study period. Generally from Wilson Hill area, infrequent elsewhere. 1-2 per day mid-September, Wilson Hill area. Not noted elsewhere. Small flocks all parts of the river. 10-50 per day Wilson Hill area August and September with lesser numbers elsewhere. Small numbers present in late July at Wilso Hill. 10-20 per day had increased to 500 to 1000 per day by mid-September.Small flocks noted east of Wilson Hill area with fewer to west of there. 1-4 per day, all areas. 10 to 25 per day Wilson Hill area, mid-August through midSeptember. 150-250 per day, Wilson Hill area. 20-50 per day in areas around eastern Lake St. Lawrence, no doubt deri ved from these flocks. One, Wilson Hill 8/1. 8-10 per day through the period near the Long Sault Dam, Robert t10ses State Park. A few singles west of Alexandria Bay in late August and September. 2 single irrmatures and one adult, Wel1esle: Island in late August and September. 1-4 migrants per day on various days in September, all parts of the river. One, Wellesley Island area 9/17/76.


Red-ta i1ed Hawk Common, all areas of the river, particularly so north of Massena with 10-20 per day around Robert Moses State Park. 3-7 per day elsewhere. Broad-winged Hawk Immature, Robert Moses State Park, 8/17/76. Rough-legged Hawk Light Phase immature, Robert Moses State Park 9/14 9/15/76. Bal d Eagl e Adult, west of Rt. 81 and 12 intersection 8/17. Immature at Moses-Saunders Power Dam 8/24/76. Marsh Hawk 1-2 per day August and September various sectors of the area. 3-4 per day early September, Robert State Park. Osprey 1-2 per day August through September various sectors particularly in the vicinity of Massena and Louisville townships. A total of 9-10 birds probably involved. Ameri can Kes trel Average 5-8 per day in most areas with larger concentrations in and around Robert State Park. (15-40 per day). Ruffed Grouse A few sin gl es. IRing-necked Pheasant Two singles. Turkey Several groups, J-5, Wellesley Island. Virginia Rail One, 8/17 Goose Bay marshes. Comnon Gallinule 5-10 per day in marshes around Goose Bayand in the Wilson Hill area. Ameri can Coot 2-4 per day mid-September in the Wilson Hill area. Semipalmated Plover 2-4 per day at Wilson Hill Game Management Area in early September. Killdeer Average 10-15 per day, all sectors with maxima of 20-40 per day mainly in Massena and Louisville township. Black-bellied Plover Two singles, 9/14-9/16 near Waddington. American Woodcock A few singles at various locations east of Alexandria Bay during August and September.


38 Eastern Kingbird Great-crested Flycatcher Eastern Phoebe Willow Flycatcher Alder Flycatcher Least Flycatcher Eastern Wood Pewee Horned Lark Tree Swallow Bank Swallow Rough-winged Swallow Barn Swallow Purple Martin Blue Jay Common Crow Black-capped Chickadee White-breasted Nuthatch Red-breasted Nuthatch 10-25 per day, June through early August.all sectors; 20-40 day late August maxima 140 7/31 Massena town. Largest numbers present north of Massena. 1-4 per day, all sectors. 1-2 per day, all sectors. 1-3 per day, all sectors. Most frequent in western areas. Mostly one per day, generally in the Thousand Islands area. 2-5 per day, all areas. Mostly 5-10 per day, all areas. One of the most frequent flycatchers along the river. 1-2 per day (in suitable habitat), all sectors Abundant, all areas of the river to midSeptember 100-250 per day. 100-150 per day, all areas, in early August. Few thereafter, none noted in September. 2-4 per day, July and early August. 10, Ironsides Island in July. Most frequent in the Thousand Islands sector. 75-175 per day, all sectors, July and August. Few in September. 15-60 per day through early September, all areas of the river. 5-15 per day, all sectors. 8-15 per day, all sectors. 10-20 per day, all sectors. 2-5 per day, all sectors. 1-3 per day, Thousand Islands area, with very few elsewhere until late August when 2-5 per day were present in all sectors.


39 Carol ina Wren Long-billed Marsh Wren Grey Catb i rd Brown Thrasher Ameri can Robin Wood Thrush Hennit Thrush Swainson's Thrush Veery Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Golden-crowned Kinglet Water Pi pit Cedar Waxwing Starl ing i te-eyed Vi reo Red-eyed Vi reo Warbling Vireo Black and White Warbler Tennessee Warbler One, Kring Point State Park 8/17-9/15 and perhaps present later. 1-3 per day in suitable habitat. 5-12 per day, all sectors. 1-3 per day at various scattered localities ina11 areas. Most counts 30-80 per day, with maxima 120-150 per day. 2-6 per day, all sectors. One per day mid-September. 3-5 per day in September. Breeding birds 5-15 per day in June and 1-3 per day in August as migrants. One, 8/1 Waddington area. One per day August and September Wellesley Island. 3-5 per day mid-September, Massena township. Most counts 10-25 per day, all areas. Maximus 120-150 per day various locales in September. 150-350 per day, all sectors. One, Coles Creek area 6/3/76. Breeders 10-20 per day per locale with 20-40 per day as migrants in September. 1-3 per day all sectors. One per day as breeders, various locations. 1-4 per day as migrants in September. 1-2 per day as migrants, late August through Septerrber.


40 "I '. : Nashville Warbler Parula Warbler Yellow Warlber Magnolia Warbler Cape May Warbler Black-throated Blue Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Chestnut-sided Warbler Bay-breasted Warbler Blackpool Warbler Pine Warbler Overbi rd Northern Waterthrush Common Yellowthroat Wilson's Warbler Canada Warb1er American Redstart House Spa rrow Bobolink 1-2 per day as migrants, late August through September. One, Robert Moses State Park 9/14. 15-40 per day as breeders, very few after apparent exodus prior to 8/15. 2-6 per day as migrants. 1-3 per day as migrants. Singles, only as migrants in September. 30-75 per day as migrants in mid-September. 1-3 per day in summer. 3-5 per day as migrants. 1-2 per day in September. One per day on breeding sites. One per day as migrants. 5-10 per day as migrants late August and September 8-15 per day as migrants in September. Present as a breeder on Ironsides Island in July. Breeders, 2-6 per day, all sectors. 2 per day August and September, all sectors. A few singles as migrants in September. 4-10 per day, average. 1-2 per day as migrants late August-Septembe 1-2 per day as migrants in August. 10-20 per day as breeders and 5-10 per day as migrants. 10-50 per day, all areas near human 1-5 per day th rou gh mi d-Septembe r.


Eastern Meadowlark Red-winged Blackbird Northern Oriole Common Grackle Brown-headed Cowbird Scarlet Tanager Cardinal Rose-breasted Grosbeak Indigo Bunting American Goldfinch Rufous-sided Towhee Savannah Sparrow Grasshopper Sparrow Hens10w's Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco Chipping Sparrow Field Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow White-throated Sparrow Swamp Sparrow Song Sparrow 10-20 per day, all sectors. Abundant, all sectors 300-3000 per day. 2-4 per day, all sectors. Most were goneby September. 75-250 per day, all areas. 15-40 per day, all areas. 1-3 per day, breeders and migrants. 1-4 per day east to Ogdensburg, mostly in areas sheltered near human habitation. 2-4 per day, July and August.3-5 per day as migrants in December. 1-3 per day, all areas, to early September. 15-30 per day, all sectors. 2-4 per day, most sectors. 1-2 per day, most sectors, with 5-10 per day Massena township. One near Massena, 7/13. One, Robert Moses State Park 8/1. A few apparently breeding. Singles July and August. 10-50 per day in September (migrants). 4-8 per day, all sectors. 1-4 per day, all sectors. 2-5 per day as migrants in September. 5-7 per day as breeders June-August. 15-50 per day in September as migrants. 1-3 per day in suitable habitat near Goose Bay and other marshy areas. 5-15 per day, all sectors. 20-50 per day as migrants.


42 A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE VEGETATION ALONG THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER IN JEFFERSON AND ST. LAWRENCE COUNTIES, YORK This study provides a botanical description of desiqnated areas being used in bird nesting and migration studies along the St. Lawrence River from Clayton to Massena, New York. In addition to these areas, a general preliminary study was made of the various plants occurring along the mile wide stretch .inland from the river. TECHNIQUE Each of the 21 areas studies were 1/2 mile in length and 330 ft. in width (approximately 8 ha or 20 acres). In each area, 5 -10 m x In m quadrats were studied. Although the 5 quads were randomly chosen, an attempt was made to make a representative selection; if the area was close to 3/5 wooded and 2/5 field, then three plots were put in the wooded section and 2 in the field. See Figure 1 for general locations of study areas alonq the river. In each plot census there were 5 major diyisions studies: canopy, sub-canopy, shrubs, seedlings and herb coyer. In each division all species were noted. For the herb cover only a percentaqe was qiven as to the amount of cover, but a general list of all herbal species was made of plot and non-plot areas. For the canopy and sub-canopy the following calculations were made: how many of the 5 quads the species occurred in, the total number of pl ants of each speci es, the average nBH (di ameter at breas t heiqht) of each species measured in inches, the average height of each species measured to the nearest 5 feet, the relative frequency and relative density of each species, and the average distance bet'lleen the trees. The relative freCluency was calculated by dividing the number of quads the species occurred in by the total number of quads all species occurred in. To clarify this, in the first area analysis, Area #3, the relative frequency was obtained by dividing the number of quads a species occurred in by 12, the addition of all the individual numbers of quad occurrence. The relative density was obtained by dividinq the number of each species found by the total number of plants in the area. For the shrub division the calculations were: number of quadsof occurrence of each species, number of plants of each species, averaqe heiqht of each species to the nearest 1/2 ft., relative frequency and relative density of each species ann the percent shrub cover for the entire area. The calculations of relative frequency and relative density were for the seedling category, derived in the same method as pre viously discussed.


43 For the plot analysis, only the percent of herb cover was measured. Notes were taken, however, of each species present and occurs at the end of this report in a species check list. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Although it would be impossible to describe the vegetative ecology along the St. Lawrence River by lumping the area into a single classification, the area can be divided into several descriptive categories: disturbed, non-disturbed, wooded, shrub/tree, shrub/field, herbaceous field, marsh. Due to the river's recreational and commercial value, the vast majority of the area is disturbed. A large percentage of the land studied is private property used for seasonal recreation and even though the canopy may have remained untouched, the shrub and ground cover are greatly altered. Little of the land studied falls into the undisturbed category. The only exception perhaps is a small strip of woods in Area #10, Cranberry Creek. The area is not easily accessible because of abrupt rocky cliffs. Since this study was done in conjunction with a bird study, the ecology of the area studied is not truly representative of the ecology of the entire river region. The plots were specifically chosen with the vegetative growth characteristics in mind. Therefore since the plots were not random, the ecological characteristics were biased; more woody areas were studied in proportion to the amount of wooded land in the entire region.


44 Checklist of Species 1. LYCOPODIACEAE Mx. A. LYCOPODIUM L. a. L. clavatum L. -Running Clubmoss b. L. complanatum L. -Ground Cedar 1. sub sp. flabelliforme (Fern.) Clausen c. L. obscurum L. -Ground Pine 2. EQUISETACEAE Mx. A. EQUISETUM L. a. E. arvense L. -Common Horsetail 3. OSMUNDACEAE R. Br. A. OSMUNDA L. a. O. cinnamomea L. -Cinnamon Fern b. O. clay toni ana L. Interrupted Fern c. O. regal is L. -Royal Fern 4. POLYPODIACEAE R. Br. A. ADIANTUM L. a. A. pedatum L. -Ma i denha i r Fern B. ATHYRIUM Roth a. A. fil i x -foemina (L.) Roth -Lady Fern C. DENNSTAEDTIA Bernh. a. D. punctilobula (Michx.) Hay-scented Fern D. DRYOPTERIS Adans. a. D. marginalis (L.) Gray -Marginal Sh;eldfern b. D. spinulosa (0. F. Mull.) Watt -(D. austriaca Spiny-toothed) l. intermedia (Muhl.) Piper E. ONOCLEA L. a. O. sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern F. POLYPODIUM L. a. P. vi rginianum L. -Rock Polypody G. POL YSTICHUM Roth a. P. acros ti choi des (Mx.) Schott Christmas Fern H. PTERIDIUM Gled. a. P. aquil inum (L.) Kuhn -Conrnon Bra ke 5. PINACEAE Lindl. A. LARIX Mill. a. L. 1aric ina (Du Ro i) K. Koch -Tama rack B. PICEA A. Di etr. a. P. glauca (Moench) Voxx. -White SpruceC. PINUS L. a. P. resinosa Ait. -Red Pine b. P. rigida Mill. Pitch Pine c. P. strobus L. -White Pine D. TSUGA (Endl.) Carr. a. T. canadensis (L.) Carr. -Canada Hemlock


45 6. CUPRESSACEAE NegerA. JUNIPERUS L. a. J. communis L. -Common Spreading Jun;per b. J. virginiana L. -Red Cedar B. THUJA L. a. T. occindentalis L. -White Cedar 7. TYPHACEAE J. St. Hil. A. TYPHA L. a. T. angustifolia L. -Narrow-leaved Cattail 8. ALISMATACEAE DC. A. ALISMA L. a. A. plantago aquati ca L. -Common Water-Plantain B. SAGITTARIA L. a. S. latifolia Willd. Broad-leaved Arrowhead 9. BUTOMACEAE S. F. GrayA. BUTOMUS L. a. B. umbel latus L. Flowering Rush 10. HYDROCHARITACEAE lindley corr. Aschers. A. HYDROCHARIS L. a. H. morsus-ranae L. -European Frog's Bit 11. GRAMINEAE Juss. A. AGROPYRON Gaertn. a. A. repens (L.) Beauv. -Common QuackgrassB. AGROSTIS L. a. A. gigantea Roth -Redtop C. ANTHOXANTHUM L. a. A. odoratum L. -Sweet Vernal Grass D. Bromus L. a. B. inermis Leyss. -Smooth Brome 1. subsp. inermis E. CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. a. C. canadensis (Mx.) Beauv. -Common Bluejo;nt 1. subsp. canadensis F. DACTYLIS L. a. D. glomerata L. Orchard-Grass G. DANTHONIA DC. a. D. spictata (L.) Beauv. Poverty Oatgrass 1. subsp. spicata H. ELYMUS L. a. E. virginicus L. -Wild Rye1. var. virginicus I. FES TUCA L. a. F. ovina L. -Sheep Fescue J. GLYCERIA R. Br. a. G. striata (Lam) Hitchc. -Fowl Mana-grass 1. subsp. striata


K. PHALARIS L. a. P. arundinacea L. -Reed Canarygrass L. PHLEUM L. a. P. pratense L. -Common Timothy1. subsp. pratense M. POA L. a. P. Compressa L. -Canada Bluegrass 12. CYPERACEAE A. CAREX L. a. C. annectens (Bickn.) Bickn. -----b. C. bebbi i 01 ney C. C. crinita Lam. d. D. 1upul ina Muhl. e. .C. vul pi noi dea Mx. B. CYPERUS L. a. C. strigosus L. Straw-colored GalingaleC. SCIRPUS L. a. S. atrovirens Willd. -Dark Green Bulrush b. S. cyperinus (L.) Kunth -Common Woolgrass c. S. validus Vahl. Soft Bulrush 13. ARACEAE Necker A. ARISAEMA Mart. a. A. triphyllum (L.) Schott Jack-in-the-Pulpit 14. LEMNACEAE Dumort. A. LEMNA L. a. L. Minor L. -Common Duckweed -----b. L. trisulca L. -Star Duckweed 15. JUNCACEAE (Vent.) Dum. A. JUNCUS L. a. J. balticus Willd. Creeping Rush 16. LILIACEAE Zinno A. CLINTONIA Raf. a. C. borealis (Ait) Raf. -Yellow Clintonia B. Weber a. M. canadense Desf. -Canada rayflower1. subsp. canadense C. POLYGONATUM Mill. a. P. biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Great Solomon's Seal D. SItHLACINA Desf. a. S. racemosa (L.) Desf. -Fa1 se Solomanis Seal 17. ORCHIDACEAE Lindl. A. CYPRIPEDIUM L. a. C. acaule Ait. -Moccasin Flower B. EPIPACTIS Sw. a. E. helleborine (L.) Crantz (E. latifolia) -Weed Orchid SPlRANTHES Rich a. S. cernua (L.) L. C. Richard -Autumn Ladies' Tresses .. ..


47 [ 18. SALICACEAE Lindl. A. POPULUS a. P. balsamifera L. -Balsam Poplar b. P. grandidentata Mx. 0 Large-toothed Aspen c. P. tremuloides Mx. Trembling Aspen B. SALIX L. a. S. alba L. -White Willow -----b. S. discolor Muhl. -Pussy Willow c. S. fragilis L. -Crack Willow d. S. petiolaris Sm. Slender Willow 19. JUGLANDACEAE Lindl. A. CARYA Nutt. a. C. cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch -Bitternut b. C. ovata (Mill.) K. Koch Shagbark Hickory B. JUGLANS L. a. J. cinerea L. Butternut 20. BETULACEAE Agardh. A. ALNUS 11. a. A. incana (L.) Moench. Speckled Alder 1. subsp. rugosa (duRoi) Clausen B. BETULA L. a. B. allegheniensis Britton (B. lutea) -Yellow Birch b. B. papyrifera Paper Birch --{!,: c. B. populifolia r1arsh -Old Field Birch ;i C. CARPINUS L. a. C. caroliniana Walt. -Hornbeam (Musclewood) D. OSTRYA Mirbel. a. O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch -Hophornbeam 1. subsp. virginiana 21. FAGACEAE Drude A. CASTANEA Mill. a. C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. -Arrerican Chestnut B. FAGUS L. a. F. grandifolia Ehrh. -American Beech C. QUERCUS L. a. Q. Alba L. -White Oak b. Q. I1Bcrocarpa -Bur Oak c. Q. rubra L. (G. -Q. borealis var. I1Bxima) -Red Oak 22. ULMACEAE Mirbel A. L. a. U. americana L. -American Elm----23. URTICACEAE Reichenb. A. LAPORTEA Gaud. a. L. canadensis (L.) Gaud. -Wood Nettle B. URTICA L. a. U. dioica L. Stinging Nettle


48 24. POLYGONACEAE Desv. A. POLYGONELLA Michx. a. P. articulata (L.) Meissn. -Knotweed B. POLYGONUH L. a. P. coccineum t1uhl. -Swamp Smartweed b. P. sagittatum L. Arrow-leaved Tearthumb C. RUMEX L. a. R. acetosella L. -Sheep Sorrel----b. R. crispus L. -Curly Dock 25. CARYOPHYLLACEAE Reichenb. A. LYCHNIS L. a. L. alba Mill. White Campion B. STELLARIA L. a. S. graminea L. -Common Stitchwort 26. CERATOPHYLLACEAE A. GrayA. CERATOPHYLLUM L. a. C. demersum L. -Hornwort 27. MAGNOLIACEAE J. St. Hil. A. LIRIODENDRON L. a. L. tulipifera L. Tulip Tree 28. RANUNCULACEAE Gerard A. ACTAEA L. a. A. alba (L.) Mill. (G. -fl. pachhPoda) -Doll IS EyesB. C PTIS Salisb. a. C. trifolia (L.) Salisb. Goldthread C. HEPATICA Mill. a. H. acutiloba DC. Sharp-lobe HepaticaD. RANUNCULUS L. a. R. acris L. Tall field ButtercupC. THALICTRUM L. a. T. polygamum Muhl. Tall t1eadow Rue 29. BERBERIDACEAE Desv. A. CAULOPHYLLUM tx. a. C. thalictroides (L.) Mx. -Blue Cohosh B. PODOPHYLLUM L. a. P. peltatum L. -May Apple 30. CRUCIFERAE B. Juss. A. BERTEROA DC. a. B. incana (L.) DC. -Hoary AlyssumB. LEPIDIUM L. a. L. campestre (L.) R. Br. -Downy Peppergrass


49 31. CRASSULACEAE DC. A. SEOOM L. a. S. triphyllum (Ha\'I.) S. F. Gray -(S. te1ephium) -Live Forever 32. SAXIFRAGACEAE Desv. A. RIBES L. a. R. americanum Mill. -American Black Currant b. R. cynosbati L. Prickly Gooseberry 33. HAMAMELIDACEAE Lind1. A. HAMAMELIS L. a. H. virginiana L. -Witch-Hazel 34. ROSACEAE B. Juss. A. AMELANCHIER Medic. a. A. spp. B. CRATAEGUS L. a. C. spp. C. FRAGARIA L. a. F. virginian;j Ouch. Field Strawberry D. GEUM L. a. b. G. G. canadense Jacq. -White Aven-s-macrophy11um Wi11d. Large Avens E. POTENTILLA L. a. P. anserina L. -Si1verweed b. P. canadensis L. -Canada Potenti11a c. d. P. P. recta L. -Rough-frui ted Ci nquefoil simplex Mx. -Old Field Cinquefoil F. PRUNUS L. a. b. c. P. P. P. pensy1vanica L. f. -Pin Cherry serotina Ehrh. -Black Cherry virginiana L. -Common Chokecherry G. PYRUS L. a. b. P. P. malus L. -Apple me1anocarpa (Mx.) Wi11d. (B. -Aronia me1anocarpa) -H. RosA L. Black Chokeberry a. R. b1anda Ait. -Smooth Rose --I. RUBUS L. a. b. c. d. R. R. R. R. allegheniensis Porter -Highbush Blackberry idaeus L. -Wild Red Raspberry odoratus L. Purple Flowering Raspberry pubescens Raf. -Dwarf Red Blackberry J. SPIRAEA L. a. S. alba DuRoi Narrow-leaved Meadowsweet K. WALDSTEINIA Wi11d. a. W. fragarioides (Mx.) Tratt. Barren Strawberry ---'----r


l I IiI I( 50 35. FABACEAE Reichenb. A. AMPHICARPA Ell. a. A. bracteata (L.) Fern -Hog Peanut B. DESMODIUM Desv. a. D. glutinosum (Muhl.) Wood. -Tick Trefoil C. LOTUS L. a. L. corniculatus L. Birdsfoot Trefoil D. MEDICAGO L. a. M. lupulina L. -Black Medick b. M. sativa L. Alfalfa E. MELILOTUS Mill. a. M. alba Desr. -White Sweet Clover F. ROBINIA L. a. R. pseudo-acacia L. -Black Locust G. TRIFOLIUM L. a. T. agrarium L. -Yellow Clover (Hop Clover) b. T. campestre Schreb. (T. procumbens) -Low Hop Clover c. T. dubium Sibth. Litt1e Hop Clover d. T. hybridum L. Alsike Clover e. T. pratense L. -Red Clover f. T. repens L. -White Clover H. VICIA L. a. V. americana Muhl. -Blue Vetch-----b. V. tetrasperma (L.) Moench. Slender Vetch 36. OXALIDACEAE Lindl. A. OXALIS L. a. O. stricta L. -Yellow Wood Sorrel 37. GERANIACEAE J. St. Hil. A. GERANIUM L. a. G. robertianum L. -Herb Robert 38. POLYGALACEAE Desv. A. POLYGALA L. a. P. sanguinea L. Field Milkwort 39. ANACARDIACEAE Lindl. A. RHUS L. a. R. toxicodendron L. -Poison Iv-y-1. subsp. radicans (L.) Clausen b. R. typhina Torner Staghorn Sumac 40. AQUIFOLIACEAE DC. A. NEMOPANTHUS Raf. a. N. mucronata (L.) Trel. -Mountain Holly 41. CELASTRACEAE Lindl. A. CELASTRUS L. a. C. scandens L. Bittersweet


--51 -J 42. STAPHYLEACEAE DC. A. STAPHYEA L. a. S. trifolia L. -American Bladdernut 43. ACERACEAE J. St. Hil. A. ACER L. a. A. negundo L. -Box Elder b. A. pensylvanicum L. Striped Maple c. A. rubrum L. -Red Mapled. A. saccharinum L. Silver Maple e. A. saccharum t1arsh. -Sugar Maple 44. BALSAMINACEAE Lindl. A. IMPATIENS L. a. I. capensis Meerb. Spotted Touch-me-not 45. RHAMNACEAE Desv. A. RHAMNUS L a. R. cathartica L. -European Buckthorn 46. VITACEAE Lindl. A. PARTHENOCISSUS Planch. a. P. quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia Creeper B. VITIS L. a. V. vulpina L. Riverside Grape---1. subsp. riparia (Mx.) Fern 47. TILIACEAE Gerard A. TILIA L. a. T. americana L. -American Basswood 48. HYPERICACEAE Lindl. A. HYPERICUM L. a. H. perforatum L. -Common St. Johnls-wort b. H. punctatum Lam. Spotted St.John's-wort 49. ONAGRACEAE Dumort A. CI RCAEA L. a. C. quadrisculcata (Maxim.) Franch &SaVe Enchanterls Nightshade B. EPILOBIUM L. a. E. coloratum Biehler Purple-leaved willowherbC. OENOTHERA L. a. O. biennis L. -Evening Primrose 50. UMBELLIFERAE B. Juss A. CICUTA L. a. C. bulbifera L. Bulb-bearing Water Hemlock b. C. maculata L. -Water Hemlock B. DAUCUS L. I. a. D. carota L. -Wild Carrot t .....


52 C. PASTINACA L. a. P. sativa L. Parsnip D. ZIZIA Koch a. Z. aurea (L.) Koch -Golden Alexanders 51. CORNACEAE Link. A. CORNUS L. a. b. c. d. C. C. C. C. alba L. Red-osier Dogwood 1. subsp. stolonifera (Mx.) Wangerinalternifolia L.f. -Alternate-leaf Dogwoodcanadensis L. Bunchberry racemosa Lam. -Gray Dogwood 52. ERICACEAE DC. A. GAULTHERIA Kalm a. G. procumbens L. -Aromatic Wintergreen B. MONOTROPA L. a. M. uniflora L. Indian Pipe C. PYROLA L. a. P. elliptica Nutt. Shinleaf D. VACCINIUM L. a. b. V. V. angustifolium Ait. Early Uplant Blueberry corymbosum L. -High-bush Blueberry 53. PRIMULACEAE Vent. IjI, I, A. LYSIMACHIA ;:!.. " a. b. L. L. ciliata L. terrestris Fringed Loosestrife (L.) BSP. -Swamp Candles B. TRIENTALIS L. a. T. borealis Raf. Starflower Ii 54. OLEACEAE L indl A. FRAXINUS L. a. F. americana L. -White Ash b. F. pennsylvanica 1. var. pennsyl vanica Marsh -Red Ash 2. var. subintegerrima (Vahl.) Fern -Green Ash B. SYRINGA L. a. S. vulgaris L. Lilac 55. GENTIANACEAE Desv. A. CENTAURIUM Hi 11 a. C. umbellatum Gilib. CentauryB. GENTIANA L. a. G. andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian 56. APOCYNACEAE Desv. A. APOCYNUM L. a. A. androsaemifolium L. -Spreading Dogbane


51 57. ASCLEPIADACEAE Lind1. A. ASCLEPIAS L. a. A. syriaca L. -Common Milkweed 58. CONVOLVULACEAE Vent. A. CONVOLVULUS L. a. C. arvensis L. Field Bindweed b. C. sepium L. -Hedge Bindweed 59. VERBENACEAE J. St. Hi1. A. VERBENA L. a. V. hastata L. -Blue Vervain 60. LABIATAE Juss. A. GLECOMA L. a. G. hederacea L. Gi11-0ver-the-Ground B. LYCOPUS L. a. L. americanus Muh1. Cut-leaved Water Horehound C. MENTHA L. a. M. arvensis L. Field Mint D. NEPETA L. a. N. cataria L. Catnip E. PRUNELLA L. a. P. vulgaris L. Heal-all F. SCUTELLARIA L. a. S. ga1ericu1ata L. -Hooded Skullcap 1. var. pubescens Benth. G. STACHYS L. a. S. pa1ustris L. -Woundwort (Rough Hedge Nettle) 61. SOLANACEAE Zinno A. SOLANUM L. a. S. dulcamara L. -Deadly Nightshade b. S. nigrum L. -Common Nightshade 62. SCROPHULARIACEAE Lind1. A. CHELONE L. a. C. glabra L. Turt1ehead B. EUPHRASIA L. a. E. officina1is L. EyebrightC. LINARIA Mill. a. L. vulgaris Hill Butter and EggsD. VERBASCUM L. a. V. thapsus L. -Common Mullein E. VERONICA L. a. V. officina1is L. -Common SpeedWell 1. subsp. officina1is 63. PLANTAGINACEAE Lind1. A. PLANTAGO L. a. P. major L. -Common Plantain 1. subsp. major


64. RUBIACEAE B. Juss A. CEPHALANTHUS L. a. C. occidentalis L. Buttonbush B. GALIUM L. a. G. triflorum Mx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw C. MITCHELLA L. a. M. repens L. Partridgeberry 65. CAPRIFOLIACEAE Vent. A. DIERVILLA Mill. a. D. lonicera Mill. -Bush Honey Suckle B. LONICERA L. a. L. canadensis Marsh. -Fly Honey Suckle C. SAMBUCUS L. a. S. canadensis L. Elderberry D. SYMPHORICARPOS Lud. a. S. albus (L.) Blake -Snowberry E. VIBURNUM L. a. V. acerifolium L. Maple-leaved Viburnum b. V. lentago L. -Nannyberry c. V. recognitum Fern. -Arrow-wood 66. LOBELIACEAE Dumort. A. LOBELIA L. a. L. cardinalis L. Cardinal Flower ,. b. L. inflata L. Indian Tobacco :!I 67. COMPOSITAE Adans. A. ACHILLEA L. a. A. millefolium L. -Common Yarrow B. AMBROSIA L. d a. A. artemisiifolia L. -Common Ragweed C. ANAPHALIS DC. a. A. margaritacea (L.) C. B. Clarke Pearly Everlasting D. ANTHEMIS L. a. A. cotula L. -Mayweed E. ARCTIUM L. a. A. minus (Hill) Bernh. -Common Burdock F. ASTER L. a. A. cordifolius L. -Blue Wood Aster b. A. lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Starved Aster c. A. macrophyllus L. Large-leaved Aster d. A. novae-angliae L. -New England Aster e. A. tradescanti f. A. umbellatus Mill. Flat-topped Aster G. BIDENS L. a. B. cernua L. -Nodding Bur Marigold H. CHRYSANTHEMUM L. a. C. leucanthemum L. -White Daisy 1. CI CHORI UM L. a. C. intybus L. -Chickory ..._--./_.. '''-'..


55 J. CIRSIUM Mill. a. C. arvense (L.) Scop. -Canada Thistle b. C. discolor (Muhl.) Spreng. Fiel d Thistle c. C. vulgare (Savi) Ten. -Bull Thistle !I K. ERIGERON L. a. E. annuus (L.) Pers. -Daisy Fleabane b. E. conyza L. EUPATORIUM L. a. E. maculatum L. Joe-Pye Weed b. E. perfoliatum L. Boneset c. E. rugosum Houtt. -White Snakeroot M. GNAPHALIUM L. a. G. obtusifolium L. -Sweet Everlasting N. HELIANTHUS L. a. H. divaricatus L. -Woodland Sunflower o. HIERACIUM L. a. H. pratense Tausch. -King Devil P. INULA L. a. 1. helenium L. -Elecampane -Q. LACTUCA L. a. L. serriola L. Prickly Lettuce R. PRENANTHES L. a. P. alba L. Lion's Foot b. P. trifoliolata (Cass.) Fern. Rattlesnake Root S. RUDBECKIA L. a. R. hirta L. Black-Eyed Susan T. SOLI DAGO L. a. S. bicolor L. Silverrod b. S. caesia L. -Woodland Goldenrod c. S. canadensis L. -Canada Goldenrod d. S. gigantea Ait. Late Goldenrod e. S. graminifolia (L.) Salisb. Lance-leaved Goldenrod f. S. juncea Ait. Early Goldenrod U. TANACETUM L. a. T. vulgare L. -Tansy v. TARAXACUM (Haller) Ludwiq a. T. officinale Weber -Common Dandelion W. TRAGOPOGON L. a. T. pratensis L. Goat's Beard X. XANTHIUM L. a. X. strumarium L. Cocklebur


..;/ Botani cal Descri ption of Breeding Census Areas Area # 3 Shapiro's Woods There is an ecological variety in this area ranging from a damp woods (mostly deciduous) to a dry herbaceous field with a shrubby field in between. About three-fifths of the area is wooded, one-fifth shrubby, and the other fifth of this area is a field. Dominant plants in the area are: Trees: Paper Birch (Betula eapyrifera), White Pine (Pinus strobus), and Beech {Fagus grandifolia Subcanopy: Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), White Ash (Fraxinus americana), White Pine {Pinus strobUS)-;-and Hophornbeam (Ostrya -vtrgi'niana). Shrubs: Canada Honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis), and ,1Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina). Seedlings: The dominant seedling is Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum ). Herbs: Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), Sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), HeartLeaved Asters (Aster cordifolia), Goldenrod (Solidago juncea), and Timothy (Phleum pratense). r ) I


ii 58 Area # 3 Shapiro's Woods CANOPY # of # of Re1. Rel. TREE Quads Plants DBH Ht. Freq. Density Paper Bi rch 3 15 6.2" 35' 25% 36.6% (Betula papyrifera)White Pine 2 6 10 25 16.7 14.6 (Pinus strobus) Beech 1 10 7.4 47 8.3 24.4 (Fagus grandifo1ia)k 1 White Oak 1 4 14.3 30 8.3 9.7 (Quercus alba) Sugar Map1 e 1 2 20 40 8.3 4.9 (Acer saccharum) American Elm 1 1 20 50 8.3 2.4 \ (Ulmus americana) Yell ow Birch 1 1 8.5 45 8.3 2.4 (Betula a11egheniensis) WhiteAsh 1 1 6 30 8.3 2.4 (Fraxinus americana)Red Oak 1 1 12.3 65 8.3 2.4 (Quercus rubra) Distance between trees: 12' i ; I I ,." SUBCANOPY I# of # of Rel. Rel.i TREE Quads P1 ants DBH Ht. Freq. Densi ty 1 Sugar Maple 3 51 1.3" 13 1 23% 52.6% (Acer saccharum)wfiTe Ash 3 30 1.5 15 23 30.9 (Fraxinus americana) tePine 2 4 --3 15.4 4. 1 (Pinus strobus)Hophornbeam 1 4 2.6 19 7.7 4.1 (Ostrya virginiana) American Elm 1 5 2.5 21 7.7 5.2 (Ulmus americana) Black Cherry 1 1 2 10 7.7 (Prunus serotina) Paper Birch 1 1 3.6 20 7.7 1 (Betula papyrifera) Beech 1 1 2 97.7 ,grandifo1 ia) 61Distance between trees: t:


59 Area # 3 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Canada Honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis) Staghorn Sumac (Rh us typh i na ) Blackberry(Rubus allegheniensis) Alternate leaved -. Dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)Spreading Juniper (Juni2erus communis) 2 1 1 1 1 70 37 10 2 1 4 1 3 3 2 2 33.3% 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 58.3% 30.8 8.3 1.7 .8 Percent shrub cover: 17% HERBS Percent herb cover: 44.4% SEEDLINGS TREE Re1. Freq. Rel. Density Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum)White Pine (Pinus strobus)whi te Ash (Fraxinus americana)White Oak (Quercus alba)Beech -(Fagus arandifolia)Basswoo (Tilia americana) 37.5% 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 18% 60 17 4 .8 .2 ,........... ..


lift lI 60 I: "I Area # 4 -Bartlett Point There are three distinct types of vegetation in this area: a woods, a marsh, and a disturbed shrub/tree area. k The dominant woodland plants are: k Red Oak ( uercus rubra)1 Sugar Map e cer saccharum}White Pine (PTiiUS strobus) The dominant marsh pl ants: I Narrowleaved Cattails (Typha Broadleaved Arrowhead lat;folia)Flowering Rush (Butomus u ellatus)Duckweed (Lemna minor and L. tr;sulca)Hornwort (Ceratophyll urn demersum) I: The dominant shrub vegetation is: White Oak (Quercus alba) Canada Honeysuckle TLrnnicera canadensis} i Timothy (Phleum pratense)Bromus inerm;s inerm;s I ,'. -\ !. ,. tS


---61 Area # 4 -Bartlett Point CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Hts. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty Red Oak rubra) Wite Oak (Quercus alba) Sugar Map1 e (Acer saccharum)wJiTte Pine (Pinus strobus) Red Maple(Acer rubrum) 2 2 2 1 1 9 4 2 1 1 14" 15.6 9.5 16.7 5.5 55 1 40 40 50 20 25% 25 25 12.5 12.5 52.9% 23.5 11.8 5.9 5.8 Distance between trees: 15 1 SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. !)ens i ty White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Sugar Map1 e (Acer saccharum) White Pine (Pin us s t rob us )Red Mapl e (Acer rub rum) 2 1 1 1 30 2 2 1 1.5" 1.3 3.2 1 14 1 9 15 7 40% 20 20 20 85.7% 5.7 5.7 2.9 Distance between trees: 61 SHRUBS _._-SHRUB # of Quads # of P1 ants Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Canada Honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus sto1onifera) Snowberry ca rpos alba)Wltc Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana)Red Raspberry (Rubus i daeus ) 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 13 9 25 15 2 2 2 61 1 3.5 2 10 23 3 18.2% 18.2 9 9 9 9 9 15.8% 11 30.5 18.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 l ':_


11111 62 Area # 4 SHRUBS continued ( SHRUB # of Quads # of P1 ants Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Density B1 ackberry(Rhubus a11egheniensis) 1 2 51 9% 2.4% i\ Percent shrub cover: HERB Percent herb cover: 21% 76% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Density I I i :,: ,i: ;i I I I I' i j Whi te Ash (Fraxinus americana) Red Oak (Quercus rubra)Sugar Mapre--(Acer saccharum)Re

bJ Area # 5 -Miller's Camp This area is difficult to characterize. There have been many experimental plantings made. Areas of European Alder (Alnus glutinosa),Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis), Red Pine (Pinus resinosa), pitch Pine (Pinus rigida), American Chestnut (Castanea dentata), TUlip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), Basswood (Tilia americana), Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana), Norway Spruce (Picea abies), and Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) can also be found. The areas surveyed were those which seemed most typical. Also within the area are two bog-like habitats. The dominant plant in these areas is Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba).


Iii I 64 i 1 Area # 5 -Miller's Camp CANOPY # of # of Re1. Rel. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. Density Red Mapl e 1 2 16.2 11 52' 16.7% 5.7% (Acer rubrum) Paper Birch 1 1 6.8 45 16.7 2.8 (Betula papyrifera)Red Pine 1 11 5.7 40 16.7 31.4 (Pinus resinosa) RedOak 1 7 5.5 40 16.7 20 (Quercus rubra)Quaking Aspen 1 13 3 25 16.7 37 (Populus tremuloides)Ameri can El m 1 1 2.2 20 16.7 2.8 (Ulmus americana) Distance between trees: 10 1 SUBCANOPY # of # of Re1. Rel. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. Dens i ty r!. I I White Ash 3 8 1 .2 11 13 1 18.7% 22.9% I Ij (Fraxinus americana) I: ':0 ", I Red Map' e 2 3 2.6 27 12.5 8.6t: II (Acer rub rumr 0' .I Beech 1 2 1.4 9 6.2 5.7 (Fagus grandifolia) Sugar Map' e 1 1 2.9 30 6.2 2.9 (Acer saccharum) Big-toothed Aspen 1 1 .3 4 6.2 2.9 (Populus grandidentata) White Oak 1 1 1.7 25 6.2 2.9 (Quercus alba)RedOak--1 6 2 20 6.2 17 (Quercus rubra) Black Cherry 1 1 .3 3 6.2 2.9 (Prunus serotina)Basswood 2 4 .7 5 12.5 11.4 (Tilia americana) Quaking Aspen 1 5 .6 6 6.2 14.3 (Populus tremu1oides)Bi tternut 1 1 1 10 6.5 2.9 Distance between trees: 51 i ," .... if.' \,'.... ,ii" ---,-? ... "::


05 Area #5 SHRUBS SHRUB # 0 f Quads # 0 f Plants Ht. Re1 Freq. Re 1 Density Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) Northern Arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum) (Spiraea alba)Gray Do gwQOCr (Cornus racemosa)Snowberry (Symphoricarpos alba)Red Osier Dogwoocr(Cornus s tal ani fera) Gooseberry (Ribes cynosbati) Blueberry(Vaccinium angustifolium) Juneberry (Amelanchier 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 21 10 5 30 3 7 4 17 7 2 1.5 2 1.5 4 3 3 5 3 1 11 18.2% 9.1 9.1 9.1 9. 1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 19.8% 9.4 4.7 28.3 2. 8 6.6 3.8 16.0. 6.6 1.9 Percent shrub cover: 30% HERBS Percent herb cover: 38% SEEDL INGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Density Sugar Maple (Acer saccha rum) White Ash (Fraxinus americana)Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)White Pine (Pinus strobus)Quaking Aspen (PoEulus tremuloides) 37.5% 25 12.5 12.5 12.5 42.5% 25 17.5 2.5 12.5


68 Area #6 SHRUBS SHRUB # 0 f Quads # 0 f Plants Ht. Re 1 Freq. Re 1 Density Spreading Juniper (Juniperus communis)Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typh ina)Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba)Red Osier Dogwood(Cornus stolonifera)Snowberry (Symphoricarpos alba) 3 2 1 1 1 68 49 15 11 1 31 7 3 5 2 37.5% 25 12.5 12.5 12.5 47.2% 34 10.4 7.6 .7 Percent shrub cover: 43% HERBS Percent herb cover: 80% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Density White Ash (Fraxinus americana)Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Red Oak (Quercus rubra)Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)White Oak (Quercus alba) 33.3% 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 41.7% 20.8 16.7 12.5 8.3


69 Area # 7 -Thousand Island Club This area is comprised, mostly, of a tall, undisturbed, wooded area. Perhaps, though, one-fifth of the area is disturbed for about fifty yards in from the road. Found here are many of the typical pioneer species: Staghorn Sumac (Rhus tYyhina), White Ash (Fraxinus americana), and White Pine (Pinus strObus. The wooded canopy is comprised chiefly of Red Oak (Quercusrubra) and Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), with a height ranging from to seventy feet. -----Common ground cover in this area includes: Heartleaved Aster (Aster cordifolius), Canada Mayflower(Maianthemum canadense), Goldenrod (Solidaso caesia), Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), Wintergreen (Gaul therla procuiTbens), and Partridgeberry (Mitchella repens). -" ,.--.......---....-....


70 Area # 7 -Thousand Island Club CANOPY # of # of Re1. Rel. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht Freq. Density ,1: Red Oak 4 19 22.9" 65 1 26.6% 42.2% (Quercus rubra) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Red Mapl e (Acer rub rum) Beech 3 2 2 7 6 4 5.6 4.3 6.4 40 30 38 20 13.3 13.3 15.5 13.3 8.9 grandifolia) W,te Ash 2 4 6.2 33 13.3 8.9 (Fraxinus americana)White Pine 1 3 7.5 30 6.7 6.7 (Pin us s t rob us ) Shagbark Rickory ( ovata) 1 2 6.6 35 6.7 4.4 Distance between trees: 15 1 SUBCANOPY # of # of Re1. Rel. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. Densi ty Beech 3 10 2" 15 1 18.7% 16% ( Fa9Ms rrandifolia)Re ap e (Acer rub rum) Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccha rum)w'FiTte Ash 2 2 1 5 19 17 1.6 3.4 3 25 30 5 12.5 12.5 6 8 30.6 27.4 (Fraxinus americana) Bitternut Hfckory 1 4 .3 4 6 6.5 (carla cordiformis)Musc ewood 1 1 2.3 10 6 1.6 (Carainus caroliniana)Bl ad ernut 1 1 2 20 6 1.6 (Staphylea trifolia) White Pine 1 1 .8 4 6 1.6 (Pinus strobus) Red Oak 1 1 1.5 20 6 1.6 (Quercus rubra) Hophornbeam (OstrE virginiana) 1 1 .4 3 6 1.6 Distance between trees: 51


71 Area # 7 SHRUBS # of SHRUB Quads Map1e1eaf Viburnum 4 (Viburnum acerifo1ium) Witch Hazel 2 (Hamamelis virginiana)Gray DOgwood 1 (Cornus racemosa) Hawthorn 1 (Crataefius spp.)Choke C erry 1 (Prunus virginiana) Percent shrub cover: 40% HERB Percent herb cover: 40% SEEDLINGS Re1. TREE Freq. Sugar Map1 e 25% (Acer saccharum)Hophornbeam 25 (Ostrya virginiana) Red Map1 e 12.5 (Acer rubrum)BlaCk Cherry 12.5 (Prunus serotina) White Ash 12.5 (Fraxinus americana)White Pine 12.5 (Pinus strobus # of Re1. Re1. P1 ants Ht. Freq. Density 72 21 44% 62.6% 157 22 13 20 3.5 11 17.4 7 6.7 11 6 13 11 .9 Re1. Densi ty 75.7% 4.5 15.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 -,


72 Area # 8 -Brown Bay This area, like much of the surrounding land, is rocky. Abundant are: Trees: Basswood (Tilia americana), White Pine (Pinus strobus), and Whi te Oak (Quercus al ba). -Subcanopy: Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), and SugarMapl e (Acer saccharum). Shrubs: Meadowsweet alba), and Spreading Juniper (Juniperus communis) (whic was not in any of the five sampleplots. ) Herbs: Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus rUinqUefolia), Marginal fern (Dryopteris Hedge NettleStachyshalustris)Bull Thistle (C;rs;um vRlaare Bromus inermis inermis, T;met y(Phleum pratense), and e top (Agrost;s g;gantea), and Fowl Manna-Grass (Glyceria striata). I I r"


73 Area # 8 -Brown Bay CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty White Pine (Pi nus strobus) White Oak (Quercus alba)Red Oak -(Quercus rubra) Red Mapl e (Acer rub rum) Basswood (Ti1ia americana) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Hemlock (Tsu.,ga canadensJ_sJ 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 5 5 2 4 3 2 2 15.6" 5.8 5 4.8 10.7 10 18.9 49' 40 35 40 45 55 60 27.3% 18.2 18.2 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 21.7% 21. 7 8.7 17.4 13.0 8.7 8.7 Distance between trees: 12' SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Red Oak rubra) Wite Pine (Pinus strobus) 2 2 2 1 1 13 7 2 1 1 1II 2 .25 .2 2.9 14' 22 6 6 20 25.0% 25 25 12.5 12.5 54.2% 29.2 8.3 4.2 4.2 Distance between trees: 8 1 ___ __r;._-. -..............======;= ... . .. ...,-,..


Area # 8 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Plants Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Density Meadowsweet alba) Re Osier Dogwood (Cornus sto1 oni fera) Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) White Willow alba) 2 1 1 1 50 40 8 1 41 7 2 6 40.0% 20 20 20 50.0% 40 8 1 Percent shrub cover: 42% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Densi ty Whi te Ash 33.3% 64% (Fraxinus americana) Sugar Maple 33.3 16 (Acer saccharum) I: Ift Hophornbe-am 33.3 20 II (Ostrya virginiana) \ t l . HERBS Percent herb cover: 33% r .", .' "-,/,"")4 24_


75 Area # 9 St. Lawrence Park Road This is an area containing mostly marsh and shrubs. Perhapsa tenth of the area consists of an actual wooded area. Present in this wooded area are: Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)s White Ash (Fraxinus americana)s and Red Oak (QuerCUS-rubra). The canopy'height in this area averaged fifty-five feet. Prominent in the marsh areas are: Narrowleaved cattails Duckweed (Lemna minor), Buttonbush (CephalantruUs occidentalis), Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), European Frog's Bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus)s Broadleaved Arrowhead latifolia), and Willows (Salix fragilis, S. alba, and S. iscolor.) Found in the shrub area are: Gray Dogwood (Cornus racemosa)s Pin Cherry (Prunusennsylvanica), Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) and Meadowsweet Spiraea alba). I I ----iiiiiiiiii"


76 Area # 9 St. Lawrence Park Road CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Plants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Rel. Density Red Oak (Que rcus rub ra ) Paper Bi rch (Betula papyrifera)Sugar r1a pl e (Acer saccharum)Rerc-Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) White Pine (Pinus strobus) 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 14.511 12.5 9.4 12 7.2 55 1 55 60 40 40 20% 20 20 20 20 36.4% 27.3 18.2 9. 1 9.1 Distance between trees: 71 SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Densi ty Red Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)Black Cherry(Prunus serotina) Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) Sugar Maple(Acer saccharum)Red Oak (Quercus rubra) 2 2 2 1 1 15 11 10 3 1 .9 11 1 .8 2.9 1. 5 11 1 9 11 30 20 25% 25 25 12.5 12.5 37.5% 27.5 25 7.5 '2.5 Distance between trees: 3.5 1


I:;to' I{ , J I:,"I ,I I !,' 77 Area # 9 SHRUBS # of # of Re1. Re1. SHRUB Quads Pl ants Ht. Freq. Density Red Osier Dogwood 2 6 4' 15.4% 3.8% (Cornus stolonifera) Buttonbush 1 8 7 7.7 5 (Cehalanthus occidental is) Meaaowsweet 1 10 3 7.7 6.4 (Spiraea alba) Map1e1eafVlburn urn 1 56 2 7.7 35.7 (Viburnum acerifolium) Witch Hazel 1 23 5 7.7 14.6 (Hamamelis virginiana) Rose 1 4 1 7.72.5 (Rosa blanda) Speckl ed Al der 1 20 8 7.7 12.7 (Alnus incana) Coral berry 1 1 8 7.7 .6 orbiculatus) Snowerry 1 1 2 7.7 .6 (Symphori al bus) Late Low Blue erry 1 15 3 7.7 9.5 (Vaccinium angustifolium) Pin Cherry 1 6 4 7.7 3.8 (Prunus pennsYlvanica) Gray Do gwood 1 7 5 7.7 4.4 (Cornus racemosa) Percent shrub cover: 25% SEEDLINGS Re1. Re1. TREE Freq. Density Sugar Mapl e 33.3% 36.2% (Acer saccharum)wnrte Ash 33.3 55 (Fraxinus americana) Bl ack Cherry 16.6 1.2 (Prunus serotina) White Pine 16.6 7.5 (Pi nus strobus) HERBS Percent herb cover: 25% I I I i i: \.


78 Area # 10 -Cranberry Creek Half of this area is characterized by marsh vegetation. Dominant spec i es are: Narrowleaved cattails angustifolia), Duckweed (Lemnaminor), Broadleaved Arrowhead (Saglttaria latifolia), European Frog1s Bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), and Bulb-Bearing Water Hemlock (Cicutabulbifera). The remaining half of the area contains both disturbed, shrubby fields, and mature woods. Present in the shrubby fields are: Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides), Black Locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia), Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) and Timothy (Phleum pratense). Of the most interest, botanically, is a strip of relatively undisturbed woods. Due to the rocky area and drops of twenty to thirty feet, perhaps a tenth of a mile consists of seemingly untouched vegetation. The dominant tree, in this area, is the Basswood (Tilia americana), which averages seventy-five feet in height. Also of interest, are several comparatively large Striped Maples (Acer ens lvanicum), well over thirty feet in height. Also present are Sugar Map e cer saccharum) and Paper Birch (Betula There is very little-[r%} ground cover. Of this percent, So(}mon1s-Seal (Polygonatum biflorum), and Woodland Goldenrod (Solidago caesia) dominate.'


79 Area # 10 Cranberry Creek CANOPY ---_.TREE Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) Red Oak (Quercus rubra)Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) Bi gtoo th As pen (POfU1US grandidentata)Yel ow Birch (Betula al1eghaniensis) Beech grandifolia)Hop ornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Bl ack Loc us t (Robinia pseudo-acacia)Basswood {Tilia americana # of Quads 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 # of Pl ants 10 2 1 1 3 2 8 1 5 3 2 DBH 3.811 6.4 8.8 9 3.6 4.8 4 4.7 2.7 2.5 18 Ht. 40' 45 45 45 30 50 40 40 35 30 75 Re1. Freq. 15.4% 15.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.5 Rel. Density 26.3% 5.3 2.6 2.6 7.9 5.3 21.0 2.6 38.5 7.0 5.3 i' rl l', \ .., 1Ii i, i i -I Distance between trees: 14' SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Density Bi gtoo th As pen(Popul us grandidentata)Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Sugar Maple(Acer saccharum)Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)Bl ack Cherry(Prunus seroti na) 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 16 15 6 2.2 11 2 2.3 1.5 2.2 18' 10 25 15 20 20.0% 20 20 20 20 5.0% 2.5 40 37.5 15 Distance between trees: 10' -------.. ._.


80 SHRUBS # of SHRUB Quads Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) Snowberry 1 Re edar orbiculatis) 1 (Juniperous virginiana) White Willow (Salix alba)Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba) Percent shrub cover: 15% SEEDLINGS Rel. TREE Quaking Aspen 20.0% (Populus tremuloides) Black Locust 20 (Robinia fseudo-acacia) Sugar Map e 20 (Acer saccharum) Paper Birch 20 (Betula papYrifera)Red Maple 20 (Acer rubrum) HERBS Percent herb cover: 31% Area # 10 # of P1 ants 30 280 2 5 7 Ht. '32.5 10 10 3 Rel. Density 11.3% 8. 1 64.5 4.8 11.3 Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty 25.0% 9.2% 20 86.4 20 .6 20 1.5 20 2.2


81 Area # 11 Indian Point Road This is a diverse area. There is a marsh area, an area dominated by White Pine (Pinus strobus), and a shrubby area. Most of the area is sandy. The marshy area is typified by: Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba) Narrow1eaved Cattails-rf;Ypha Broad1eaved Arrowhead 1atifo1ia) Duckweek (Lemna minor and L. trisulca) Willow (Salix pet;olaris)Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsy1vanica var. subintegerrima) .1 I, I, I I i ! The wooded area is dominated by White Pine and White Oak (Quercus ialba). The shrubby area is dominated by Hawthorn (Crataegus and Juneberry (Ame1anchier spp.). j. II iIl I


82 Area # 11 Indian Point Road CANOPY # of # of Re1. Re1. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. Densi ty White Pine 3 24 9" 40 1 20% 26.1 % (Pi nus strobus) White Oak 3 6 12.4 45 20 6.5 (Quercus alba)Red Maple 1 18 2.5 35 6.7 19.6 (Acer rubrum) Quaking Aspen 1 18 7.5 40 6.7 19.6 (Populus tremuloides) Paper Birch 1 8 3 30 6.7 8.7 (Betu1 a papyri fera) Musclewood 1 8 1.9 30 6.7 8.7 (Carpinus caro1iniana)White Ash 1 4 2.5 20 6.7 4.3 (Fraxinus americana)RedOak 1 2 3 35 6.7 2.2 rubra) S agbark Hickory 1 2 7 40 i 6.7 2.2 (farra ovata)'it Bac Cherry 1 1 2.5 35 6.7 1.1ii ,;t (Prunus serotina) ., Gray Bi rch 1 1 3.2 30 6.7 1.1 ., (Betula ulifo1ia) Distance between trees: 14 1 SUBCANOPY # of # of Re1. Re1. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. Dens ity 111Musc1ewood 2 9 10 1 22.2% 25.7% (Carpinus caro1iniana) Green Ash 2 14 1.1 10 11. 1 40 (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima Sugar Maple 1 6 .2 5 11. 1 17. 1 (Acer saccharum)Snagoark Hickory 1 3 .5 10 11.1 8.6 (farka ovata) Bac Cherry 1 1 2 20 11. 1 2.9 (Prunus serotina)Red Maple 1 1 1.5 10 11. 1 2.9 (Acer rubrum) White Oak 1 1 1 15 111 2.9 (Quercus alba) Distance between trees: 81 !:'.. I I .. -I


Area # 11 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Plants Ht. Meadowsweet (Spiraea alba)Juneberry-(Amelanchier spp.) Northern Arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp. Willow (Salix petiolaris)Red Osier DOgwood(Comus s to 1oni fera)Rose (Rosa bl anda) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 90 20 20 3 15 12 14 31 4 2 4 10 8 2 Percent shrub cover: 37% I SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Re1. Density Red Mapl e (Acer rubrum)Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Quaki ng Aspen (Populus tremuloides)White Ash (Fraxinus americana)White Pine (Pinus strobus) Paper Bi rch (Betula papyrifera) Red Oak rubra) Back Cherry (Prunus serotina) 30% 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9.6% 37 22.2 11. 1 8.1 5.2 5.2 1.5 i. i \ ! i i \ HERBS Percent herb cover: 29% !, _. -.'


84 Area # 12 -Duck Cove area As with most of the St. is very rocky. Lawrence River region, part of the Dominant vegetation is: Trees: Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Eastern Hemlock (TSU 9 \ canadensis) White Pine (Pinus s tro us) Subcanopy: Hophornbeam (Ostrya vi Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Shrubs: Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Blueberry (Vacc;n;um angustifolium) I Herbs: Speedwell (Veronica officinal is)Buttercup (Ranunculus acrls) ,",t '. ".-., -'7. ..


85 Area # 12 -Duck Cove CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Eas tern Hemlock canadensis)W,te Pine (Pinus strobus) Shagbark Hickory ( rya 0 va ta ) W,te Ash (Fraxinus americana) Red Map1 e (Acer rubrum) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 22 5 15 2 9 4 4 14 11 12 11 8 3 2.5 4.3 55 1 50 60 35 30 20 40 28.6% 21.4 14.3 14.3 71 7. 1 7.1 3.6% 8.2 24.6 3.3 14.8 6.6 6.6 Distance between trees: 13 1 SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Musc1ewood (Carpinus caro1iniana)White Ash (Fraxinus americana)White Pine (Pinus strobus)Red Oak (Quercus rubra) 4 3 2 2 2 1 36 20 18 11 7 4 1111 1 1 11 17 .2 11 1 10 8 15 9 4.5 28.6% 21.4 14.3 14.3 14.3 7. 1 37.5% 20.8 18.8 11 5 7.3 4.2 Distance between trees: 10 1


86 Area # 12 SHRUBS # of # of Re1. Re1. SHRUB Quads Pl ants Ht. Freq. Density Map1e1eaf Viburnum 1 40 2' 14.3% 24.4% (Viburnum acerifo1ium) Northern Arrowwood 1 15 2 14.3 9.1 (Viburnum recognitum) Hawthorn 1 10 8 14.3 6.1 (Crataegus spp.) Roundleaf Juneberry 1 10 4 14.3 6. 1 (Ame1anchier sanguinea)Bl ueberry 1 75 1 14.3 45.7 (Vaccinium angustifo1ium) wi tch Hazel 1 7 5 14.3 4.3 (Hamamelis virginiana) Purple Flowering Raspberry 1 7 3 14.3 4.3 ( Rub us odo ra tus ) Percent shrub cover: 29% r SEEDLINGS I Re1. Re1. TREE Freq. Density Sugar Maple 17.6% 29.2% (Acer saccharum) w'Fi1'te As h 17.6 26.9 (Fraxinus americana)Red Oak 17.6 12.3 (Quercus rubra) White Pine 17.6 4.4 (Pinus strobus)Hophornbeam 11.8 14.6 (Ostrya virginiana) Musc1ewood 5.9 5.8 carol iniana) Re ape 5.9 5.8 (Acer rubrum)Sna.goark Hi ckory 5.9 5.8 (Carla ovata) HERBS Percent herb cover: 33% I ... _I.


87 Area # 14 Sturgeon Point This area, also, is diverse; two-fifths consists of the typical shrubby, rocky, field growth, two-fifths are wooded, and one-fifth is a swampy transition zone between the two other types of vegetation. Common in the shrub/tree area are: American Elm (Ulmus americana) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Speckled Alder (Alnus incana) Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) Haircap Moss (Polytrichum spp.) Raindeer Lichen (Cladonia spp.) Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)Timothy (Phleum pratense) !I, !Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Common in the swamp area are: Narrowleaved Cattails (Typha angustifolia) Swamp Candles (Lysimachia terrestris) i Manna-Grass (Glyceria sPP.) ,Ii :I Dominant trees in the wooded area are: ,!I"l .1,Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Eastern canadensis) :I Red Oak (Quercus ru ra) I ,I i


88 Area # 14 Sturgeon Point CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Rel Freq. Rel. Densit Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Basswood (Tilia americana) Eastern Hemlock 3 2 2 1 5 3 2 5 10" 8.5 13.5 11 501 40 52 45 27.3% 18.2 18.2 9.1 23.8% 14.3 9.5 23.8 canadensis)Re apl e (Acer rubrum) RecrDak us rub ra ) Wi te Oak (Quercus alba) 1 1 1 3 2 1 12.5 16.4 10 65 60 50 9.1 9.1 9.1 14.3 9.5 4.8 Distance between trees: 18 1 qif l! SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Rel. Densit Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)Gray Birch (Betula populifolia) Eastern Hemlock canadensis)Re apl e (Acer rubrum) Paper Bi rch (Betula hapYrifera)White As (Fraxinus americana) whi te Pine (Pinus strobus)Basswood (Tilia americana) Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana) Common Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 23 11 8 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 1.8" 2 2 3.2 1.1 2.8 3. 1 4.5 2.5 3.1 2 18 1 30 15 17 11 10 20 15 20 25 20 21.4% 14.3 7. 1 7. 1 7. 1 7. 1 7.1 7. 1 7.1 7.1 7. 1 16.2% 33.8 20.6 11.8 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.9 7.3 Distance between trees: 12 1 L


89 Area # 14 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of P1 ants Ht. Rel. Freq. Re1. Density Red Raspberry (Rubus i daeus) Spreading Juniper (Juniperus communis) Purpl e Flowering Raspberry (Rubus odoratus) Speckled Alder (A1 nus rugosa) 2 35 12 7 2 31 3 3 10 40% 20 20 20 62.5% 21.4 12.5 3.6 Percent shrub cover: 18% TREE SEEDLINGS Rel. Freq. Re1. Dens ity Sugar Map1 e (Ace r s accha rum) Gray Bi rch (Betula populifolia) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Eas tern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) El derberry (Sambucus canadensis) Bl ack Cherry (Prunus serotina) Basswood (Tilia americana) White Oak alba) W ite Pine (Pinus strobus) 27.3% 9. 1 9. 1 9.1 9. 1 9.1 9. 1 9. 1 9. 1 39.5% 24.7 9.9 6.2 6.2 3.7 3.7 3.7 2.5 HERBS Percent herb cover: 41 %


-90 Area # 15 -Little Hammond Point This area consists of about three-fifths woods and two-fifths shrubby fiel ds. The wooded area is dominated by: Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Beech Fdifolia)Hophorn eam ( strya virginiana)Musclewood (Carpinus carolin;ana) Viburnums (Viburnum spp.) Goldenrod (Solidaso caesia) Aster (Aster cord,folia) The shrubby vegetation includes: White Pine (Pinus strobus) Bl ueberry (Vaccinium corijbosum) Poison-Ivy (Rhus radicans Redtop (AgrostTS g;gantea)


91 Area # 15 -Little Hammond Point CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Beech {Fagus grandifolia} Sugar Map' e {Acer saccha rum} White Pine {Pi nus st rob us } White Oak {Quercus al ba} Red Mapl e {Acer rubrum} BTaCk" Cherry {Prunus serotina} Northern White Cedar {Thuja occidental is} 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 5 5 5 4 1 1 14.3" 21.6 10.3 14 6 7 4 58 1 61 50 45 15 25 20 23% 23 15.4 15.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 22.7% 22.7 22.7 18.2 4.5 4.5 4.5 Distance between trees: 20 1 SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Beech firandifolia}Hop orn earn {Ostrya virginiana} Musclewood {Carpinus caroliniana}White Pine {Pinus strobus Red Mapl e {Acer rubrum} 3 3 3 46 38 12 5 3 2.5" 2.2 2.6 .2 3 29 1 17 20 4 30 27.3% 27.3 27.3 9.1 9. 1 44.2% 36.5 11 .5 4.8 2.9 Distance between trees: 41


r 92 SHRUBS SHRUB B1 ueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) Map1 el eaf Viburnum (Viburnum acer1fo1ium) Northern Arrowwood (Viburnum recognitum) Present shrub cover: 21% SEEDLINGS TREE White Pi ne (Pinus strobus) Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) Beech (FagMs rrandifo1 i a) Re ap e (Acer rubrum) BTa'C'I< Cherry (Prunus serotina) White Oak (Quercus alba) HERBS Percent herb cover: 32% Area # 15 # of # of Quads P1 ants 2 70 30 5 Re1. Freq. 25% 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 Re1. Re1. Ht. Freq. Density 7' 50% 66.7% 2 25 28.6 2 25 4.8 Re1. Density 7.9% 54 11.9 9.5 9.5 4 3.2


Area # 16 Pleasant Valley Road This area is one-half heavily wooded and one-half shrubby field. The wooded area is dominated by Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) and Beech (Fagus grandifolia), with an average canopy height of fifty-five feet. Sugar Maple is also the dominant subcanopy and seedling. Typical of a wooded area, the common shrub is Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium). The other half of the area is composed of White Pine (Pinus strobus),White Oak ( uercus alba), Big-toothed Aspen (Poeulus grandidentata), and a ground cover 0 POTSOn Ivy (Rhus radicans), Vlrginia Creeper (Parthenocissus Juinguefolia), Red Top (Agrostis gigantea), Timothy(Phleum pratense and Orchard Grass-(Dactylis glomerata). Part of the area (mostly the wooded area) is very rocky and has a considerable slope.


94 Area # 16 Pleasant Valley Road CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Suga r Mapl e (Acer saccharum) w'fl"ft'e As h (Fraxinus americana) Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Big-toothed Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Bitternut Hi ckory (farta cordifonnis) B ac Cherry (Prunus serotina)Shagbark Hickory (cary\ovata)Re Oa rubra) W He Pine (Pinus strobus) White Oak (Que rc us alba) 2 2 2 7 3 2 4 2 3 10.611 5.2 7 7.9 7 5 10 18 16 15.5 52 1 40 40 40 45 35 45 60 55 60 15.4% 15.4 15.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 28% 12 8 16 8 4 4 4 4 12 Di stance between trees: 151 SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum)Basswood (Tilia americana) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) White Oak (guercus alba) B1 g-too thecrAs pen (Populus grandidentata) Red Oak (Quercus rubra) 3 3 2 2 33 3 49 2 3 2.4 11 1.7 3.5 6 1 2.5 30 1 15 15 30 35 4 25 23% 23 15.4 15.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 35.9% 3.3 53.3 2.2 3.3 1.1 1.1 Distance between trees: 10 1


95 SHRUBS SHRUB Mapleleaf Viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Red Osier Dogwood (Comus stolonifera) Percent shrub cover: 9% SEEDLINGS TREE Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) White Oak (Quercus alba) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Basswood (Tilia americana) Red Oak (Quercus rubra) HERBS Percent herb cover: 72% Area # 16 # of # of Re1. Re1. Quads Pl ants Ht. Freq. Dens i ty 2 35 31 50% 71.4% 8 10 25% 16.3% 6 4 25% 12.2% Re1. Re1. Freq. Dens i ty 28.6% 57.4% 14.3 3.2 21.4 5.5 14.3 16.2 14.3 15.7 7.1 2


94 Area # 18 -Morristown Railroad In general this was a disturbed area. While perhaps two-fifths of the area could be considered wooded, the other three-fifths was shrubby or young woods with alot of shrub present. Dominant trees in the wooded section are Sugar Maple (Acersaccharum) and Red Oak ( uercus rubra); while both MusclewOoa-[carbinus caroliniana) and Hophorn earn strya virginiana) are present as su canopy trees. Much of the area is rocky and alot of the ground cover consists of debris. Herbs. such as Goldenrod (Solidago caesia), Hepatica (Hepatica acutiloba) and Aster (Aster cordifolius), are common. Dominant vegetation in the shrubby area is White Ash (Fraxinus americana), American Elm (Ulmus americana), Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhira),and Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.). me


97 Area # 18 -Morristown Rail road CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Sugar Map1 e (Acer saccharum) ReaDak (Quercus rubra) White Ash (Fraxinus americana)Basswood (Ti1ia americana) Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordifonnis) 4 2 18 2 3 2 4.2 11 15 7.2 9.5 7.5 41' 65 43 60 50 44.4% 22 11 11 11 69% 7.7 11.5 7.7 3.8 Distance between trees: 15' SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Plants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) White Ash (Fraxinus americana)Ameri can El m (U1 mus ameri cana) B1 ack Cherry (Prunus serotina) Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Shagba rk Hi ckory (Carya ovata) 4 3 2 2 2 30 3 15 5 2 3 3.2 11 2.7 2.2 5.2 1.8 2 .6 24 1 17 17.5 33 15 15 10 25% 19 12.5 12.5 12.5 6 6 50% 5 25 8.3 3.3 5 '1. 7 Distance between trees: 71


98 Area # 18 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) 4 125 76 7 Percent shrub cover: 28% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Sugar e (Acer saccharum) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Bitternut Hickory (Carra cordifonnis) Bl ac Cherry (Prun us serotina) American Elm (Ulmus americana) Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) Basswood (Tilia americana) 33.3% 16.7 16.,7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 HERBS Percent herb cover: 53% Rel. Rel. Ht. Freq. Dens ity 3 1 66.7% 60% 4 16.7 36.5 4 16.7 3.4 Rel. Density 73.7% 16.6 .9 3.9 3 .9 .9


99 Area # 20 -Dump Road This area is divided between disturbed woods and successional shrub/tree fields. In the middle of the area is an old town dump, not yet at the field stage. The dominant trees in the wooded area are Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), Red Oak (Quercus rubra) and Beech (Fafius grandfoTTaT, with Beech and Sugar also, the dominant su canopy trees. There are virtually no shrubs in this area with little (30%-40%) herb cover. The shrubby area is comprised largely of American Elm (Ulmusamericana), Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typira), and Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.).


100 9E Area # 20 -Dump Road CANOPY # of # of Rel. Rel TREE Quads Pl an ts DBH Ht. Freq. Densi Red Oak 2 4 10.4" 551 25% 17 (Quercus rubra) Suga r Mapl e 6 7.9 40 12.5 26 (Acer saccha rum) Beech 5 7.6 45 12.5 21. 7 (Fagus grandi fo 1ia) Bitternut Hickory 3 7.2 45 12.5 13 (Carya cordiformis) Northern White Cedar 3 8.2 30 12.5 13 (Thuja occidental is) Quak ing Aspen 11 .8 40 12.5 4.3 (Populus tremuloides) Gray Bi rch 1 7.3 35 12.5 4.3 (Betula populifolia) Distance between trees: 81 SUB CANOPY # of # of Rel. Rel. TREE Quads Plants DBH Ht. Freq. Densit II Northern White Cedar 2 22 2. 11 12 1 16.7% 30%i; (Thuja occidental is)i' Sugar Maple 2 20 4. 1 32 16.7 27.4 (Acer saccharum) Amerlcan El m 2 5 2.8 20 16.7 6.8 (Ulmus americana) Bitternut Hickory 8 1.5 15 3.3 10.9 (Carya cordi formis) Quaking Aspen 7 4.2 25 8.3 9.6 (Populus tremuloides) White Spruce 5 3.5 15 8.3 6.8 (Pi cea gl auca) Beech 4 2.4 20 8.3 5.4 grandifolia)Wlte Ash .5 7 8.3 1.4 (Fraxinus americana) Red Pine 7.2 20 8.3 1.4 (Pinus resinosa) 91Distance between trees:

PAGE 100

-101 Area # 20 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Re1. Freq. Rel. Density Gray Dogwood (Cornus racemosa) Bl ack Ras pberry (Rubus occidental is) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) BTaCl
PAGE 101

.. 102 Area # 21 -Waddington Railroad One of the more interesting area studied, this railroad bed and the surrounding vegetation appears to have been undisturbed for quite awhile. While sections are sandy and dry, considerable area is wet and marshy. The dry, sandy areas are dominated by: Trees: White Pine (Pinus strobus) Eas tern Henl10ck (Tsuga canadens is) Gray Birch (Betula populifolia) Red e (Acer rubrum) Subcanopy: Gray Bi rch (Betul a popul Hol i a)Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Shrubs: Chokeberry (pyrus melanocarpa) Herbs: Running Pine (Lycopodium complanatum var. flabelliforme) Haircap Moss (POlytrichum spp.) Clintonia (Clintonia borealis) In the marshy areas are: Wi 11 ows (Sal ix s pp. ) Mountain Holly (Nemoranthus mucronata)Narrowhead Cattails Typha angustifolia) Jointweed (Polygonala americana) Turtlehead (Chelone glabra)

PAGE 102

103 Area # 21 -Waddington Railroad CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty White Pine (Pinus strobus) Red Mapl e (Acer rubrum) Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) Gray Bi rch (POfU1US Yel ow Birc (Betula allegheniensis) 4 3 2 12 6 2 3 1 12.411 9.6 8 6.8 11.6 60 1 55 50 40 50 36% 27.3 18.2 9 9 50% 25 8.3 12.5 4.2 Di stance between trees: 15 1 SUB CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Gray Bi rch (Betula populifolia)White Pine (Pinus strobus)Red Maple(Acer rubrum) Eas tern Hemlock canadensis)Qua 1ng Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Bl ack Cherry (Prunus serotina) 4 2 1 33 28 15 13 6 3 2. 111 1.7 4.4 1.5 1.4 24 1 13 30 12 17.5 4 40% 20 10 10 10 10 33.7% 28.6 15.3 13.3 6. 1 3. 1 Distance between trees: 71

PAGE 103

104 Area # 21 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Dens i ty Mountain Holly (Nemopanthus mucronata) Wh ite wil' ow (Salix alba) Chokeberry (pyrus mel ano) 1 25 20 7 51 20 5 33.3% 33.3 33.3 48% 38.5 13.5 Percent shrub cover: 17% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Density Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Bl ack Cherry (Prunus serotina) Gray Bi rch (Betula popul ifol ia) White Pine (Pinus strobus) Eas tern Hem' ock (Tsufia canadensis) Beec (Fagus grandi fol i a) 26.7% 20 20 20 6.7 6.7 56% 14.8 14.8 7.1 5.5 1.6 HERBS Percent herb cover: 55%

PAGE 104

105 Area # 24 -Wilson Hill West This area, being state protected, contains a nice assortment of not-so-common herbs. The area is sandy with some parts being wetter than others. Predominant trees are: Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Frequent subcanopy trees: Northern White Cedar (Jhuja occi dental is)Red e (Acer rub rum White Pine strobus) Sh rubs: Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Ras pberri es (Rubus s pp. ) Herbs: Pyro1a (Pyro1a e11iptica)Go1dthread ((optis groenlandica) Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) Moccasin-flower (Cypripedium acau1e) Si1verweed (Potenti11a anserina) Cocklebur (Xanthium chinense)Tree C1 ubmoss (Lycopodj urn obscurum) Running Pine (Lycorodium comp1anatum var. f1 abe11 i forme) Staghorn C1ubmoss Lycopodium clauatum)Cyperus stri gosa Carex vUlpinoidea

PAGE 106

107 Area # 24 SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Red Mapl e (Acer rubrum) Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)Gray Birch (Betula populifolia)Beech (Fagus Paper B1 rch (Betula papyrifera) 33.3% 25 25 8.3 8.3 HERBS Percent herb cover: 70% Rel. Density 58.6% 17.8 17.2 3.6 2.9

PAGE 107

p-108 1 Area # 25 -Wilson Hill East This is quite a diverse area but, even though under state protection, it is also, largely, a disturbed area. There are wooded sections followed by shrubbed areas, then fields, and back again to woods. The majority of the area is woody/shrubby. Dominant trees in the wooded sections are: Northern White Cedar (Thuja occidental is) White Pine (Pinus strobus) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) White Spruce (Picea glauca) Dominant trees in the shrubby area are: Green Ash (Fraxinus enns lvanica var. subintegerrima) White Ash (Fraxinus americana Quaking Aspen (Populus-1remuloides)

PAGE 108

109 Area # 25 -Wilson Hill East CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Densi ty White Pine (Pinus strobus) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Quaki ng Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns lvanica var. subintegerrima Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Northern White Cedar (Thuja occidental is) White Spruce (Picea glauca) 3 2 2 1 8 15 7 3 3 3 2 16.911 8.7 5 4.3 4.4 5.9 7.4 60' 50 45 40 40 30 40 25% 16.7 16.7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 18.6% 34.9 16.3 7.6 7 7 4.6 Distance between trees: 151 SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Plants DBH Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Densi ty Green Ash (Fraxi nus enns 1van i ca var. sublntegerrlma Red Mapl e (Acer rubrum) BTaCI< Cherry (Prunus serotina) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) whi te Pine (Pinus strobus) Northern White Cedar (Thuja occidental is) Paper Birch (Betul a papyri fera) White Spruce (Pi cea gl auca ) Ameri can El m 2 1 1 1 30 15 12 7 7 4 4 4 2 .211 3 .4 2.7 4 3.4 4 3 .7 6 1 35 8 25 30 20 2020 8: 20% 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 35.3% 17.6 14 8.2 8.2 4.7 4.7 4.7 2.3 (Ulmus americana) Distance between trees: 51

PAGE 109

110 Area # 25 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densit.l Hav/thorn ( Crataegus spp.)Bl ackberry (Rubus Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) 3 2 40 117 5 3 61 4 3.5 3 42.8% 28.6 14.3 14.3 24% 72.2 3. 1 1.8 Percent shrub cover: 40% SEEDLINGS TREE Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty Green Ash (Fraxinus eennsylvanica var. sublntegerrima) Bl ack Cherry(Prunus serotina) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Red Map' e (Acer rubrum) Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana)Basswood (Tilia americana) White Pine (Pi nus strobus) Northern White Cedar (Thuja occidental is) Suga r Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Tamarack (Larix laricina)Whi te Spruce (Pi cea 91 auca) 11.8% 11.8 11.8 11.8 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 11.8 5.9 30.2% 24.8 19.8 8.1 4.5 3. 1 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.3 .9 HERBS Percent herb cover: 40%

PAGE 110

111 Area # 26 -Whalen Road This area is divided almost equally into wooded and shrub/tree/marsh habitats. The entire area is wet, as evidenced by the dominant trees; Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum), Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. and Basswood (Til;a americana). Other common plants include: Lady Fern (Athyrium Felix-femina) Royal Fern (Osmunda regal is) Wood Nettle (Larortea canadensis) Turtlehead (Che one glabra) Boneset (Eupatorium erfoliatum) Cardinal Flower (Lobe la car lnalis) Carex lugulinaCarex be bii Carex annectens Carex crinita Wool grass (Scripus cyperinus) Wild Rye (bYiuS virgin;cus virginicus) Bluejoint a amagrostis canadensis) Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea)

PAGE 111

112 Area # 26 -Whalen Road CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Plants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re 1 Dens i Sil ver Mapl e (Acer saccha ri num) White Willow (Salix alba) QuakingAS"Pen(Popul us tremuloides) Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns lvanica va r. s Ubl ntegerrlma 3 1 15 8 2 2 10. ]U 9. 1 12.9 5.2 53.5 1 65 55 30 50% 16.7 16.7 16.7 55.5% 29.6 7.4 7.4 Distance between trees: 15 1 SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1 Dens; Basswood (Tilia americana)American Elm (Ulmus americana) Sil ve r r4a p1e (Acer saccharinum)Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns 1van i ca yare subintegernma Musclewood (Carpinus carol;niana) Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) 4 3 3 2 13 16 27 21 10 3 2" .5 2.7 1.9 2.5 15.1 I 7 19 14 25 4 28.6% 21.4 21.4 14.3 7. 1 7. 1 14.4% 17.8 30.0 23.3 11.7 3.3 Distance between trees: 51

PAGE 112

113 SHRUBS SHRUB Gooseberry ( Ri bes s pp. ) Red Osier Dog,/Ood (Cornus sto1onifera) Percent shrub cover: 5% SEEDLINGS TREE Green Ash (Fraxi nus enns 1vanica var. sublntegerrlma Si 1ver Map' e (Acer saccharinum) Ameri can E1 m (Ulmus americana) Quaking Aspen (Popu1 us tremu1 0 ides) Basswood (Ti1ia americana) Musclewood (Carpinus caro1iniana) HERBS Percent herb cover: 90% Area # of Quads' # 26 # of P1 ants 30 2 Ht. 3' 2.5 Re1. Freq. 50% 50 Re1. Densi ty 93.8% 6.2 Rel. Freq. 30.8% 30.8 15.4 7.7 7.7 7.7 Re1. Dens i ty 51. 6% 21.3 6.6 82 6.6 5.7

PAGE 113

114 Area # 27 -Donahgue Road A disturbed site with some places quite wet means this area is dominated by only a few trees: Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsy1vanica var. subintegerrima), American Elm (Ulmus americana), and (on nigherground) Sugar Map1 e (Acer saccharum). The most noticeable type of growth, however, is the shrubs. Pre vailing are: Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), Wild Grape (Vitis ri)aria),Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), Willow (Salix etTOTaris Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), and Choke Cherry {Prunus virglnlana Dominant ground cover are: Timothy (Ph1eum ratense) Reed Canary Grass P alaris arundinacea) Bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens)

PAGE 114

115 Area # 27 -Donahgue Road CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Dens i ty American Elm (Ulmus americana) Green Ash (Fraxi nus enns 1van i ca var. sublntegerrlma Sugar Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Basswood (Tilia americana) Beech (Fagus grandifolia) 2 2 2 12 3 2 711 9.5 21.1 20.4 17 45 1 37 55 65 45 25% 25 25 12.5 12.5 63.1% 15.8 10.5 5.3 5.3 Distance between trees: 20' SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana) Basswood (Tilia americana) Green Ash (Fraxinus enns lvanica var. sublntegerrlma Gray Bi rch (Betul a popul ifo 1i a) Black Locust (Robinia vseudo-acacia) Sugar Map e (Acer saccharum) Boxel der (Acer negundo) 4 2 1 1 38 8 22 6 5 4 3 5.5" 2.3 .6 2.8 4.5 .5 1 13' 21 10 33 30 5 10 36.4% 18.2 9.1 9. 1 9. 1 9.1 9.1 44.2% 9.3 25.6 7 5.8 4.6 3.5 Di stan ce be tween trees: 5'

PAGE 115

" 116 Hi Area # 27 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Rel. Freq. De Red Os ier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) Grape (Vitis riparia) Red Raspberry (Rubus i daeus ) Wi now (Salix *etiolaris)Choke C erry (Prunus virginiana) Lilac (Syringa vulgaris) Sta gho rn Sumac ( Rh us ty ph ina) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Appl e (pyrus rna 1 us) 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 125 44 20 70 15 12 4 3 3.5' 3 3 10 3 6 10 7 6 25% 18.7 12.5 12.5 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 42 15 6 23 5 4 1 1 Percent shrub cover: 46% SEEDLINGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Densi ty Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) American Elm (Ul mus ameri cana) Basswood (Tilia americana) Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns lvanica var. subintegerrima Boxel der (Acer negundo) BT"a"Cl< Locus t (Robinia pseudo-acacia Beech ( Fagus grandifolia) 20% 20 20 10 10 10 10 19% 18.2 10.5 30 14 4.9 3.5 HERBS Percent herb cover: 37%

PAGE 116

117 Area # 29 -Chevy Plant Typical of this general area, disturbed-site species prevail. Perhaps a quarter of the area is moist, while the remainder is onlyslightly drier. The entire area is composed of rocky patches and sandy soil. The predominant type of vegetation is in the fonn of shrubs. Dominant trees are: Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima)Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) American Elm (Ulmus americana) Predominant shrubs are: Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) Red Osier Dogwood-rcornus stolonifera)Gray Dogwood (Cornus racemosa) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) The mos t common ground cover: Horsetail (Eguisetum arvense)

PAGE 117

118 1 Area # 29 -Chevy Plant CANOPY TREE # of Quads # of Pl ants DBH Ht. Rel. Freq. Re1. Density Quaking Aspen(Populus tremuloides Basswood (Ti1ia americana)Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana) Whi te Oak alba) i te Ash (Fraxinus americana) Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns 1 vanica var. sublntegerrlma 4 2 1 1 1 30 10 7 4 3 4" 4 4.5 3.5 4 3.2 34 1 35 35 25 30 30 40% 20 10 10 10 10 54.5% 18.2 12.6 7.3 5.4 1.8 Distance between trees: 9' SUBCANOPY TREE # of Quads # of P1 ants DBH Ht. Re1. Freq. Rel. Dens ity Quak"ing Aspen (Populus tremuloides)Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana)Green Ash (Fraxinus enns 1vanica var. sublntegernma Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Shagbark Hickory (Ca rya ovata) 3 3 2 2 1 17 9 36 11 15 2" 3.7 1 .2 20' 35 10 4 8 27.3% 27.3 18.2 18.2 9.1 19.3% 10.2 40.9 12.5 17 Distance between trees: 51

PAGE 118

119 Area # 29 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of P1 ants Ht. Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus s to1 onifera) Gray DO gwood (Cornus racemosa) W"i11ow (Salix discolor) 5 3 135 42 5 5 3 10' 13 2 5 20 45.4% 27.3 9.1 9.1 9. 1 71 % 22 2.6 2.6 1.6 Percent shrub cover: 52% SEEDLINGS TREE Re1. Freq. Re1. Densi ty Quaking Aspen (Populus tremu1oides) Green Ash ( Fraxinus enns 1van i ca var. subintegerrima Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Basswood (Ti1ia americana) Ameri can El m (Ulmus americana) 37.5% 12.5 12.5 25 12.5 35.6% 27.8 21. 7 10.4 4.3 HERBS Percent herb cover: 33%

PAGE 119

$ 122 1 Area # 30 SHRUBS SHRUB # of Quads # of Pl ants Ht. Rel. Freq. Rel. Dens it Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Red Raspberry (Rubus i daeus ) Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina) American Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana) Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus s tal onifera) Alternate Leaved Dogwood (Cornus al terni fol ia) 4 3 1 75 26 20 14 ,11 5 4 3 6' 2 4 7 4.5 3.5 6 20 30.8% 23.1 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 69.4% 24.1 18.5 13 10.2 4.6 3.7 2.8 Percent shrub cover: 28% SEEDL INGS TREE Rel. Freq. Rel. Dens i ty White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Basswood (Tilia americana) Red Oak (Quercus rub ra ) Beech grandifo1ia) W1 te Oak (Quercus alba) Ameri can E1 m (Ulmus americana) 36.5% 18.2 9.1 9.1 9. 1 9.1 9. 1 35.9% 16.5 26.2 7 7 5 2.9 HERBS Percent herb cover: 50%

PAGE 120

123 Area # 32 -Long Sault Campsite This area, also, is part of a state park. Like Area # 31, the area is mowed, or partially cleared, for the first fifty feet back from the road. Likewise similar to Area # 31, is the large percentage of dead American Elm (Ulmus americana). There is little actual forested area; the majority of the area ;s shrubby. In the small, perhaps one-fifth, area that is wooded, Sugar Maple(Acer saccharum), Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis), and Basswood (TiTia americana) dominate. The subcanopy ;s of the same constitution and, due to the proximity of the campgrounds, there is little ground cover. In the shrubby sections, American Elm is the only major tree. Many shrubs are present, inc1 uding Staghorn ,Sumac (Rhus tYehina), Gray Dogwood (Cornus racemosa), Black Raspberry and Currant (R;bes amer;canum). The largest percent of the ground cover is the herb Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare).

PAGE 121

12 124 1 Area # 32 -Long Saul t Campsite CANOPY # of # of Re1. TREE Quads Pl ants DBH Ht. Freq. DI American Elm 2 26 5" 35' 22.2% 5! (Ulmus americana)Suga r Mapl e (Acer saccharum) Bitternut Hickory(Carya cordiformis) Butternut 2 2 5 13 1 6.8 6.2 9.5 48 45 40 22.2 22.2 11. 1 lC 27 2 (Juglans cinerea)Basswood 1 10.'5 40 11. 1 2 (Tilia americana)White Ash 1 10 45 11.1 2, (Fraxinus americana) Distance between trees: 13 1 SUBCANOPY # of # of Re1. R TREE Quads Plants DBH Ht. Freq. Den American Elm 4 59 2. 1" 18' 26.7% 40., (Ulmus americana) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum)Ho phornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) Basswood 3 2 2 46 25 7 1.2 .8 1.3 13.7 12 15 20 13.3 13.3 31. 17. 4. : (Tilia americana)Red Oak 1 2.5 20 6.7 (quercus rubra)Bltternut HiCKory 2 30 6.7 cordiformi s)Boxe der 2 4 10 6.7 1 .' (Acer whTte" As 1 5 .7 15 6.7 3. (FraxinlJs americana) Distance between trees: 51

PAGE 122

SEEDLINGS TREE Re1. Freq. Re1. Density Sugar Map1 e (Acer saccharum) Basswood (Ti1ia americana) Bl ack Cherry (Prunus serotina) Boxel der (Acer negundo) Bitternut Hickory cordifonnis)W,te Ash (Fraxinus americana) 33.3% 22.2 11. 1 11.1 11 .1 11. 1 54.2% 22.2 9.7 5.5 5.5 2.8 I HERBS Percent herb cover: 30%

PAGE 123

12 126 1 REFERENCES Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist 1963. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, New York. 800 pp. Gleason, Henry A. and Arthur Cronquist 1968. New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora. 3 Volumes. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 595 pp. Faust, Mildred E. 1961. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Onondaga County, New York. Bull. of the Syracuse University Museum of Natural Science No.9. 85 pp. Geis, J. W. and S. Luscomb 1972. St. Lawrence Eastern Ontario Shoreline Study: Technical Report on the Natural Vegetation. College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York. 20 pp.