Citation
Rice Creek Research Bulletin No. 5: Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Oswego County and Northern Cayuga County, New York

Material Information

Title:
Rice Creek Research Bulletin No. 5: Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Oswego County and Northern Cayuga County, New York
Series Title:
Rice Creek Research
Creator:
Smith, Gerald ( author )
Ryan, James ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Notes

Abstract:
The idea for this publication was conceived one day atop Derby Hill at the conclusion of a glorious April day when the skies were crammed with migrants of every description. This flight had involved both high numbers and rare occurrences. As I readied to depart I wished for a data yardstick. Since the only available yardsticks were either the large raw data file maintained by the Region 5 Kingbird editor or 25 years of published reports in the Kingbird, and neither of these was accessible in the field, I was out of luck for that evening. This book is designed to provide that yardstick so that the field observer can compare his or her daily results against previous work. It is an annotated checklist which will aid the observer who is unfamiliar with the general abundance of birds in our area. I also hope that it will serve as a general reference manual which may be carried afield. The data herein were derived primarily from published reports in the Kingbird and from my own field records. Except for a request for data which was mailed in 1976, no intensive attempt was made to collect and review the data in the private files of local observers. Although lack of detailed review of private files has no doubt resulted in errors of omission, it was felt that such errors were the lesser of two possible evils. To thoroughly review personal files would have delayed publication of this volume to perhaps the year 2000, assuming the author was fortunate to live that long. In full realization that some available data may have been omitted, early publication was preferred to an all inclusive summary. The species summaries are based primarily on data through the end of 1977, but in some cases data of particular interest have been included from 1978 and 1979. Yet despite these efforts, this book, as with all such endeavors, is partly obsolete before it is published. It is hoped that this publication will aid further field work resulting in a future revision and updating of this checklist. As the Oswego Area has a relatively brief history of modern field work, a vast amount of knowledge remains to be gained. Even in well worked areas, such as the Lake Ontario shore, relatively little is known. Confounding occurrences, such as hawk flights at Derby Hill in August, shake the foundations of well-considered and cherished ideas about what is occurring in the local bird world. In other less well worked sections of the county data are so scarce that ideas are very difficult to form. Extensive field work remains to be done. I hope that field observers will increase their efforts and contribute to the goal of providing more specific detail in published form. Observers should take time to provide summaries of their raw data. Such summarized data are particularly important for environmental impact assessments. Well-documented information on a favorite birding site could well be an important factor in the site evaluation of a proposed nuclear power plant. I have attempted to make this publication as complete as possible within certain time constraints. However, I fully accept responsibility for any errors. Gerald A. Smith, 1978
General Note:
Submitted by Shannon Pritting (pritting@oswego.edu) on 2011-07-06.
General Note:
Made available in DSpace on 2011-07-06T20:15:23Z (GMT).
General Note:
Rice Creek Associates, State University of New York at Oswego

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SUNY Oswego
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SUNY Oswego
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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PAGE 1

Ref QH 105 .N7 N5 no.5 c.2 PENFIELD LIBRARY -SUNY OSWEGO 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 3 0263 00757301 5 Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Oswego County and Northern Cayuga County, New York Gerald A. Smith James M. Ryan Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin Number 5 1978 State University of New York at Oswego

PAGE 2

3 0263 00757301 ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF OS\4EGO COUNTY AND NORTHERN CAYUGA COUNTY, NEW YORK Gera 1 d A. Smith James rt Ryan 1978 Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin Number 5 (. r t /

PAGE 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS Author's Preface .................................. l Historical Summary of Local Ornithology . 3 Description of Birding Areas . 5 Summary Checklist ................................. 10 Species Accounts .. 38 Summary of Banding Data .. 284 Red List and Blue List . 298 Bibliography of Publications of Interest 300 Literature Cited .... 306 Acknowledgements ............................... 307 Index to Species .............................. 308

PAGE 4

July 1980 Corrections to the Annotated Checklist ot the Birds of Oswego (Smith and Ryan 1978) page no., line no. 39,30 tt6,14 55,23 57,12 60,39 61,38 70,28 73,30 92,2 92,23 104,41 121,8 123,37 136,10 136,26 138,10 138,25 143,35 144,14 148,13 152,27 159,25 161,24 168,2 176,4 180,29 189,27 195,27 206,22 228,25 267,8-9 "at any time" should read "at any time on the river)" insert "The only known colony in our area is of 30 nests near Fair Haven, 15 July 1975." "often 25 March" should read "after 25 March" "as late as" should read "as early as late" "as pre-eclipse" should read "or pre-eclipse" "A brood of'" should read "A brood on" "Hockbaum" should read "Hochbaum" "30 December 1972" should read "30 October 1972" "1976" should read "1972" "fran 1957" should read "since 1957" "mouse" should read "meadow vole" "ocal records were rom" should read "local records were from" "earliest is" should read "earliest record is" "Lubi.pes" should read "Lobi.pes" "record high" should read "record late" "The fall high" should read "The fall 1973 high" "Freeban" should read "Freeborn" "noted in January" should read "noted in June" "The status" should read "The taxonomic status" "first 10 days" should read "last 10 days" "first between" should read "first noted between" "be sighted into" should read "not be sighted until" "October in their" should read "October in three" "They are frequently seen" should read "They frequently depart" "appear to leave" should read "appear to arrive" "highs for May" should read "highs for September" "nocturnal" should read "not until" "12 and 22 June" should read "12 and 22 February" "early 1900's" should read "early 1960's" 1120 Oc'Oober" should read "2 October" emit "between 17 and 19 September"

PAGE 5

Dedication This volume is dedicated to all those who work to assure the survival of its objects of study.

PAGE 6

AUTHOR'S PREFACE The idea for this publication was conceived one day atop Derby Hill at the conclusion of a glorious April day when the skies were crammed with migrants of every description. This flight had involved both high numbers and rare occurrences. As I readied to depart I wished for a data yardstick. Since the only available yardsticks were either the large raw data file maintained by the Region 5 Kingbird editor or 25 years of published reports in the Kingbird, and neither of these was accessible in the field, I was out of luck for that evening. This book is designed to provide that yardstick so that the field observer can compare his or her daily results against previous work. It is an annotated checklist which will aid the observer who is unfamiliar with the general abundance of birds in our area. I also hope that it will serve as a general reference manual which may be carried afield. The data herein were derived primarily from published reports in the Kingbird and from my own field records. Except for a request for data which was mailed in 1976, no intensive attempt was made to collect and review the data in the private files of local observers. Although lack of detailed review of private files has no doubt resulted in errors of omission, it was felt that such errors were the lesser of two possible evils. To thoroughly review personal files would have delayed publication of this volume to perhaps the year 2000, assuming the author was fortunate to live that long. In full realization that some available data may have been omitted, early publication was preferred to an all inclusive summary.

PAGE 7

2 The species summaries are based primarily on data through the end of 1977, but in some cases data of particular interest have been included from 1978 and 1979. Yet despite these efforts, this book, as with all such endeavors, is partly obsolete before it is published. It is hoped that this publication will aid further field work resulting in a future revision and updating of this checklist. As the Oswego Area has a relatively brief history of modern field work, a vast amount of knowledge remains to be gained. Even in well worked areas, such as the Lake Ontario shore, relatively little is known. Confounding occurrences, such as hawk flights at Derby Hill in August, shake the foundations of well-considered and cherished ideas about what is occurring in the local bird world. In other less well worked sections of the county data are so scarce that ideas are very difficult to form. Extensive field work remains to be done. I hope that field observers will increase their efforts and contribute to the goal of more specific detail in published form. Observers should take time to provide summaries of their raw data. SJch summarized data are particularly important for environmental impact assessments. Well-documented information on a favorite birding site could well be an important factor in the site evaluation of a proposed nuclear power plant. I have attempted to make this publication as complete as possible within certain time constraints. However, I fully accept responsibility for any errors. Gerald A. Smith 1978

PAGE 8

Historical Summary of Local Ornithology The history of field ornithology in Oswego County is rather brief, particularly so in comparison with the long history of field work in downstate New York. There are no records here prior to the last quarter of the 19th cent1Jry. Eaton (1909) published the first comprehensive list for the county based upon the work of five collector-observers from the Sandy Creek, Pulaski and Lansing areas. This list totalled 208 species including several that have not been reported since. From 1900 to 1945 little field work occurred with the exception of two summers work by A. S. Hyde in the mid-1930's. Hyde's work was confinedto t;he i!llTlediate Lake Ontario shore provides interesting comparative information on the status of expirated and greatly reduced breeders, such as the Piping Plover. Most of the records from the first half of this century are of a scattered nature. Regular field work began during the early 1950's and has continued 3 at a gradually increasing rate. The most senior observer is Fritz Scheider, M.D., of North Syracuse, N.Y., upon whose published data a considerable portion of this paper is based. Other active observers from the mid-1950's to the mid-1960's were Margaret Rusk and Jean W. Propst, both of Syracuse, N.Y., and the late Mrs. E. Evans of Pulaski. Since the early 1960's observers from the Syracuse area also include Jon R. Bart, Christian G. Spies, Fredrick C. Dittrich, M.D., Mrs. E. Estoff, Ferdinand LaFrance, Dorothy Crumb, Paul Debenedictis, Eric Freeborn, David and Janet Muir, and many others to a lesser extent. Active observers from Oswego include Jane Kidney, George R. Maxwell and Carol and Rnbert Wernick.

PAGE 9

4 The author's field work in the area extends from late 1967 to the present. In addition to resident observers, others have conducted special projects such as the hawk migration v1ork of ,John R. Haugh at Derby Hill from 1963-1965. Although knowledge of the birds of Oswego County has increased greatly in the last 20 years, much more work is needed. Studies of breeding, wintering populations, and migration observations away from shoreline 11hot spots .. are almost lacking. Nuch additional field work is needed to expand and clarify the picture of bird distribution in Oswego and northern Cayuga Counties.

PAGE 10

Description of Birding Areas I. Oswego County A. Town of Oswego 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Health Camt Swamp -Along West Lake Road about 2 mi es east of Cayuga Co. line. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Approximately 1 mile S of D. s. Rt. 104 along Thompson Road between Thompson and Cemetary roads. Snake Swamp Located along Lake Shore Road approximately 1 mile east of West Lake Road. SUNY at Oswego (SUCO) Campus Located along Lake Ontario shore just west of the City of Oswego north of U. S. Rt. 104. City of Oswego Locations along the lower sector of the Oswego River including the Harbor and areas of Lake Ontario shoreline. B. Town of Hannibal (limited data available) C. Town of Granby 1. City of Fulton -Oswego River: Various locations along the river within the city, particularly near the 2 bridges. 2. Lake Neatahwanta Just west of the city of Fulton. 3. Battle Island Park Area -Along NY Route 48 north of Fulton. 4. Stoney Robby Road Extends west from Battle Island. D. Town of Minetto 1. Village of MinettoOswego River sector along NY Route 48" 2. Gray Road Woods Off Gray Road near Oswego city line, between NY Rt. 48 and W 5th St. Road. 5

PAGE 11

6 E. Town of Scriba l. 2. 3. 4. Teal Marsh-Scriba NW Woods -Large wetland-woodland complex N of Co. routes 1 and lA north of the Village of Walker. Lakeview Area -Along Lakeview Road N of Co. Rt. lA Nine Mile Point power plants area -Along Lake Ontario from just east of Lakeview Road to just NW of the north end of Co. Rt. 29. In and around a large nuclear power complex. Crooks Pond-Padda Pond Area -Area around these 2 ponds which are locate in the SE corner of the town off Paddy Lake Rd. Fo Town of Volney 1. Great Bear Farm Area-Areas along Great Bear Road within l/2 mile of either side of NY Rt. 48. 2. Seneca Hill-Fulton -Areas along Oswego River between these locations. G. Town of Schroeppel 1. Village of PhoenixAreas along the Oswego River. 2. Snipe Meadows-Wetlands -Along Biddlecum Road and NY Rt. 264 near their junction. 3. Six Mile Creek floodlands -Wet areas and Six Mile Creek primarily in the vicinity of the junction of NY Rt. 264 and Co. Rt. 54. 4. Peter Scott Swamp -A large wetland off Swamp Road north of Co. Rt. 12 and the Oneida River. 5. Pleasant Lake-Stevens Pond Area Located to the east of Center Road about one mile NW of Co. Rt. 10. H. Town of Palermo (limited data available) Io Town of New Haven l. 2. Noyes Sanctuara. A sanctuary of the Onondaga Audubon Society locate just east of the section of Nine Mile Point Road north of intersection with Lake Road. Shore Oaks-Pleasant Point Area. Areas within a mile of Lake Ontario along Shore Oaks Road and Co. Rt. 44.

PAGE 12

3. Butter-?ll Large wetland complex north of Co. Rt. and Y Rt. 1 04B in the NE corner of the Town extending east into Mexico Town. 4. Hickory Grove -Area around the northern section of Hickory Grove Road along Lake Ontario. j. Town of Mexico 1. Mexico Point Area-The woods and wetlands around Mexico Point-Little Salmon River area. Access from Mexico Point Drive and Co. Rt. 40. 2. Derby Hill -A sanctuary of the Onondaga Audubon Society and home of the Derby Hill Bird Observatory. Located on a bluff to the east of the north end of Sage Creek Road along a dirt road. 3. Ponds Pond -A small pond located just east of NY Rt. 3 about 1/4 mile south of the intersection with NY Rt. l04B. 4. North Church Road Area -Along a dirt road extending north from the Village of North Church. 5. Stone Road Area -Area extending along Stone Road from Hurlbut Road to Co. Rt. 58. K. Town of Hastings 1. Brewerton-Area of the Oneida River-Oneida Lake Outlet in the Village of Brewerton and nearby. 2. Caughdenoy-Area along the Oneida River in the Village of Caughdenoy along Co. Rt. 12. L. Town of West 14onroe Toad Harbor -Big Bay Swamp Area -A large wetland complex along Oneida Lake east of Co. Rt. 37 extending east into the Town of Constantia. M. Town of Constantia 1. Oneida Lake Islands-3 small non-wooded islands in Oneida Lake about l/2 mile south of Constantia. 2. Panther Lake -A small lake in the north-central part of the town west of Co. Rt. 17. N. Town of Amboy (limited data available) 7

PAGE 13

0. Town of Parish (limited data available) P. Town of Williamstown 1. Tug Hill PlateauAreas north of NY Route 13. 2. Kasoag Lake Area -Lake and pond complex near Kasoag Lake W of Co. Rt. 30 north of the Village of Kasoag. Q. Town of Albion Happy Valley Game Management Area -An extensive area in this town and the 3 preceding towns south of NY Rt. 126. R. Town of Richland 1. Ramona Beach Area-Area off the west end of Ramona Beach Road along a dirt road. 2. Selkirk Shores State Park Area -West of NY Route 3 and including the Salmon River mouth west of Route 3 and north of the Park. 3. Deer Creek Marsh -A large wetland and sand dune complex west of NY Route 3, north of Co. Rt 5 and south of Rainbow Shores Rd. 4. Tinker Tavern Road Area Fields along Co. Rt. ::: between I-81 and Co. Rt. 41. S. Town of Sandy Creek 1. South Pond Area-Wetland and nearby area north of Rainbm"i Shores Road and south of Ouderkirk Road in the SW corner of the town. 2. Sandy Pond-North Pond Sand spits and the shoreline and surface of North Pond west of NY Route 3 and north of Co. Rt. 5. T. Town of Boyleston (limited dntn available) U. Town of Orwell (limit"'d data availab-le) V. Town of Redfield 1. Little John Game Management Area-Extensive area east of Co. Rt. 17. 2. Salmon River Reservoir Area

PAGE 14

II. Cayuga County A. Town of Sterling 1. Fair Haven Beach-Little Sodus Bay area around Little Sodus Bay, also called Fair Haven Bay. 2. Pond Hundred -Wetland complex around the pond north of NY 104A about 2 miles east of the Village of Fair Haven. 3. Sterling Valley Creek Area-Mcintyre Bluffs -Area along the creek extending from Lake Ontario southward. 9

PAGE 15

10 CHECKLIST DEFINITIONS USED A. Seasons Fall \4inter Spring Summer = 1 August to 10 December = 11 December to 10 March = 11 March to 31 t1ay = 1 to 31 ,July B. Status (Numerical abundance) More than 500 per day Very abundant = (per day when encountered) = 250 to 499 per day Abundant Very comnon Common Fairly comnon Uncommon Very unconmon Rare Very rare Erratic Casual Accident a 1 Old record = 100 to 249 per day = 25 to 99 per day = 10 to 24 per day = 3 to 9 per day = 1 to 2 per day = 3 to 7 for a given season/per year = 1 to 2 for a given season/per year = More than 7 reports for a given season/since 1950 = 3 to 6 reports for a given season/ since 1950 = 1 to 2 reports for a given season/ since 1950 = Record prior to 1950, none since C. Best Locations= Area species most frequent and in largest or where species D. Breeds ? = Yes = No = has occurred Uncertain. May breed. Breeds. Based on definite evidence. Does not breed

PAGE 16

11 CHECKLIST Fall Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Common Loon Fairly Rare Fairly Very Lake Ontario rJo common common rare Oneida Lake to to Uncommon Uncommon Red-throated Very Very Rare Lake Ontario No Loon uncommon rare Oneida Lake Red-necked Rare Rare Very Lake Ontario rJo Grebe uncommon Oneida Lake Horned Grebe Colllilon Very Fairly Accidental Lake Ontario No to uncommon common Oneida Lake Fairly to common Uncommon Eared Grebe Accidental Fair llaven No Beach State Park Lake Ontario Pi ed-bi1l ed Very Very Uncommon Very Lake Ontario Yes Grebe uncommon uncommon to uncommon Oneida Lake Very marshes uncommon iJorthern Accidental Accidental Lake Ontario No Fulmar f3rmm Pelican Richlund in 1920 Great Accidental Os\'tego Harbor No Cormorant Double-crested Uncommon Rare to Very Very Lake Ontario No Cormorant to Erratic uncommon uncommon to Oneida Lake Very Erratic uncommon Great Blue Uncommon Rare Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Heron common

PAGE 17

12 Fall Hinter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Br Green Heron Uncommon Fairly Fairly All sectors common common to to Uncommon lin common Little Blue /\cci denta 1 Cas ua 1 Accidental Lake Ontario Heron Rice Creek Biostation Peter Scott area Cattle Egret Rare Acci denta 1 Lake Ontario Oneida Lake Rice Creek Biostation Grr:at Egret Cas ua 1 Rare Casual Lake Ontario Oneida River Oneida Lake Rice Creek lliostation Snov1y Egret Accidental Casu a 1 Accidental Lake Ontario Oneida Lake Oneida River Louisiana Accidental L.1 ke Ontario Heron B 1 il ck-crow ned Very Very Very Lake Ontario Night !le ron uncommon uncommon uncommon Oneida Lake to to to Oneida River Rare Rare Rare Least Bittern Very rare Rare Rare Lake Ontario to marshes Casual Oneida Lake Oneida River marshes Arne ri can Ve1y Uncommon Very Marshes, l1ittern uncommon uncommon all sectors Glossy Ibis Accidental Rare to Lake Ontario Erratic Peter Scott S\Jamn a rea

PAGE 18

1 3 Fall \.Ji nter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Mute Sv1an Casual Casual Casual Accidental Lake Ontario Oneida Lake Oneida River No ing Very Rare Casual Very Oneida Lake Swan to uncommon Lake Ontario No Casual Canada Very Very Very Uncommon Lake Ontario, Goose abundant uncommon abundant All sectors Yes* to to Very Very common common Brant Very Cas ua 1 Common Rare to Lake Ontario abundant to Very Rare Oneida Lake No to Uncommon Abundant Snov1 Goose Uncommon Uncommon Lake Ontario No to to Oneida Lake Rare Rare Fulvous Acci den ta 1 Peter Scott No \-Jhistling Swamp Duck Mallard Very Common Very Common All sectors Yes common to common to Fairly Fairly common common Black Duck Common Fairly Common to Very A 11 sectors Yes to common Fairly uncommon Fairly to common common Uncommon Gadwall Fairly Fairly Fairly Rare Oswego -Fair Yes common common common Haven Lake Ontario *introduced

PAGE 19

14 Fall Spring Sur1mer f3est Snecies Status Status Status Status Locations !3 ree c Pintail Abundant Rare Very Rn. re to Lake Ontario to abundant Casual Oneida Lake Very common to Oneida River ;j Abundant Green-vii nged Common Accidental Common Very Oneida Lake Teal uncommon OnP.ida River Lake Ontario YE Bl nged Common Casua 1 Corrrnon Fairly Oneida Lake Teal common marshes, to All sectors YE Uncommon European Acci denta 1 Accidental vJi geon Arne ri can Very Very rare Cor1mon Cas ua 1 Lake Ontario \Ji geon common Oneida Lake to Oneida River Common Uncommon Casual llncor1mon Lake Ontario Shoveler to Oneida Lake Very uncommon \Jood Duck Common to :\are to Fairly Uncommon l\ 11 sectors Fa-; rly 1lery rare common common Redhead Very Fairly Common Lake Ontario common common to to Oneida Lake to uncommon Fairly Uncommon common Ring-necked Uncommon Very rare Corrrnon Lake Ontario Duck to Oneida Lake Fairly ponds; common All sectors Canvasback Common to Fairly Common Lake On ta rio Fairly common to to Oneida Lake common uncommon Fairly common Greater Very Very /\bundant Lake Ontario Scaup abundant a bun dan t Oneida Lake Oswego River

PAGE 20

15 Fall Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Lesser Scaup Common Uncommon Fairly Accidental Lake Ontario common Oneida Lake Oswego River No Tufted Duck Accident a 1 Lake Ontario No Common Abundant Very Very cormm .1\cci dent a 1 Oneida Lake Goldeneye to common to Oswego River Very Common Lake Ontario common Barrow's Accidental Rare to Very Lake Ontario Goldeneye Very rare rare Oneida Lake Oswego River r l0 Bufflehead Common Common Common Cas ua 1 Lake Ontario to to Oneida Lake Fairly Fairly Oswego River tJo common common Oldsquaw Very Common Common Lake Ontario common to to Oneida Lake rlo to Fairly Fairly Common common common Harlequin Accident-Very Casual Lake Ontario No Duck al rare Common Casua 1 Accident a 1 Lake Ontario No Eider King Eider Very Rare Very rare Lake Ontario No rare Hh i te-vli n ged Very Fairly Common Acci denta 1 Lake Ontario No Scoter common common to to Fairly Uncommon common Surf Scoter Common Very rare Acci denta 1 Lake Ontario No Black Scoter Common Very rare Lake Ontario No Ruddy Duck Very Very rare 1Jery Lake Ontario uncommon to uncommon Oneida Lake Casua 1 Oneida River No

PAGE 21

16 Fall Species Status Status Hooded Fairly Very Merganser COtmlOn uncommon to Rare Corrnnon Common Very Merganser to corrmon Fairly to common Common Red-breasted Very Uncommon Merganser abundant Turkey Very Vulture uncorrmon Black Vulture Swa 11 ow-tai 1 ed Kite Goshawk Very Very uncommon uncommon Spring Status Fairly corrmon Fairly common Very common Corrmon Accidental Accidental Fairly common Sununer Status Rare Very rare Very rare Uncorrmon to Very uncommon Rare Best Locations Breeds Lake Ontario Yes All sectors Streams, marshes Lake Ontario ? Oneida Lake Lake Ontario Oneida Lake No Lake Ontario Twice at No Derby Hill Once at No Derby Hi 11 Derby Hi 11 Yes

PAGE 22

17 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Sharp-shinned Uncommon Very un-Very Rare Derby Hill Yes Hawk common common to Rare Cooper s Hawk Very Very Fairly Rare Derby Hill Yes uncommon uncommon common to to Rare Rare Red-tai 1 ed Uncommon Uncommon Abundant Uncommon Derby Hill Yes Hawk to to Very Very unco11111on common Red-shouldered Rare Casual Common Very Lake Ontario Hawk to rare Tug Hill Very Plateau rare Derby Hill Yes Broad-winged Uncommon Very Uncommon Lake Ontario Hawk abundant to Tug Hill Very Plateau Yes uncommon Swainsons Accidental Once at Hawk Derby Hill No Rough-legged Uncommon Fairly Fairly Lake Ontario Hawk common common shore to Derby Hi 11 No Uncommon Golden Very Oerby Hi 11 No Eagle Accidental uncommon Bald Eagle Rare to Casual Very Casual Lake Ontario Very uncommon shore rare Derby Hill No Harrier Very Very Common Very rare Lake Ontario uncommon rare All sectors Yes Osprey Uncommon Fairly Rare Lake Ontario to 'i:omrnor. to Oneida Lake Very Very Derby Hill No uncommon rare --------

PAGE 23

18 Fall Spring Summer f3est Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Gyrfalcon Accidental Accidental Accidental No Peregrine Very Very rare Lake Ontario No Fa 1 con rare Merlin Very Very Lake Ontario rare uncommon shore No American Fairly Uncommon Common Fairly A 11 sectors Yes Kestrel common to common to Very to Uncommon uncommon Uncommon Ruffed Grouse Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Bobwhite Casual Casua 1 Casua 1 ? Ring-necked Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon A 11 sectors Yes Pheasant Sandhill Crane Accidental Once at Stevens Pond Once at Derby Hi 11 No King Rai 1 Accidental Once at Snipe Meadow, Town of Sch roeppe 1 ? Virginia Rail Very Accidental Uncommon Uncommon Marshes, all Yes uncommon sectors except Tug Hill Plateau Sora Uncommon Accidental Uncommon Uncommon all Yes to sectors except Very Tug Hill Plateau uncommor. Common Fa1 rlj Uncommon Uncommon Marshes, all Yes Gallinule common sectors except Tug Hill Plateau American Coot Conomon Uncommon Fairly Accidental Lake Ontario No to common Oneida Lake Very uncommon Semipalmated FE i rly Uncommon Lake Ontario No Plover common

PAGE 24

19 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Piping Plover Very Very Sandy Pond Yes rare rare Ki 11 deer Common Very Rare Common Fairly All sectors Yes t:ommon American Fairly Casual A 11 sectors No Golden Plover common to Uncommon Black-bellied Fairly Uncommon Lake Ontario Oneida Lake No Plover COI11110n to Uncommon Ruddy Turnstone Fairly Fairly Lake Ontario common co11111on Oneida Lake No to to Uncommon Uncommon American Uncommon Uncommon Unco11111on All sectors Yes Woodcock to Very uncommon Co11111on Snipe Fairly Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes co11111on common to to to Very Unco11111on Uncommon uncommon Eskimo Curlew Formerly present Hhirrbrel Rare Casual Lake Ontario Oneida Lake No Upland Sandpiper Very Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes uncommon to Very unCOrmlOn Spotted Fairly Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes Sandpiper co11111on common common to to Uncommon Uncommon Solitary Uncommon Fairly All sectors No Sandpiper common to Unco11111on

PAGE 25

20 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best S Eecies Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Greater Fairly Fairly Lake Ontario Yell ow legs common common Oneida Lake to to Oneida River No Uncommon Uncommon Lesser Fitirly Fairly All sectors No Yellowlegs common common Willet Casual Casual Sandy Pond Derby Hill No Red Knot Fairly Fairly Lake Ontario common common Oneida Lake No to to Very Uncommon uncommon Purple Sandpiper Rare Accidental Accidental Lake Ontario No Pectoral Sand-Fairly Common Lake Ontario oiper common to Oneida Lake Fairly Oneida River No common White-rumped Uncommon Lake Ontario Sandpiper Very uncommon Oneida Lake No Baird s Very Lake Ontario 'sandpiper uncommon Oneida Lake No Least Sandpiper Common Common Lake Ontario to to Oneida Lake No Fairly Fairly common common nunlin Abundant Accidental Fairly Lake Ontario No to common Common to Uncommon Semipalmated Very common Common Lake Ontario Sandpiper to to Oneida Lake No Common Fairly common Ve.y Sandpiper uncom1110n Very rare Lake Ontario to Sandy Pond No Casual

PAGE 26

21 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Sander1 ing Common Uncommon Acci denta 1 Lake Ontario Sandy Pond :4o Short-billed Lake Ontario Dowitcher Uncommon Uncommon Oneida Lake Oneida River No Long-Casual Lake Ontario No bi 11 ed Dowitcher Stilt Sandpiper Rare Lake Ontario No Buff-breasted Sandpiper Very rare Accidental Sandy Pond No to Casua 1 ed Godwit Accidental Once at Sandy Pond No Hudsoni an Uncommon Accidental Sandy Pond No Godwit to Very rare Red Ph a 1 ar-ope Rare Cas ua 1 -Lake Ontario No Wilsons Very Casual Lake Ontario No Phalarope rare Northern Very Lake Ontario No Phalarope un-common Pomarine Jaeger Very rare Lake Ontario No Parasitic Uncommon Lake Ontario No Jaeger to Very un-common Long-tailed Accidental No Jaeger Glaucous Gull Rare Uncommon Rare to Lake Ontario very rare Oswego River No

PAGE 27

/ Fall Winter Spring Surrmer Species Status Status Status Best Status Locations Breeds Iceland Gull Very Uncorrmon Very Lake Ontario rare rare Oswego River No Great BlackFairly Very Common Uncommon Lake Ontario backed Gull common common to to Oswego River No to to Fairly Rare Uncommon Common common Lesser Black-No backed Gull Accidental Herring Gull Very Very Abundant Very Lake Ontario abundant abundant uncorrmon Oneida Lake Oneida River Yes Thayer s Casual Lake Ontario Gull Oswego River No Ring-billed Very Very Very Very Gull abundant abundant abundant common All sectors Yes Black-headed Gull Casual Accidental Lake On ta rio No Laughing Gull Casual Accidental Lake Ontario No Franklins Gull Very rare Acciden-tal Casu a 1 Acci denta 1 Lake Ontario No Bonaparte s Fairly Very rare Lake Ontario Gull Corrmon Rare common to Casual Oneida Lake No Little Gull Rare Accidental Lake Ontario No Black-legged Very AccidenKittiwake rare tal Lake Ontario No Fores ter s Very Accidental Accidental Sandy Pond No Tern uncommon Common Tern Common Corrmon Fairly com-Lake Ontario man to Oneida Lake Yes Uncommon

PAGE 28

23 Fall Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Sooty Tern One record No Cas pi an Tern Common Uncommon Very Lake Ontario No to unconmon Fairly common Black Tern Uncommon Uncommon Very un-Lake Ontario common Oneida Lake Yes Thick-billed One Murre record Fair Haven in 1902 No Dovekie Accidental Oneida Lake No Rock Dove Very Very Very Very corrmon common conmon common All sectors Yes Mourning Dove Fairly Uncommon Fairly Uncommon A 11 sectors Yes common to cormmn Very uncommon Monk Parakeet Accidental No Yell ow-bi 11 ed Rare Very Uncommon All sectors Yes Cuckoo uncommon to Very uncommon Black-billed Very Cuckoo uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Barn Owl Accidental Acci denta 1 Sandy Creek Brewerton ,? Screech Owl Very Very Very Very uncomnon uncommon uncommon uncommon All sectors Yes Great Horned Owl Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon A 11 sectors Yes Snowy OWl Very Uncommon Very Lake Ontario No uncommon to uncommon to Very to Very rare uncommon Rare

PAGE 29

24 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breed: Barred Owl Rare Rare Very rare Very rare All sectors Yes to to Very Very rare rare Great Gray Owl Accidental Pulaski-Sandy Creek area No Long-eared Owl Accidental Casua 1 Casua 1 All sectors ? Short-eared Very Very Rare Lowland Owl rare rare sectors of Lake Ontario No Bore a 1 Owl Accidental Accidental Lake On ta rio No Saw-whet Owl Very rare AccidentCasual AcciAll sectors ? al dental Whip-poor-will Very rare Very Rare All sectors Yes uncommon Corm1on Night-Fairly Fairly Uncommon Lake Ontario hawk common common A 11 sectors Yes to to Uncommon Uncommon Chimney Swift Fairly Common Fairly Derby Hill common common All sectors Yes Ruby-throated Fairly Fairly Uncommon Lake Ontario Hummingbird common common Tug Hill to to Plateau Yes Uncommon Uncommon Belted King-Very fisher Uncommon uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes to Rare Common Flicker Common Very Very Fairly uncommon common common All sectors Yes to to Rare Common

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Fall Species Status Pil eated Very Woodpecker unconmon Red-bellied Very Woodpecker uncommon Red-headed Very Woodpecker uncommon Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Unconmon Hairy Hoodpecker Uncommon Downy Woodpecker Uncommon Black-backed Accidental Three-toed Woodpecker Eastern Fairly Kingbird conmon Kingbird Accidental Great-crested Uncommon Flycatcher Eastern Phoebe Uncommon Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Very un-common Winter Status Very uncommon Very uncommon Accidental Very rare to Casua 1 Uncommon Fairly common to Uncommon Accidental 25 Spring Surrmer Best Status Status Locations Breeds Very Very unconmon unconmon All sectors Yes Very Very Lake Ontario uncommon uncommon West Central Yes Uncommon Uncommon Lake Ontario Yes to A 11 except Very Tug Hill Plateau uncommon Uncommon Fairly Lake Ontario Yes common Tug Hill Plateau to Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes common to Uncommon Accidental Lake Ontario No Common Common All sectors Yes to to Fairly Fairly common common Once near t4exi co No Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors Yes conmon common to to Uncommon Uncommon Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes common Very un-Rare Lake Ontario common Tug Hill Plateau ?

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26 Fall Winter Spring Surrmer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Acadian Flycatcher* Casual Wi 11 ow (See Unconmon Fairly Lake Ontario Yes Flycatcher* conmon all except species) Tug Hill Plateau Alder (See Uncommon Fairly Tug Hill Flycatcher* Empidonax conmon Plateau Yes species) Least Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors Yes Flycatcher* common common *Empidonax Species Unconmon Eastern Wood Fairly Fairly Fairly Pewee common common common All sectors Yes Olive-sided Flycatcher Rare Rare Very rare Tug Hill Yes Homed Lark Fairly Uncommon Fairly Very common common uncommon All sectors Yes Tree Swa 11 ow Very Accidental Very Fairly All sectors Yes abundant abundant common to to Abundant Abundant Bank Swallow Very Very Very abundant abundant conmon All sectors Yes to to Abundant Abundant Rough-winged Swallow Fai rly Fairly Uncommon Lake Ontario Yes common common to Uncommon Barn Swallow Very Very Very abundant abundant common All sectors Yes to to Abundant Abundant *unidentifiable to species in Fall

PAGE 32

27 Fa 11 \Jinter Spring Sunmer Best Snecies Status Status Status Locations Breeds -----------C1 iff Unco:tlr.lcn Very common Lake On t'1 o S!:J.::lll ow to Common Tug Hill Fairly to PlJteau Yec:. common Very unco111:1on Purpl e Abundant Very Fairly Lake Ontario t1a >"'tin to common common Oneida L.1ke Yes Corrmon to Common Blue ,lay Conmon Common Jlbundant Fairly ,; ll sectors '{p-::_ to to common F::d rly Common common f:omrnon Raven Accidental Acci dental Oerbyliill rJo Common Crm'/ Abundant Fairly Very Fairly ll sectors Yes to common abundant common Common to to Uncommon Common Black-Common Common Common Cor.1mon All sectors Yes cant)ed C:hir:kadee Boreal Erratic Erratic Very Chickadee rare 1\ll sectors :lo Tufted Very Rare Very rare Very rare All sectors Titmouse uncommon except Tug Hill Plateau ? \Jh i te-b reas ted Nu::hatch Uncommon Uncommon Fairly Uncommon /\ll sectors Yes common to Uncommon Red-breasted Fairly Uncommon Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Nutr1atch common common Lake Ontario to to Tug Hill Pl Uncommon Uncommon

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28 Fall Winter Spring Surrmer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Brown Creeper Fairly Uncorrmon Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes common common corrmon to Very uncommon House Wren Fairly Common Common All sectors Yes corrmon to Fairly common Winter Wren Fairly Rare Uncommon Un corrmon A 11 sectors Yes common to to Very rare Uncorrmon Carolina Wren Very rare Casual Casua 1 Casual Lake Ontario Oneida Lake ? Long-bi 11 ed Marsh Wren Uncorrmon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Short-billed Marsh Wren Very rare Rare to Lake Ontario Very Lake Ontario rare Rice Creek Biostation Yes Mockingbird Very rare Very rare Very rare Acci-All sectors dental Lake Ontario No Gray Catbird Fairly Casua 1 Fairly Corrmon All sectors Yes common common Brown Thrasher Uncorrmon Cas ua 1 Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes American Robin Abundant Fairly Abundant Common All sectors Yes to common Very to common Very uncommon Wood Thrush Uncorrmon Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes common common

PAGE 34

29 Fall Hinter Spring Summer Best SEecies Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Hermit Fairly Accidental Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Thrush common common Swainsons Fairly Fairly Very Thrush common common uncommon Lake Ontario Yes Tug Hill Plateau Grey-cheeked Thrush Uncommon Uncommon All sectors No Veery Uncommon Fairly Fairly common common All sectors Yes Eastern Bluebird Uncommon Accidental Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Blue-gray Very rare Uncommon Very All sectors Gnatcatcher uncommon except Tug Hill Plateau Yes Gal den-crowned Kinglet Very common Very Common Uncommon All sectors Yes to uncommon Common Rubycrowned Kinglet Very common Accident a 1 Common All sectors No to Common Hater Pipit Fairly Fairly All sectors No common COf!lTlOn Bohemian Waxwing Cas ua 1 Casua 1 Accidental Lake Ontario No Cedar Very common Fairly Abundant Fairly All sectors Yes Waxwing to common to common Common Very common Northern Very Common Very All sectors No Shrike uncommon to uncommon Very uncommon Loggerhead Very rare Very Very rare Lake Ontario ? Shrike uncommon

PAGE 35

.30 Fall Winter Spring Sunmer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breed Starling Very Very Very Very All sectors Ye abundant conmon abundant conmon White-eyed Vi reo Accidental Once at Sandy Pond N Ye 11 0\'1throated Very Vi reo uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Ye Solitary Vi reo Uncommon Unconmon Very Lake Ontario Ye unconmon Tug Hill Plateau Red-eyed Common Common Co111T10n A 11 sectors Ye Vi reo to Fairly common Philadelphia Very Very All sectors N Vi reo uncommon uncommon Warbling Vi reo Unccmmon Uncommon Fairly A 11 sectors Ye common to Uncommon Black-and-white Uncommon Unc.ommon Very All sectors Ye Warbler uncommon Prothonotary Warbler Accidental Accident a 1 Lake Ontario N Worm-eating Warbler Casual Lake Ontario Golden-winged Warbler Uncorn.mo.1 Uncommon Uncommon All sectors YE Blue-winged Very Warbler uncommon Rare Rare Lake Ontario YE Tennessee Warbler Uncommon Uncommon Accidental All sectors

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31 Fan Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Orangecrowned Very Very Lake On ta rio No Warbler uncommon uncommon Nashville Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Northern Pa rul a Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes Y e 11 ow Wa rb 1 e r Fairly Very Very All sectors Yes common common common to to Common Common Magnolia Fairly Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Warbler common common Cape May Warbler Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Lake Ontario No Black-throated Fairly Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Blue Warbler common common to to Uncommon Uncommon Ye 11 ow-rumped Very Very Very Very Warbler common rare common uncommon All sectors Yes Townsend s Warbler Accidental Once at Lake Ontario No Black-throated Fairly Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors Yes Green Warbler common common common to Uncommon Cerulean Harbler Accidental Casual Casual Lake Ontario ? Blackburn ian Fairly Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes Warbler common common to to Uncommon Uncommon

PAGE 37

32 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Yellow-throated Accidental Accidental Lake Ontario No Warbler Selkirk Shores State Park Chestnut-sided Warbler Uncommon Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes common common Tug Hill to Plateau Uncommon Bay-breasted Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors No Warbler common common to Uncommon Bl ackpo ll Fairly Uncommon All sectors No Warbler common Pine Warbler Very Very Very Lake Ontario Yes uncommon uncommon uncommon Prairie Warbler "as ua 1 Casual Lake Ontario No Palm Warbler Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Nc Ovenbird Uncommon Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes COI11110n to Uncommon Northem Wa terth rush Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Louisiana Waterthrush Very rare Very rare Lake Ontario Tug Hill Plateau Connecticut Warbler 'Jery rare Casual Lake Ontario N Mourning Very Warbler Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Ye Common Yell owth roat fairly Common Common A 11 sectors Ye corrmon to to Fairly Fairly common common Accidental Lake Ontario N

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33 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Hooded Wa rb 1 er Very Very Uncommon Lake Ontario uncommon uncommon Tug Hi 11 Plateau Yes Wilsons Warbler Uncommon Uncommon All sectors No Canada Warbler Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon All sectors Yes American Fairly Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes Redstart common common common to Uncommon House Sparrow Common Common Common Common All sectors Yes Bobolink Fairly Common Common All sectors Yes common to Fairly common Eastern Fairly Very Very Common All sectors Yes Meadowlark common rare common to to F:1i rly Common common Western Meadowlark Cas ua 1 Casua 1 Lake On ta rio suco campus ? Yellow-headed Blackbird Accidental Once at Lacona No Red-winged Very Uncommon Very Very All sectors Yes Blackbird abundant to abundant common Very uncommon Orchard Oriole Acci denta 1 Derby Hill No Northern Fairly AccidentCommon Common Oriole common al to Fairly common All sectors Yes Rusty Blackbird Common Accidental Common Cas ua 1 All sectors No to Fairly common

PAGE 39

34 Fall Hinter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Common Grackle Very Casui\1 Very Very All sectors Yes common abundant common Brown-headed Very Very Abundant Very All sectors Yes Cowbird common rare common to Common Searl et Tanager Uncommon Fairly Uncommon A 11 sectors Yes COITillOn to Uncommon Cardinal Fairly Fai Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors Yes common common common common except to to to to Tug Hill Plateau Uncommon Uncommon UncoiTlllon Uncommon Rose-breasted Fairly Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes Grosbeak common COITillOn COITillOn to to Uncommon Uncommon Indigo Bunting Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon A 11 sectors Yes Pain ted Bunting Lake No al Dickcissel Casua 1 Accidental Lake Ontario No Evening CoiTillon CoiTillon Very Casua 1 A 11 sectors No Grosbeak COITillOn to Common Purple Finch Fairly Uncommon Fairly UncoiTillon All sectors Yes common to common to Very Uncommon uncommon House Finch Accidental Lake Ontario No Pine Grosbeak Fairly Fairly Fairly A 11 sectors No common common common to to Uncommon Uncommon

PAGE 40

35 Fall Hinter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Hoary Redpo 11 Acci denta 1 Accidental Lake Or) ta rio Phoenix No Common Redpoll Very common Abundant A 11 sectors No to Very common to Common to Common Common Pine Siskin Very Conmon Abundant Casua 1 A 11 sectors No conmon to to to Fairly Conmon Common common American Abundant Uncommon Very Very All sectors Yes Goldfinch to abundant common Common to to Common Common Red Crossbill Fairly Fairly Fairly Casual All sectors No conmon cornnon cornnon to to Uncommon Uncommon White-winged Crossbill Uncommon Uncommon Uncommon Accident-al All sectors No Rufous-sided Towhee Unconmon Casual Uncommon Uncorrmon A 11 sectors Yes Savannah Fairly Acci denta 1 Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes Sparrow common common common Grasshopper Sparrow Rare Very Very All sectors Yes uncommon uncornnon to Rare Hens 1 ow s Sparrow Rare Uncommon Unconmon All sectors Yes Sharp-tailed Sparrow Accidental Accidental Lake Ontario No

PAGE 41

36 Fall Winter Spring Summer Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Vesper Sparrow Uncommon Fairly Uncommon All sectors Yes common to Uncorrmon Dark-eyed Very Uncommon Very Uncommon All sectors Yes Junco common common Tree Sparrow Very Common Common All sectors No common to Common Chipping Sparrow Fairly Common Common All sectors Yes corrmon Claycolored Sparrow Casual Casual Ontario No Field Sparrow Fairly Fairly Fairly All sectors Yes corrmon corrmon corrmon Harris' Sparrow AcciOnce at dental Oswego No White-crowned Common Fairly All sectors No Sparrow tC' common Fairly common White-throated Very Very Common Corrmon Lake Ontario Yes Sparrow corrmon uncommon Tug Hill Plateau to to Corrrnon Rare Fox Sparrow Uncommon Uncommon All sectors No Lincoln's Very Very Lake Ontario No Sparrow uncommon uncommon Swamr> Sr>arrow Uncommon Casual Uncommon Fairly A 11 sectors Yes corrmon to Uncommon

PAGE 42

37 Fall Winter Spring Sumner Best Species Status Status Status Status Locations Breeds Song Sparrow Common Very Very Common All sectors Yes uncommon common to Cornnon Lapland Uncornnon Rare Very Lake Ontario No Longs pur uncornnon Snow Bunting Cornnon Common Common Lake Ontario Oneida Lake No TOTALS 277 143 274 203 141 (Total n unber of s pee i es recorded in Oswego County 302)

PAGE 43

38 SPECIES ACCOUNTS Common Loon (Gavia irrmer) FALL-Arrival. Record early arrivals are: 4 at the Nine Mile Point Power plants on 2 September 1969 and 4 at Sandy Pond on 4 September 1954. The arrival usually occurs between 12 and 20 September as small groups along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest counts are 175 at Sandy Pond on 6 November 1955 and 116 along Lake Ontario on 28 October 1972. Average maxima usually range between 20 and 40 on Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Average counts are 5 to 15 per day. Departure. A general departure occurs during late November and early December, with small numbers persisting latet along Lake Ontario. WINTER-Small numbers occur from mid-December through January along Lake Ontario between Oswego and Sandy Pond. Most winter records are singles: 1. One at Lake Ontario on 14 February 1965. 2. One at Brewerton from 2 to 5 March 1967. This may have been an early migrant. 3. One to two at Oswego on 6 February 1974. SPRING-Arrival. Record early arrivals are 5 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 12 March 1958. All other arrivals have occurred after 29 March. The arrival usually occurs between 1 and 5 April, as singles or small groups along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Record high counts of 550 at Oneida Lake on 12 April 1960 and 350 on Lake Ontario 1 May 1969 are both exceptional. Two other counts of 250-300 are but most other counts are less than 150. Most maxima range between 60 and 100, mainly from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Average counts are 5 to 20 per day. De*arture. The departure is difficult to determine, but most have let by 20-30_May. SUMMER-There is no proof of breeding within Oswego County. Individuals present in the Tug Hill plateau are suspected breeders. Non-breeders are regularly present to mid-June on Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. The following records are known: 1. One near Lycoming on 3 July 1935 (Hyde, 1939). 2. Two present at Oneida Lake on 20 August 1967, which probably summered there. 3. One at Oneida Lake on 5 August 1969. 4. Two at Derby Hill on 20 June 1971. 5. Two at Sandy Pond on 25 June 1972. 6. Four at Derby Hill on 16-21 June 1976.

PAGE 44

39 COMMENTS: This species has been recorded during all months. They are least common in mid-winter and mid-summer. It appears that the Common Loon is declining as a migrant through the area. Numbers at other seasons are insufficient to detect trends. Close attention should be given to the status of the species in Oswego County in the future. Red-throated Loon (Gavia SteZZata) FALL-Arrival. The record early sightings are 9 at Derby Hill or: Septem ber 19'66 and 9 along Lake Ontario on 28 1957. They usually arrive between 20 October and 1 November, often as singles along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Variable. Many present in some years and very few in others. Highest counts are 12 at Derby Hill on 21 October 1966 and 9 at Derby Hill on 27 September 1966. Most other maxima range between 3 and 6 per day from Lake Ontario. This species is very rare on Oneida Lake and unknown elsewhere. Most frequently noted between 20 October and 10 November. t1ost counts are 1-3 per day at irregular intervals. Departure. Usually departs during the last ten days of November with a few late individuals present through the first week of December. Many of these late departing birds are found on Oneida Lake. Oc casionally some linger late on Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario. WINTER-A few often linger to mid-December. The following are known: 1. One on Oswego Christmas count on 22 December 1963. 2. One (oiled) at Oswego on 12 December 1965. 3. One during the Oswego Christmas count on 21 December 1967. 4. One at Oneida Lake on 12 December 1970. 5. Two at Oneida Lake on 26 December 1970. 6. One on the Oswego Christmas count on 22 December 1972. 7. One in the Oswego River at Minetto on 21 December 1975. (Very rare at any time 8. One at the Nine Mile Point power plant area on 12 January 1971. Only January record known. These records involve either late migrants or cripples. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest known sighting occurred near Texas, Town of Mexico {Derby Hill), on 26 March 1971. The next earliest is one at Brewerton on 4 April 1971. The arrival is very irregular, but there are a number of records from mid-April. Maximum. All counts are one to two per day, mostly from Lake Ontario with a few from Oneida Lake. Most frequently noted between 10 and 25 Apri 1.

PAGE 45

40 Departure. The latest record seems to hQve occurred at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 1954. The next latest occurred along Lake Ontario on 17 May 1960. Less frEquently noted in May than in April. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: This species is primarily restricted to Lake Ontario with few records from Oneida Lake. They are more frequent in fall than in spring. They are less common in our area than near Rochester, NY (Bull Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps griseqena) FALL-Arrival. The earliest known arrivals are an adult at Sandy Pond on 27 September 1971 and one at Sandy Pond on 30 September 1951. The arrival varies greatly from year to year. Maximum. The record high count of 30 at Sandy Pond on 6 November 1955 is very unusual. All other counts are of one to two per day along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake with few records elsewhere. They are most common between 20 October and 30 November. Most counts are one per day with two to three per season the average. Departure. Average departure occurs between 28 November and 3 December. WINTER-This species has been recorded on 4 of 21 Oswego Christmas counts. Fall migrants often linger from mid to late December. 1 or 2 birds alar Lake Ontario have been noted through January" They are very rare after January. The 'following records are known: 1. One at Oswego present to 19 February 1956. 2. One at Phoenix along the Oswego River from 27 February to 3 March 1958 could have been a very early migrant. 3. One at Nine Point power plants on 12 February 1977. 4. One at Oswego from 12 to 14 February 1977. The highest known is 3 on the Oswego Christmas count in 1964. All other counts are 1 to 2 per day. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest recorded arrival is one at Phoenix in late February 1958. The next earliest records are one at Minetto on 10 March 1962 and one at Fulton on 14 March 1959. Arrival is erratic but often occurs during the first two weeks of April. Maximum. The highest count is 18 at Brewerton on 9 April 1972. Others include 3 counts of 7 to 10 individuals at various locations. Average counts are one to four per day. This bird is noted on Oneida Lake more frequently than on Lake Ontario. It appears on Oneida Lake between Brewerton and Muskrat Bay. Departure. The late record seems to be 2 at Derby Hill on 9 May 1971 with very few records occurring during t1ay. It usually departs between 20 and 30 Apri 1. SUMMER-No records.

PAGE 46

41 COMMENTS: This bird is a very uncommon and irregular migrant through the area. It is primarily restricted to Lake Ontaric and Oneida Lake. Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) FALL-Arrivale The earliest sighting occurred at Demster Beach, Town of New Haven, on 17 September 1976. This species is usually quite consistent and first arrivals occur between 3 and 8 October, often along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest counts include: 428 between Fair Haven Beach State Park and Sandy Pond on 8 October 1970, 370 along Lake Ontario on 14 October 1965, 350 at Oneida Lake on 24 November 1955, and 340 from Derby Hill to Oswego on 27 October 1968. Most maxima range between 100 and 250. Average counts are 10 to 40 per day. The highest counts are usually from Lake Ontario between 15 October and 20 November. Departure. This bird persists into winter during most years. WINTER-The record high count is 48 on the Oswego Christmas count on 23 December 1965. Mast other maxima range from 5 to 6 per day. It is usually present in small numbers along the Oswego River and Lake Ontario shoreline. SPRING-Arrival. Wintering birds make it difficult to determine an arrival date, but the first birds probably arrive between 12 and 20 March. Maximum. The highest counts are 280 at Oneida Lake on 22 April 1956, 165 at Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario on 30 April 1961, and 125 at Oneida Lake on 17 April 1970. The average maxima are usually 25 to 50 per day. Average daily counts are 5 to 15. Departure. This varies greatly, with record late sightings at Oneida Lake on 31 May 1956, and along the Oswego River on 20 May 1973. The bird usually departs between 5 and 15 May. SUMMER-Record: One was recorded at Nine Mile Point on 27 June 1972. COMMENTS: This species exhibits a reversal of most waterfowl distribution patterns by being more common on Oneida Lake than Lake Ontario. This species may be declining slightly as a migrant and appears to be less common as a win te ri n g b i rd. Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricoZZis) FALL-Record: One was observed in winter plumage on Little Sodus Bay, Fair Haven Beach State Park, from 15 to 18 November 1973. This bird was well studied by three experienced observers (D. W. Crumb, P. A. Debenedictis and F. G. Scheider).

PAGE 47

42 WINTER-No Records. SPRING-No Records. SUMMER-No Records. l In recent years, observers in nearby counties have had increased l numbers of sightings of these birds. Careful examination of fall flockJ of Horned Grebes may pro vi de a fe\<1 more records. l Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. The record high count is 200 at Oneida Lake on 13 November 195 High maximum range between 10 and 20, but these numbers are quite irregular. The highest counts are usually from the Lake Ontario marshes. This species seems to be declining steadily and most counts now average 1 to 3 per day. Departure. After early November their numbers are usually greatly reduced but small numbers persist into winter. WINTER-The highest counts are 13 on the Oswego Christmas count of 27 December 1970 and 12 along the Oswego River from Phoenix to Oswego on 24 January 1971. These counts are exceptionally high. Normal winter numbers of birds are 1 to 4 per day. It is most often noted along the Os\
PAGE 48

43 Northern Fulmar (FuZmarus gZaciaZis) FALL-Record: A badly decomposed light phased specimen was found along the Lake Ontario shore near the mouth of Catfish Creek, Town of New Haven, on 3 October 1971. This individual bird was found by Peter Merritt, identified by Chris Spies, and confirmed by John Bull. The specimen is presently in the collection at the American Museum of Natural His tory and pro vi des the first New York State specimen (Bull 1974). A 1 ight phase bird was clearly seen along Lake Ontario from Saint Pauls Cemetery in Oswego on 19 December 1974. This bird was observed by F. G. Scheider, P. A. DeBenedictis, and D. W. Crumb. It represents the second record in three years. SPRING-No Records. SUMMER-No Records. COMMENTS: Two records of this species in a short period may indicate that they are more common on Lake Ontario than previously suspected. It is possible that increased observation during late November and early December would provide more sightings. Brovm Pelican (PeZecanus occidentaZis) FALL-No Records. WINTER-Record: One was found injured and emaciated near Richland, on 21 December 1920 (Bull 1974). SPRING-No Records. SUMHER-No Records. COt1MENTS: Probably an accidental wanderer. Great Cormorant (PhaZacrocorax carbo) FALL-No records. WINTER-No Records. SPRING-Record: One adult in breeding plumage was sighted at Oswego Harbor from 19 to 20 May 1973. SUMMER-No Records.

PAGE 49

44 COMMENTS: The bird was first sighted by t4argaret Rusk and was carefully studied by many observers including F. G. Scheider, C. G. Spies, and G. A. Smith. All critical field marks, including the white patch on the sidP. and large size in direct comparison to Double-crested Cormorants, were noted. This appears to be the first record for the Great Lakes and probably the firS: record away from major coastal river mouths. Double-crested Cormorant (PhaZacrocorax auritus) FALL-Arrival. The arrival has been difficult to determine in recent years due to the presence of summer wanderers. The earliest arrival appears to be 2 at Derby Hill on 6 September 1975. A number of sightings are on record between 10 and 15 September. t1ost occur along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest counts are: 64 at Sandy Pond on 6 September 1976; 41 at Sandy Pond on 4 September 1977; 28 at Os\'lego Harbor on 24 October 1971; and 22 at Sandy Pond on 7 August 1977. This species has increased greatly since 1969. Average counts are 1 to 3 birds per day since 1969. Most records from Oneida Lake are singles. This species is most common from late September through October on Lake Ontario. Departure. The late record is 3 at Derby Hill on 23 November 1975. Most depart between 15 October and 15 November. A few may linger into winter. HINTERRecords: 1. One at OS\'Iego from 24 January to 7 March 1954. 2. One immature on the Oswego River near Fulton on 23 December 1972. 3. One irrmature at Oswego from 14 February to 10 March 1975. 4. Three to five per day at Oswego Harbor were present into late January in 1976. The re':ord ea.rly sighting is of an adult on Oneida Lake on-21 March 1961. The next eatliest record is one along Lake Ontario on 7 April 1956. Arrivals generally vary greatly from year to year. The record high is 9 (7 adults, 2 immatures) at Oswego Harbor on 22 May 1973. All other counts were less than 6 per day. Dee_arture The last birds are usually sighted leaving Derby Hill or Sanoy Pond between 17 and 25 May. Sm1t1E R-Recent records are: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 4 June 1957. 2. One to three per day at Oswego from 11 to 26 June 1972. 3. One immature at Derby Hill on 2 June 1971. 4. One immature at Oswego on 9 June 1976. 5. Twelve, including 10 adults, at Sandy Pond on 13 July 1976.

PAGE 50

45 COMMENTS: This species is increasing steadily in eastern Lake Ontario, due to the population increase at the colony on Little Galloo Island. There has been a decline of colonies in the western Great Lakes, so that most migrants in this area are from the Little Galloo Island colony. Bull (1974) states that no specimens were found in winter and few sight records are valid for winter. All recent winter records cited here are by experienced observers including F. G. Scheider, G. A. Smith, and D. W. Crumb. Great Blue Heron (Ardea heroodias) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 25 at Sandy Pond during September 1960 and 17 at Oneida Lake on 23 September 1972. They are very widely dis tributed throughout the area. The average count is 2 to 6 per day. They are least common on the Tug Hill plateau and most common in the marshes along Lake Ontario and in the Oneida River-Oneida Lake area. Departure. There is a rapid decline in numbers of birds after late October. Most appear to have departed by 20 November. WINTER-Some singles are present through December. One or 2 Great Blue Heron were recorded on 9 of 21 Oswego Christmas counts. Wintering individuals are most often noted along Oswego River. They become scarce in January and the only February records are: 1. Three at Fulton from January to late February 1965. 2. One adult at Fulton on 18 February 1968. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrival is one at Fulton on 28 February 1964. This may have been an undiscovered wintering bird. The next earliest record is 2 at Derby Hill on 15 March 1973. They usually arrive in small numbers between 17 and 23 March and are often sighted at this time at Derby Hill. Maximum. The highest counts occurred at Derby Hill and include: 35 on 2 April 1974, 33 on 18 April 1975, and 32 on 11 April 1972. The average maxima range between 15 and 22 birds per day, usually from Derby Hill, Lake Ontario shoreline marshes, and Peter Scott Swamp. They are most common between 1 and 25 April. Average numbers reach 8 to 15 per day at Derby Hill and 8 to 10 elsewhere. Departure. This is to determine because small numbers are often seen passing Derby Hill into early June.

PAGE 51

46 SUMMER-A number of colonies have existed in the during previous years which are now abandoned. These include: 1. 150 nests near Constantia, on the north shore of Oneida Lake (Bull 1974). 2. Peter Scott Swamp area: a. Twelve to 15 nests in 1964. b. Twenty nests in 1965. c. Eight to 10 nests in 1966. d. Twenty-two nests and 31 young in 1967. e. Twenty-four nests in 1968. f. Nineteen nests and 47 young in 1969. 3. Hyde (1939) reported seeing young just out of the nest near Juniper Pond near Fair Haven Beach State Park on 10 June 1935, suggesting a breeding location. Very few colonies exist in the area, however, numbers of non-breeding immatures and feeding adults from nearby colonies occur in small numbers along Lake Ontario and at wetlands in inland sections. COMMENTS: This is one of the most common large waterbirds in the area. Its population levels here appear to be stable. Green Heron (Butorides striatus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. The record highs are: 61 at Peter Scott Swamp on 9 August 1965 and 26 at Peter Scott Swamp on 17 August 1965. Average high counts are 10 to 15 per day. The highest counts occur at roosts. A large roost in nearby northern Onondaga County frequently has 100-250 occupants in mid-August. Average counts are 2 to 6 birds per day in streams and wetland areas. Departure The record late sighting is from Derby Hill on 9 November 1970. They usuaily depart between 8 and 18 October. WINTER-No Records. SPRING-Arrival, The earliest record is one on 17 April 1976 near Mexico. Several arrivals have occurred around 23 April. The majority arrive between 23 and 29 April. Maximum. Several counts of 12 to 14 birds per day have been reported from the Lake Ontario shoreline from 15 to 22 May. Average counts for May are between 2 and 4 birds per day. Most abundant in the extensive wetlands along Lake Ontario and the larger rivers. SUMMER-Green Herons breed in small numbers all over the county. The highest summer count is 25 at Snake Swamp on 14 July 1975. Most counts average 2 to 4 per day. Many breeding pairs can be found in Deer Creek Marsh and Butterfly Swamp. COMMENTS: The Green Heron is the most common heron in the county breeding all over the county including areas on the Tug Hill. J

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47 Little Blue Heron (Florida aaeruZea) FALL-Records include: 1. One immature near Parish during the last week of August 1956. 2. One immature at Derby Hill on 27 September 1970. (M. S. Rusk, c. G. Spies). WINTER-No Records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One adult at Stevens Pond near Phoenix on 10 May 1959. 2. One adult at Derby Hill on 22 April 1974 {Harold Axtell, J. R. Bart, G. A. Smith). 3. One adult at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station from 18 to 19 April 1975 (George R. Maxwell and Carol Wernick). SUMMER-Record: 1. One adult at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station on 18 June 1978 {G. R. Maxwell). COMMENTS: Notice that all fall records are of immatures and all spring records are of adults. The last two spring reports are due to strong frontal systems which carried other rare birds to the areao Cattle Egret (BubuZaus ibis) FALL-No Records. WINTER-No Records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One, not verified, at Port Ontario on 2 May 1959 {Kingbird, 1959). 2. Four at Mexico on 28 April 1962. 3. Two in Sterling area on 2 May 1962. ; 4. Five in the Brewerton area during May 1963. 5. Two adults in breeding plumage near Phoenix {Six Mile Creek) on 16 May 1965. 6. One at Derby Hill on 30 April 1970. 7. Nine at Fair Haven Beach State Park area on 12 May 1971. B. One at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station on 4 May 1972. 9. Seventeen near the Ponds Pond area, Town of Mexico on 20 April 1973. One to 4 per day present there to 15 May 1973. 10. One near Texas on 14 May 1973. 11. Two singles at Demster Beach, Town of New Haven and Derby Hill during May 1975. 12. One in the Pennelville area, Town of Schroeppel on 15 May 1976.

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48 SUt1t1ER-Record: One adult near on 24 July 1960. This species has increased in much of North America. It has been increasing in numbers locally, but is mainly a spring migrant in this area. The majority are found along Lake Ontario and in the Peter Scott Swamp area. This species has established itself as a breeder on nearby Little Galloo Island where three pair were present in 1978. Great Egret (Casmerodius aZbus) FALL-Records include: 1. One at Oneida Lake on 23 September 1956. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 26 September 1965. 3. One at Derby Hill from 15 to 18 September 1973. 4. One to 4 per day at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station from 1 July to 10 September 1974. WINTER-No Records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrival on record is one at Peter Scott Swamp on 30 March All other arrivals have occurred after 12 April. The arrival dates vary and in some years none are present. Maximum. All records consist of one or 2 birds and most \'/ere sighted at Peter Scott Sv-Jamp, Selkirk Shores State Park, the Rice Creek Bio logical Field Station, and Derby Hill. sightings occur between 20 Apri 1 and 10 May. Departure. Some occur in summer but most spring migrants have left by 20 May. SUt-1MER-Records include: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park during the summer of 1956. 2. One near Peter Scott Swamp during the summer of 1957. 3. Three at Stevens Pond near Phoenix on 6 June 1964. 4. One to four per day at the RiceCreek Biological Field Station from 1 July to 10 September 1974. COMMENTS: This species is most common as a spring migrant along Lake Ontario, Oneida Lake and Oneida River. Snowy Egret (Egretta thuZa) FALL-Records include: One at Sandy Pond from 5 to 7 August 1968 and one immature at Glimmerglass Lagoon, State University College at Oswego on 6 August 1974. \-liNTER-No Records.

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SPRI;JG-Records include: One adult at Derby Hill on 18 t1ay 1958, one at the Six Creek area, Town of Schroeppel on 16 r1ay 1971, and one at the Peter Scott Swamp on 29 April 1977. One adult at Sandy Pond on 2 June 1977. Louisiana Heron (Hydranassa tricolor) 49 FALL-Record: One immature at Sage Creek, near Derby Hill, on 2 September 1976 U1.S. Rusk, G. /\. Smith). \JINTER-rJo records. SUMMER-No records. B 1 ac k-crm-med Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) FALL-Arrival. The arrival date is uncertain because there are many late breeding birds that are sighted from mid-July on. Maximum. Several counts of 4 to 6 birds per day have occurred during vanous years. The average counts are l to 2 birds per day. They arr. usually sighted in the Lake Ontario marshes and in the Peter Scott Swamp a1ea. They are most common from mid-August to early October. Departure. The record late bird was an individual at Sandy Pond on 31 October 1971. They usually depart between 5 and 15 October. WINTER-No records. t1ost arrivals occur between 15 and 25 Arril, usunlly alon0 Lnke Ontario. The highest counts of 3 to 6 per day have been noted several times during various years. The average counts are l to 2 per day. These birds are usually sighted at Peter Scott Swamp, Snake Swamp, the Rice Creek Biological Field Station, Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. SUM1'1ER-J\ few individuals may be sighted during the summer at various locations in the county. r1ost ate sighted along Lake Ontario and in Peter Scott Swamp. The highest summer count is 5 near Oswego on 25 June 1972. There 1t1as evidence of probable breeding by 4 pair in Snake SHamp during 1978. C0t1t1ENTS: This species has declined severely in Oswego r:ounty. It is rare to find more than one per season. There are alr1ost no colonies in most of central New York. It is suspected that many of the birds in our area originated from Little Galloo Island in eastern Lake Ontario. This island is very important to both this species as well as the Double-crested Cormorant.

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50 Least Bittern ( Ixobrychus exi Us) FALL-Recent records include: One at Sandy Pond on 4 September 1954; two at Sandy Pond on 5 September 1962; one immature bird along U. S. Route 11 on 15 August 1960; one bird along Lake Ontario on 3 September 1972. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. Their arrival in spring is hard to determine. They often occur between 25 April and 5 May and usually at breeding sites. There are several high countsof 3 individuals each from Peter Scott Swamp, Sandy Pond, and the Sterling Valley marshes. Very few actual migrants are sighted away from breeding areas. SUMMER-Least Bittern are an unpredictable and irregularly distributed breeder in the area. They breed in marshes along Lake Ontario and large rivers. Most locations contain only a single pair, but Deer Creek Marsh, in the Tovm of Richland had 2 to 5 breeding pair in 1976. COMMENTS: This secretive species is present in many areas where extensive marshlands exist. It has been suggested that this species is declining in our area, but this has not been confirmed. More intensive investiga tions are needed during the breeding season. This species is very shy and as a result few records are reported. American Bittern (Botaurus Zentiginosus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The high counts are generally not more than 5 per day. However, 7 were reported at Sandy Pond on 17 September 1969. Counts average 1 to 3 per day from wetland areas. Departure. The record late departure is one at Sandy Pond on 16 November 1957. The next latest was at Sandy Pond again on 9 Novenber 1969. The departure varies, but usually occurs during the last third of October. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first arrivals occur between 8 and 13 April, usually at Derby Hill. Several high counts of 5 to 6 birds per day have been reported at Peter Scott Swamp and various Lake Ontario marshes. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-They breed in large marshes throughout most of the county. They are most common in Peter Scott Swamp and Deer Creek marsh. Large marshes may contain 2 to 3 pairs, but small marshes only one pair. Most counts are of 1 per day.

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This specit!S seems to be declining, especially as a breeder, in Oswego County. It is usually only found in undisturbed areas. This species needs careful study. Glossy Ibis (PZegadis faZcineZZus) FALL-Record: One immature at Sandy Pond on 10 October 1971 (F. G. Scheider, P. A. DeBenedictis). records. SPitHlGRecords inc 1 ude: l. Three at Derby Hill, one on 6 Hay 1960, one on 12 1964, and one on 9 May 1968. 2. One at the Six Mile Creek area from 24 to 25 April 1971. 3. Thirteen at Pond's Pond and Derby Hill areas on 16 t1ay 1971. 4. Thirteen at Peter Scott Swamp on 16 t1ay 1971. 5. Four at Sandy Pond on 17 1971. 51 6. One immature at the !line Mi 1 e Point iower rl ants on 29 1\r>ri 1 1973. 7. One at Derby Hill on 29 April 1978. SW1MER-No records. COMt1ENTS: This species is a rare spring visitor, with the exception of those sighted in 1971. The two flocks of 13 in 1971 represent an overshoot of the southern breeding grounds. This species seems to be on the increase in recent years. t1ute Swan (Cygnus oZor) FALL-Records include: 1. One adult at Fulton during the fall of 1955. 2. One at Oneida Lake, near Clevr:land, was found shot during the fall of 1956. 3. One at Selkirk Shores State Park from August to 31 November 1975. 4. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park from 17 October to 7 November 1976. WINTER-Records include: 1. One adult at Fulton during the winter of 1955. 2. One adult at Brewerton during the winter of 1956. 3. One at Oswego from 12 to 20 January 1960. 4. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park from fall to January 1976. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Oneida Lake during the spring of 1967. 2. One along the Oneida River near Peter Scott Swamp on 18 April 1968. 3. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park from 22 to 16 f1ay 1975. SUMMER-Records include: 1. Four near the Oneida Lake islands during June and July 1956. 2. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park early in June 1975.

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52 COMMENTS: The thirteen total records of this species probably only involve 8-9 individuals. This species is a casual wanderer to Oswego County from the Atlantic coast or from Lake Michigan populations. Whistling Swan (OZoP coZumbianus) FALL-Recent records include: 1. Two at Selkirk Shores State Park from 1 to 7 November 1959. 2. Seven at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 13 November 1965. 3. One at Derby Hi 11 on 14 November 1965. 4. One adult at Fair Haven Beach State Park from 10 to 12 November 1971. j. Three at Oneida Lake from 11 November to 7 December 1973. include: 1. One at Fulton on 23 December 1961. 2. One at Fulton from 1 to 7 December 1962. 3. One at Lakeview on 15 December 1962. 4. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park from 12 to 18 January 1975. SPRING-Arrival. The record early date for four different years 10 March. Arrival usually occurs between 15 and 30 usually appear on Oneida Lake at Brewerton or Lake Ontario first. is They areas Maximum. Counts of 8 occurred at Brewerton on 28 March 1965 and on 25 March 1968. The average is 1 to 4 sightings per day. Most often noted from 15 March to 15 April. They are most common at Brewerton along the Oneida River, and along Lake Ontario. Departure. The record late is at Oswego on 2 May 1970. The next latest at Derby Hill on 26 April 1974. Departure usually occurs during the first 10 days of April. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: Unlike most waterfowl this bird is rarely seen in either the spring or the fall at Derby Hill. It appears that the main migra tion route of this species passes west of Os\t.Jego County. Canada Goose (Broa:nta canadensis) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 2 and 5 Septeiliber. Arriva 1 s usually occur betv.Jeen 10 and 17 September. These arrivals occur in areas away from Oswego, where small introduced populations exist.

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Maximum. This species has been on the increase since the mid-1960's. The highest counts include 15,940 at Derby Hill on 2 October 1974, and 7,136 on 7 October 1978. The average maxima are between 2,000 and 3,500. The maxima were lmver prior to 1965. Daily counts of 800 to l ,500 are common. Large flocks are common during the first ten days of October. Departure. Small flocks are present into early December. WINTER-Few Canada Geese remain after 10 December. The highest counts in winter are from Oswego Christmas counts. The highest is 73 birds on 29 December 1963. Very uncommon in January and February. Counts in these months average 1 to 4 per day in some years and none in other years. They are most common along the Oswego River. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival usually occurs between 26 February and 15 March. This may vary considerably in some years depending on the winter conditions. The earliest flight of Canada Geese occurred on 21 February 1976. Most February arrivals involve small flocks and are usually sighted along Lake Ontario. Maximum. This species has increased as a spring migrant in recent years. The record high count is 13,600 at Derby Hill on 20 April 1977" Most high counts are between 5,500 and 6,000 per day, mainly from Peter Scott Swamp, Snipe Meadows area, and Derby Hill. t1axima prior to 1965 range between 1,000 and 2,000 per day. Large numbers can be found in the three areas mentioned above and in areas in the Town of Schroeppel. Departure. The departure usually occurs between 27 April and 4 tay. SUMMER-Along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake a few linger into early June. Canada Geese have bred in the following locations: 1. At least one pair nested from 1961 to 1964 at Stevens Pond in the Town of Schroeppel. They raised between 1 and 5 young per year. The origin of this nest is uncertain, but it is possible that the birds that colonized this area could have come from another nearby 2. The introduction of several pair occurred at The Rice Creek Biological Field Station during the mid-1960's. A small population cf about 25 individuals has developed. This population has expanded to colonize other nearby areas. There are currently several breeding pair in various Lake Ontario shoreline marshes in the Towns of Oswego and Scriba. Part of this population is non-migrating and main tained by artificial feeding. 53

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54 3. Populations of 20+ were present at Pond Hundred Sterling and Peter Scott Swamp during the summer of 1978. COMMENTS: Canada Geese have increased greatly since the early 196.01s and are now one of the most common large birds in the area. The large flocks overhead during migration are a common sight throughout the area, especially along Lake Ontario. There has been little increase in wintering numbers, but in summer small artificial breeding populations have developed in the area. Brant (Branta bernicZa) FALL-Arrival. The earliest recorded arrival is one bird at Sandy Pond on 23 September 1951. This may have been a summering bird. The next three early sightings all occurred on 3 October in different years. The average arrival date is between 14 and 20 October. Large numbers can be seen at any time after 20 October. Maximum. The highest counts are 9,520 at Derby Hill on 23 October 1965 and 8,945 at Derby Hill on 21 October 1969. The largest counts occur at the eastern end of Lake Ontario and usually when there is a northwest wind. Several counts of 3,000 to 5,000 per day have been reported. The average maxima along Lake Ontario range from 1,000 to 2,000 per day. Flocks are usually smaller and not as common on on Oneida Lake. Departure. The last usually depart in early December. Most large flocks have departed by mid-November and small flocks leave about one week later. WINTER-Records include: 1. One at Oswego, present to 13 December 1964. 2. One at Oswego on 29 December 1964. 3. Two at Lakeview, present to 19 December 1970. 4. Two immature at Lakeview, present to 15 December 1973. 5. One immature at Oswego Harbor from 23 to 29 January 1976. Found dead 30 January 1976. 6. One adult at Oswego Harbor from 19 Decerrber 1976 to mid-Januar 1977. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest sighting on record is 100 at Oneida Lake on 11 May l958. All other arrivals are after 17 Maximum. The highest reported counts are 700 at Derby Hill on 19 May 1973 and 800 on 23 May 1968. Sightings generally are of flocks of 75 or less. In some years there may be huge flocks and in other years t may be absent altogether. They are most common during the last 10 da of r1ay and are mainly restricted to Lake Ontario. Departure. The record late sighting occurred in mid-June. The next latest are 2 at Oswego on 9 June 1955. SUr1MER-Record: One at Pleasant Po1nt, To\'m of New Haven, on 17 June 1976.

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COMMENTS: The Brant's numbers vary considerably and so do their years of occurrence. They appear to have increased as a fall migrant in the last 25 years. This may be due in part to increased field worko Snow Goose (Anser caeruZescens) 55 FALL-Arrival. (White Phase) Most Snow Geese arrive from 12 to 20 October. Maximum. The highest counts are 100 at Sandy Pond on 25 November 1962 and 85 at Oneida Lake on 16 November 1958. The average count is 1 or 2 birds per day at locations along Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario. Departure. The record late sighting was at Oneida Lake on 30 November 1959. There are a number of other records during the last week of November. (Dark Phase) records include: 1. Nine adults at Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 November 1959. 2. One adult at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. 3. One immature at Derby Hill on 8 November 1970. 4. Three, including one adult and two immatures, at Sandy Pond on 14 October 19710 5. One adult at Derby Hill on 30 September 1972. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrivals. phase) The earliest records are at Brewerton on 2 March 1971 and 30 at Derby Hill on 16 March 1968. All other indiv1duals are often 25 March. Maximum. The highest count is 100 at Derby Hill on 31 March 1972. Counts are usually less than 30 with an average of 1 to 5 per day" They are most frequently observed from late March to late April along Lake Ontario. Departure. The latest on record is 4 birds at Brewerton on 7 May 1954. They usually depart during the last 10 days of April. (Dark phase) records include: 1. Five at Derby Hill on 16 March 1968. 2" One adult at Brewerton on 31 t1arch 1968. 3. One adult at Derby Hill on 26 April 1970. 4. One at Derby Hill on 1 April 1971. 5. One at Fair Haven on 1 April 1971. 6. Unknown nurrt>er at Selkirk Shores State Park on 23 Apri 1 1972. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: White phase birds are regular migrants but Dark phase indi vi duals are quite rare. Most records involve small numbers but occasionally large flocks of Snow Geese occur.

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56 Fulvous Whistling Duck FALL-No records. (Dendrocygna bicolor) WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One at the Six Mile Creek Valley floodlands near Pennelvi Town of Schroeppel, from 29 April through late May 1976. (M.s. Rusk and others). SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: In the spring of 1976 many southern species were sighted in th area. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) FALL-Arrival. Flocks often pass over Derby Hill between 15 and 20 Septerr Maximum. High counts range between 500 and 750 from the Lake Ontari area. Counts of 150 to 300 birds per day are fairly common along La Ontario and in large inland marshes between 20 October and the end o November. Average counts are 15 to 40 per day. Departure. Difficult to determine, but flocks are less frequent aft early December. WINTER-Mallards are present in small numbers, which average 10-25 per day in most areas. A large concentration of 200-350 birds is often pres at Brewerton, where they are maintained by artificial feeding. They common near Brewerton and along the Oswego River from Phoenix to Osw They are much less frequently sighted along Lake Ontario, particular in severe winters when ice builds up near shore. SPRING-Arrival. Small flocks of these dabbling ducks are often noted at Derby Hill between 20 and 28 February. Maximum. The highest counts usually range between 200 and 400 from Lake Ontario shoreline in March and early April. One high count of birds occurred at Derby Hill on 29 March 1971. Counts average 15-50 birds per day except in the Tug H ill area. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-They are common breeders in most wetland areas. Most counts in su are 2 to 10 per day. Counts of 10-40 per day are common after late due to the presence of broods and male molting assembleages. There some resident ducks from Brewerton that nest in nearby areas includi Oneida Lake islands. COMMENTS: The Mallard has virtually replaced the Black Duck as a nesting species in most of the Northeast. This species is far more common a

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57 present than it was in the early 1960's. feeding is undoubtedly the reason for the increase in winter survival rates. This feeding is done by well-meaning individuals but the effect upon the local population ecology of this species is undesirable. In addition to increasing the competition for food and space, unbalanced sex ratios and disease problems may result from these artificially maintained populations. Black Duck (Anas r>ubripes) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine because of locally breeding birds. Small nunbers are noted along LakeOntario from 10 to 15 September and these are probably early migrants. In some years a few have been noted passing Derby Hill as late as August. Maximum. The highest count is 587 at Derby Hill on 13 October 1972. A number of counts in the 275 to 425 range have occurred at Derby Hi 11. High counts are usually less than 150, with average counts of 15-50 birds per day. They are most frequent along Lake Ontario and at inland marshes between 1 October and 15 November. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers gradually decline after mid-November. In most years some persist into winter. WINTER-This species is present in considerable numbers at streches of open l'l'ater along the Oswego and OneTda-Rivers. The number of wintering Black Ducks have declined significantly during the past twenty years. A comparison of Mallard/Black Duck ratios for Region 5 Oswego, Northern Cayuga, Madison, Oneida and Herkimer counties) from mid-January waterfowl counts are listed below: Year ard Black Duck 1955 164 610 1956 93 300 1957 136 425 1958 481 980 1959 436 2862 1960 1144 2594 1961 667 1487 1962 1224 2568 1963 823 957 1964 524 525 1965 450 901 1966 661 419 1967 731 643 1968 899 545

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58 Year Mallard Black Duck 1969 999 276 1970 1210 365 1971 1388 24 7 1972 1520 113 1973 2075 201 1974 1666 357 1975 1422 175 1976 206 From this table one can see the trend of increasing Mallard populations at the expense of the Black Duck. This reduction in Black numbers is probably due to competition with large numbers of Mallards 1 favored Black Duck wintering grounds. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but they are often noted passing Derby Hill during the last week of February. The arrival period is probably between 24 February and 10 March depending on the weather. Maximum. Most maxima range between 300 and 400. They are present in the largest numbers from 25 March to 10 April primarily from Lake Onta1 marshes and bays or the Peter Scott Swamp area. Their numbers are mor1 stab 1 e in spring than in any other season. The average counts per da: are between 15 and 35. Departure. Difficult to determine, but most birds present after 10-15 May are probably breeding or summering. Ducks breed in small numbers throughout the area. They are mo common along Lake Ontario and in the Tug Hill plateau. There has been considerable decline in recent years and as a result many local breede occur as mixed Mallard/Black Duck pairs. Summer counts are 2 to 5 bir per day on the average. COMMENTS: The decline of the Black Duck has been striking and there is eve indication that it will continue. The ratio of Mallards to Black Duck is increasing yearly and the frequency of hybrids between the two spec continues to increase also. It is likely that the species will as a breeder from all but the most inaccessible parts of the Tug Hill plateau. It may be that the 11pure11 Black Duck will be restricted to a where 11 ards are rare. Gadwa 11 (Anas strepera) FALL-Arrival. The earliest record is on 9 September 1972 at Oneida Lake. arrival of this species varies considerably. Maximum. In recent years the highest counts range from 40 to 55 per ( These counts are mainly from the Fair Haven Beach State Park and Litt' Sodus Bay areas. Counts prior to 1970 were about 15 to 20 per day. J from these two areas counts average 3 to 7 birds per day.

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Deaarture. In the last ten years Gadwall have been present on Little So us Bay into mid-December and at Oswego Harbor in winter. In other areas they are rare after mid-November. 59 WINTER-Since 1967, there has been a dramatic increase in the frequency of wintering Gadwall. Now, they are quite regular at Oswego Harbor in the winter and records include: 1. One at Oswego from 8 January to 18 February 1967. 2. Sixteen at Oswego on 25 January 1970. 3. 15 to 25 per day at Oswego during January and February 1972. 4. 10 to 15 per day at Oswego from January to early March 1975. 5. 20 to 45 per day at Oswego during the winter of 1975 -76 with a maximum of 55 on 11 January. 6. 38 at Oswego on 8 January 1977. Gadwall do not appear at Oswego before early January, this is because they may be forced out of other areas that are freezing. This species is rare away from Oswego, in the winter, but may occasionally be sighted at Caughdenoy and Brewerton. Numbers in these areas range from 1 to 3 birds per day. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest recorded arrivals have been sighted during the last week of February in different years. They are not sighted regularly at most locations until after mid-March. The highest count is 55 at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 23 March 1972. Counts of 15 to 40 per day are common at Fair Haven and Little Sodus Bay. Counts average 10 to 30 per day in this area. In other areas counts average 3 to 6 per day. Departure. Very little information is available on this species for this time of year, but most have probably departed by mid-May and birds present after mid-May should be investigated as possible breeders. SUMMER-One definite breeding pair is on record; One female and 6 flightless young on Oneida Lake during the summer of 1977. The statement 11one brood Stevens Pond August 196311 was reported in Kingbird in 1963 but lacks details. No other breeding records are known and summer records are few. COMMEtiTS: Gadwall s have increased as migrants and as wintering birds during the last 10 years, especially along Lake Ontario between Little Sodus Bay and Oswego. They are quite rare inland. More information is needed regarding the status of the Gadwall as a breeder in the area. Pintail ( Anas acuta) FALL-Arrival. The earliest records occur during the first week of August. The arrival varies considerably but usually occurs prior to late August. Late July records may be summering birds. Large flocks do not arrive until 15 to 20 September.

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60 Maximum. The highest numbers have been observed passing over Derby Hil These include 1,395 on 12 October 1971 and 1,100 on 15 October 1971. Tl average maxima range between 175 and 500 from Lake Ontario. Most count: are 30 to 125 per day. They are least frequent in the Tug Hill plateau area. Departure. Most have departed by 10 November. The last migrants usual leave between 18 and 28 November. A few linger into winter along the Oswego and Oneida Rivers. WINTER-Pintails are present in small numbers, 1 to 4 per day, at Oswego and along the Oswego River. Counts of 5 to 9 have been reported. A maximum of 15 birds at Oswego was reported from 8 January to 18 February 1967. Pintails usually stay through the winter and survival rates appear quite high. SPRING-Arrival. The first arrivals usually are reported between 24 February and 4 March. The earliest arrival on record appears to be of several Pintails at Derby Hill on 31 January 1974. Large flocks are usually not present until mid-March. Maximum. The highest counts range from 300 to 700 and are usually noted at the Six Mile Creek area near Phoenix, N.Y. The highest numbers usually occur during the first two weeks of April. During April flights of 150 to 400 birds a day are often noted passing Derby Hill. The average counts are between 15 and 50 per day from all areas. They are most frequently sighted along Lake Ontario and in large inlanc marshes. Departure. The majority have left by 7 to.lO May. A few linger into the third week of May. The latest records appear to be on 21 to 24 May. Another record of a female at Sandy Pond on 6 June 1954 may be a late migrant. SUMMER-A few scattered groups of 1 to 3 birds have been noted during all th1 summer months. Almost all records are from Lake Ontario. No proof of breeding exists and records of pairs are virtually non-existent COMMENTS: Pintails are abundant as migrants throughout the area, but are quite scarce the rest of the year. They are one of the most common da ing ducks in the first large waterfowl flights of the season at Derby in the fall and spring. Green-winged Teal (Anas cPecca) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrival on record appears to be on 26 July in two different years. These early records are very hard to evaluate because they may represent summering birds as pre-eclipse flights by males. There are records of singles or small flocks after 10 August at several different locations.

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61 The highest counts ra::ge from 50 to 90 from several different locales during different years. This species is generally present in small flocks of 10 to 35 birds per day on the average. The highest numbers are from Little Sodus Bay to Oswego and at inland marshes. Large numbers of these birds are present from late September to 1 ate October. Departure. Most have departed by mid-November, but a few may persist into the last ten days of November. The latest date on record for this species is from 5 to 10 Decerrber in va.rious years. \'liNTERThis species is very rare in winter. The following are the recent records: 1. One at Oswego to 30 1966. 2. One female at Bre\'/erton from late December 1978 to early January 1979. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred from 15 to 17 March. They usually arrive from 20 to 27 March. There are no records of arrival prior to 15 March which indicates that this species is one of the latest ducks to arrive. Small flocks are present after 20 but the majority dont arrive until early April. Maximum. The record high is 200 birds at Peter Scott Swamp on 15 April 1971. A few records of 150 to 175 birds per day are on record. These high counts come mainly from Peter Scott Snipe t1earlows and the Six 11ile Creek area. The high counts average between 50 and 100 birds. Small flocks of 10 to 30 are reported from all parts of the area during April. Besides the three previously mentioned areas they are also common along Lake Ontario and at large inland marshes. There are two records of the old world race in spring: 1. One male near Phoenix on 13 and 14 April 1967. 2. One to two males at Pond Hundred near Fair Haven Beach State Park from 17 to 24 t1arch 1973. They usually depart prior to 15 but some linger until 20 to 25 May. A few may possibly persist into sumffier. SUt1t1ER-Singles and small groups have summered at Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario. There is no evidence of breeding at these locations. Breeding has been confirmed at Stevens Pond near Peter Scott Swamp from 1957 to 1963. Observations of the young from this area include: 1. A brood of 9 on 16 July 1958. 2. Two broods totaling 13 young between 7 and 11 July 1959. 3_ A brood of 24 July 1960. There have been birds present here through 1965, but no proof of breeding exists at this site after 1963. The status of this species as a breeder in the area is unclear. The extremely early ,July arrivals suggest that they may be breeding in the area. Careful observation may reveal more breeding pairs and all flocks should be carefully examined for recorcis of the old world form.

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62 Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) FALL-Arrival. Arrival is difficult to determine, but flocks noted during early August may contain migrants. Maximum. The highest count is 400 birds at Oneida Lake on 3 Seotember 1960. Major concentrations usually occur there between 20 and 15 Septerrber. Maxima usually range between 100 and 130 birds per day. Average counts are from 15 to 50 per day" The highest counts are from Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario marshes. In recent years large numbers of dead birds have been reported several times on the Oneida Lake Islands by C. G. Spies. These include 211 birds found dead betweer 30 July and 26 September 1977 and 91 dead between 18 and 25 September 1971. Departure. A sharp decline in numbers occurs after early October. The record late is one at Parish on 18 November 1956. They usually depart during the last week of October. WINTER-Records include: 1. One on the Oswego Christmas Count on 26 December 1964. 2. One on the Oswego Christmas Count on 23 December 1965. 3. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 21 December 1972" SPRING-Arrival. This species is a relatively late migrant in the spring. The record early arrival is one at Oneida Lake on 1 March 1971" All other individual records occur after 15 March, usually between 17 and 24 Maximum. High counts range between 30 and 70 birds per day. Most counts average between 15 and 25 per day. In spring the highest counts are reported on Oneida Lake and the interior marshes. Departure. Difficult to determine due to the presence of breeders, but the migrant birds have probably left by mid-May. SUMMER-This species is one of the most common breeding ducks in the area. Many small marshes have one pair and larger areas such as Peter Scott Swamp and Deer Creek Marsh may contain several pairs. They are least common on the Tug Hill plateau. The highest summer counts are of post-breeding concentrations along Oneida Lake. Counts in this area range from 15 to 60 birds per day. The average summer counts are between 2 and 10 birds per day. COMMENTS: This species is one of the most common breeding waterfowl in the area. The majority of birds of this species are reported on Oneida Lake and Oneida River areas rather than at Lake Ontario.

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European vJ i geon (An as penelope) FALL-Record: One adult male at Derby Hill on 30 October 1976 (F. G. Scheider). WINTER-No records. 63 SPRING-Record: One adult male west of Oswego on 20 March 1977 (M. S. Rusk, c. G. Spies). SUMMER-No records. American vJi geon (An as americana) FALL-Arrival. The earliest record is 3 birds at Sandy Pond on 29 August 1971. This species is a fairly early migrant. Small groups are usually present by l to 10 September. Maximumo The record high count is 1,400 at Derby Hill on 18 October 1970. Maxima range between 300 and 600 and usually are from Lake Ontario areas such as Derby Hi 11 and Little Sodus Bay. Counts average 75 to 200 birds per day along Lake Ontario. Few are sighted away from Lake Ontario. Departure. The majority of birds have departed by 15 to 25 November. Small numbers may persist into early December. WINTER-Small groups of late migrants occur until about 10 December. A few may persist until late December, but there are few records for January and February. January and February records include: 1. One male at Oswego on 27 February 1954. This may be an early migrant. 2. One at Oswego until 30 January 1966. 3. Eight at Oswego on 15 January 1970. 4. One male at Brewerton from 3 January to 3 March 1978. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest record is listed above and occurred on 27 February 1954. The next earliest occurred at Brewerton on 1 1969. Other early arrivals have been reported between 3 and 7 March. The arrival is irregular and may occur anytime during the first two weeks of March. Maximum. There are several high counts of 100 Ontario, Six Mile Creek, and Peter Scott Swamp Maxima are usually between 80 and 115 per day. counts are from 25 to 60 birds. to 150 from the Lake areas in various years. The average daily Departure. The record late is a male at the Nine Mile Point power plants on 2 June 1971. The mctjor ty have departed by early May.

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64 SUMMER-There are only three summer records known, none of them are breeding records: 1. One male at Stevens Pond, near Phoenix, present to 7 July 1959. 2. One male at Stevens Pond from 17 to 21 June 1964. 3. One male at the Nine Mile Point power plants on 2 June 1971. This species is much less common in spring than in the fall. In the fall they are most conrnon at the eastern end of Lake Ontario where northwest gales concentrate large numbers of migrant waterfowl. Northern Shoveler ( Anas cZypeata) FALL-Arrival. This species is an uncommon migrant and as a result there is little data available. Arrival may occur between late July and early October. Maximum. The high counts are 20 birds at Brewerton an 28 October 1976 and 17 at Selkirk Shores State Park between 27 September and 3 October 1956. All other counts are less than 10 per day. Highest counts occur during October along Oneida Lake. Counts average 2 to 5 ducks per day. Departure. The latest record is of 7 birds at Oneida Lake on 26 November 1970. The majority depart in October. There are only a few records later than 15 November. WINTER-Records include: 1. One at Oswego between 20 and 22 December 1962. 2. One at Caughdency on 18 January 1971. 3. One at Oneida Lake on 3 December 1972. 4. Two wintered at Os\'/ego during 1977-78. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrival occurred at Derby Hill on 20 March 1968. There are several records from 22 to 25 March. They usually arrive during the last WE!ek of Harch. They arrive in the Derby Hill and Selkirk Shores State Park areas. Maximum. The highest count is 25 birds at Derby Hill on 23 March 1968. Maxima range between 8 and 13 from many locations along Lake Ontario. Oneida Lake, and large inland wetlands. Average counts are 2 to 6 birds per day. They are most common the first three weeks of April. Departure. There are a few records after early May, but it appears that most have left by the end of April. SUMMER-No records.

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65 C01+1ENTS: This species is more common in the spring than in the fall. This species is one of the least common of the waterfowl that regularly migrate through the area. \'Jood Duck (Aix sponsa) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine due to the presence of breeders. The highest counts are all from roosts at Peter Scott Swamp and nearby areas. They include, 700 on 22 September i965 and 591 on 16 October 1966. Prior to 1970 counts of 300 to 500 birds from these areas were common. Counts away from these roosts are much lower. the highest being 202 at Lacona, Town of Sandy Creek, on 2 October 1976. Other maxima are less than 125 birds per day. The average counts from all locations are between 5 and 20 per day. Departure. The majority have departed by 5 to 10 November. Any records after 15 to 20 November are probably wintering birds. WINTER-Recent records include: 1. One at Fulton on 19 December 1954. 2. Three at various locations along the Oswego River during the winter of 1956-57. 3. One at Fulton during the winter of 1958-59. 4. One male at Fulton and Minetto during the winter of 1966-67. 5. Several records of 1 to 2 per day along the Oswego River in 1967 and 1977. 6. Two fema 1 es wintered at Fair Haven Beach State Park during 1975-76. Most I'Jood Ducks attempting to winter are unsuccessful and 1 eave after mid-January. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrival occurred at Derby Hill on 6 March 1964. There are 2 or 3 arrivals between 8 and 14 March, but in most years they arrive between 19 and 25 March. Maximum. The highest counts are 15 to 20 per day. They average between 6 and l5 per day usually. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-Wood Ducks are regular breeders in this area. In larger areas, such as Snake Swamp, Deer Creek and Peter Scott Swamp, several pairs may be found. They are usually noted as 3 to 6 per day prior to roosting. cm1MENTS: Wood Ducks are common in wetland areas from late March through October.

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66 Redhead ( Aythya americana) FALL-Arrival. The usual arrival period for this species is between 15 and 25 Septermer along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Maximum. Prior to the 19601s several hundred could be seen along the southv1est shore of Oneida Lake in Recently, this has been present in much lower numbers. Recent are generally less than 100 birds per day. A few counts of 200 to 350 have occurred from Little Sodus Bay area. Ten to twenty per day are present on Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. During the last 10 to 12 years this species has declined severely. Departure. Some Redheads may be present through mid-December, but mos depart between 25 November and 15 Decerrber. Any present after this time are probably attempting to winter. \HNTERThey are present in small numbers through the winter. Their number vary from year to year. They occur most often at Oswego Harbor, but s numbers may be present along the Oswego and Oneida Ri and at Brewerton. High counts average 50 to 65 per day. The average counts 10 to 30 per day. Larger numbers may occur during certain years. Flo of 75 to 250 v1ere reported along the Oswego and Oneida Rivers in 1976-The record high of 400 birds occurred at Caughdenoy during February 19 Large numbers like these are rare. SPRING-Arrival. The first migrants arrive between 20 February and 10 farc The arrival varies depending on early spring weather conditions. The largest counts are 2,000 to 3,000 per day on Little Sodu Bay during the last two of March 1977. Other maxima are much le than 580 birds per day. There are many in the 100 to 200 range. The largest flocks occur on Little Sodus Bay. They are frequent on Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake, where counts average 15 to 25 birds per day. Departure. Numbers of this species decline steadily after the last wE of and the first week of Apri 1. The majority have 1 eft by the E of April. The latest records are from 15 to 20 t1ay. Late records im from 1 to 3 birds and may include injured or sick birds. SUMMER-No records. The Redhead appear to have declined substantially since the Rafts of several hundred to a thousand were common on large lakes in E years. In the early 1970s only small flocks were present. However, during the last 2 to 3 years its numbers have again inc.reased. It is hoped that it wi 11 regain its former numbers.

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67 Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrival occurred at Sandy Pond on 17 September 1964. Arrival usually occurs betv1een 28 September and 8 October along Lake Ontario. taximum. The highest counts are bet\veen 75 and 200 per day. The average counts are 10 to 30 birds per day. Ring-necked Ducks occur in substantial numbers on inland ponds, unlike most diving ducks. They are most common on the bays and river mouths along Lake Ontario. Departure. The largest f'locks are prE:sent in late October and early November. Their numbers decline gradually after early November. Small flocks linger through the first 10 days of December. vJHITER-They are rare after mid-December. Some years none are present after this date, but in other years they stay until mid-January. Ring-necked Ducks are very rare after 20 January. The only records are: l. 2. One at from 18 January to 21 February 1965. One male at Oswego from December 1976 to late February 1977. They are most common at Oswego in winter and few are reported other locations. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 8 and 12 f1arch. They usually arrive betvJeen 12 and 20 1arch along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high is 730 at Little Sodus Bay and on Pond Hundred on 20 1977. High counts average between 450 and 600 from Oneida Lake and the mouth of the Salmon River. Average maxima are 150 to 350 birds per day. Large spring concentrations occur at the mouth of the Salmon River from late March to early April. Counts average 10 to 50 per day from 20 t1a rch to the end of Apri 1. Departure. The latest departure is at Oneida Lake on 23 May 1954. Numbers decline rapidly after the last week of April and the first few days of May. Departure usually occurs betv1een 10 and 15 May. COMt1ENTS: This species is the most common diving duck a\'/ay frorn Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. It is occasionally found on Tug Hill ponds in May and could possibly breed there. This is unlikely, but still a possibility that needs further investigation. Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) FALL-.1\rrival. These ducks arrive late in the fall. They are usually reported between 10 and 13 October or slightly later.

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68 Maximum. The largest numbers are from the south\'test shore of Oneida Lake. Flocks of 2,000 and 8,000 were common at Muskrat Bay in the early 19601s in late November. Large flocks have not been noted in that area since about 1966. Recent maxima range hetween 250 and 600 per day. Most counts are 15 to 30 birds per day and usually from the Sterling area and on Oneida Lake. rJumbers may be increasing again because 850 were reported at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 29 November 1975. Departure. After 1 ate tlovember they depart quite rapidly. A few flocks of up to 100 may be present to 15 or 20 December. Small numbers remain through the winter. to 50 regularly \'linter in the Oswego Harbor area. Small numbers, may be found along the Osweg River. At Brewerton and other areas near Oneida River 5 to 25 are usually present. Counts average 2 to 12 per day. Canvasbacks are rare along Lake Ontario in winter. SPRING-Arrival. Migrants may be seen as early as the last \'leek of February depending on the weather. They are common anytime after this. The highest counts are from earlier years. A high count of 4,000 appeared on 2 April 1959 at Oneida Lake. Prior to 1966 high counts were between 300 and 700 birds per day. Since 1966 most counts have not exceeded 200 birds per day. There is some evidence that this species is increasing again because in the last three years counts of 800-2,000 have been reported from Lake Ontario. The average counts in recent years are 10 to 25 per day. The largest concentrations occur in Oneida Lake and LittlE Sodus Bay area. Departure. tJumbers of this species decline rapidly after early April. Large flocks are rare after mid-April. Average departure appears to occur between 20 and 25 April. Only a very few remain into May. SUt1t1ER-No records. Like the Redhead, this species suffered a significant decrease in numbers during the mid to late 19601s and early l9701s. Assemblages of several hundred to a thousand were common, then they declined until only a dozen to a few hundred were sighted. It appears that both species may be shmdng signs of recovery. During the 1976-77 migration their numbers were the highest they had been in a decade. Greater Scaup ( AJ thy a mari Za) F/\LL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals occur between 9 and 13 September along Lake Ontario. The arrival dates vary considerably and in some years they may not arrive until early October. Mid-September arrivals involve groups of l to 5 birds. Large flocks arrive later.

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Maximum. They are one of the most abundant migrant diving ducks. The record high is 12,000 at Llerby Hill on 6 1977. These large flights occur on fierce northwest winds at Derby Ifill. 1\ number of large flights, 2,500 to 3,500 birds day, have been sighted at Derby Hill from 18 to 31 October. t1axima average 500 to 1500 birds per day on Little Sodus P>ay and Oneida Lake. They are most common on Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Counts average 150 to 500 birds per day. The highest numbers are present l)etween 20 October and 10 December. Departure. Not determined. 69 tJINTER-Greater Scaup are one of the most cor!ITlon winter ducks in the area. Large rafts are usually present on the lower Os 1ego River. Numbers of these birds vary considerably from year to year. The majority of maxima are from the Federation of York State Bird Clubs annual mid-January Count. These maxima range between 2,500 and 6,000. Large numbers persist throughout the season. One exception to this occurred at Oswego during the winter of 1976-77 when 400 to 500 dead birds were found. Counts average l ,000 to 2, 500 birds per day in areas where they concentrate. Away from these areas numbers average 20 to 250 birds per day. SPRING-Arrival. Very difficult to determine. f1axi mum. Spring maxi mum range bet\r/eer l ,000 and 2, 500 birds per day. 1\ noticeable exception is the 6,550 birds counted on Little Sodus Bay and nearby Lake Ontario on 25 March 1977. The highest counts frequently occur at the southwest end of Oneida Lake, Mexico Bay, and along Lake Ontario. From late t1arch to mid-April 1971, rafts of 4,000 to 5,500 birds were present in Bay. These are extremely large numbers for spring. Counts average 100 and 300 birds per day. They are most frequently sighted during r1arch and the first two \'leeks of April. Departure. Their numbers decline rapidly after mid-April and few stay into early t1ay. They are rare after 10 f'l!ay. The latest record is of 12 at Fair Haven Reach State Park on 24 fay 1972. SUi1t1ER-No records. cm1r1Erns: This species has become the most abundant voJi ntering duck along Lake Ontario. Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) FALL-Arrival. Arrival dates are difficult to determine. They may be sighted from mid-September to the end of October along Lake Ontario.

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70 Maximum. The highest counts range from 150 to 250 birds per day. The average maxima are about 20 to 50 birds per day. Flocks that are sighted far out on large lakes cause problems in identification. It appears that the Lesser Scaup is much less common than the Greater Scaup. Average counts are between 15 and 40 birds per day. Departure. Difficult to determine, but the majority have probably left by the last week in November. WINTER-They are present in small numbers along the Oswego River from Phoenix to Oswego. They are usually sighted in or near the larger groups of Greater Scaup. The highest counts are from the mid-January waterfowl count. Numbers of 10 to 160 birds per day have been reported from these counts. Maxima average 10 to 60 birds per day. Their total numbers average between 2 and 15 birds per day. SPRING-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. An unusually high count of 2,000 birds occurred on Oneida Lake on 12 April 1959. A count ot 1,020 occurred on Little Sodus Bay on 26 March 1977. Maxima range between 150 and 400 birds per day from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Total counts average between 10 and 50 per day, usually from larger lakes. Small numbers occur on inland ponds and rivers. Departure. The latest departure was a flock of 8 birds sighted off St. Paul1s Cemetery in Oswego on 28 May 1972. The departure usually occurs between 12 and 20 May. A few may linger until the end of May. SUMMER-Record: One at Sandy Pond on 28 July 1957. COMMENTS: Lesser Scaup are more likely to be sighted on small inland ponds during migration. They are relatively scarce in the fall, but this may be because they tend to pass over the area more rapidly than most species. This is called a 11freeze-up flight11 by Hockbaum (1955). Data on Scaup mortality compiled by C. G. Spies indicates that the Greater Scaup are much more numerous than the Lesser Scaup. Tufted Duck {Aythya fuZiguZ.a} FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One adult male at Nine Mile Point, Town of Scriba, from 8 to 9 April 1971. (F. G. Scheider and others). SUMMER-No records.

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71 This bird was sighted among a large flock of scaur and goldeneye during the two days it was observed. This may be one of the very few inland records for North America. Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) FALL-/\rrival. Several early arrivals have occurred between 25 and 30 September in different years. Arrival generally occurs during the first two VJeeks of October. The first birds are usually seen along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest count is 1,200 birds off Derby Hill on 16 November 1966. There are a number of counts of 750 to 1 ,000 from the eastern end of Lake Ontario. The high counts fr0r1 450 to 800 birds. Large flocks are present from the lust few dnys of October through most of November. Average counts during this period are 150 to 300 :-er day. Common Goldeneye are less frequent away from the large lakes and rivers. Departure. Not determined. IHNTER-The largest numbers occur along the Oswego and Oneida Rivers and Lake Ontario. The highest counts nre frof11 the mid-January waterfowl census, vJhere up to 2,900 were reported. In most years these counts total 1,200 to 1,800 birds. DJily counts average 100 to 250 birds. These birds seem to congregate in the Phoenix and Oswego areas. Small flocks can be seen regularly on the fringes of ice packs on eastern Lake Ontario. They are widely distributed in winter. SPRING-Arrival. Their numbers increase in late February or early Harch. Arrival probably occurs prior to 10 in most years. Maximum. The highest count is 2,500 birds along the Oswego River on 15 March 1959. This count probably included both wintering and migrant birds. Several counts of 800 to l ,200 birds per day are on record in March. The maxima range from 300 to 500 birds. They are comf11on on Oswego River, Oneida Lake, and Lake Ontario. The largest numbers occur during the last two weeks of r1arch. Large flocks are until 10 April. Small flocks persist into Departure. The last birds usually leave between 7 and 24 May along Lake Ontario. SUIVNER-Record: One at Sandy Pond on 24 .July 1957. COMMENTS: This species is, usually, second only to the Greater Scaup in abundance. It is much more widely distributed in the winter than the Greater Scaup.

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72 Barrows Goldeneye (BucephaZa istandica) FALL-Record: Two, an adult male with traces of eclipse plumage and an adult female, at Derby Hill on 3 November 1972 (M. Rusk, C. G. Spies, G. A. Smith). WINTER-Records include: 1. One female along the Oswego River un 3 February 1962. 2. One female along the Oswego River on 5 February 1963. 3. One female along the Oswego River at Oswego Falls on 16 January 1969. 4. One adult male at Oswego from 22 to 23 January 1972. 5. One adult male on the Oswego River at Fulton on 14 January 1973. 6. One adult male on Little Sodus Bay on 9 March 1974. 7. One male at Fulton from 8 January to 5 February 1977. 8. One male at Phoenix from 23 January to 5 February 1977. 9. One male at Caughdenoy on 6 March 1978. 10. One female at Fulton on 21 January 1978. 11. One male at Oswego from December 1977 to February 1978. 12. One male at Caughdenoy from 25 to 26 February 1978. SPRING-Records include: 1. Two, a male and a female, at Oneida Lake on 5 April 1961. 2. One adult male at Oneida Lake from 4 to 5 April 1964. 3. One male at Fair Haven Beach State Park from 29 to 31 March 197 4. One male at Fair Haven Beach State Park from 18 to 20 March 197 5. One male at Derby Hill on 30 March 1972. 6. One at Demster Beach, Town of Mexico, on 30 March 1975. 7. One at Pleasant Point, Town of New Haven, on 30 March 1975. Sm'lMER-No records. COMMENTS: The increase in the number of records is recent years may be due to a shift in the migration pattern. Males predominate, but it is likely that females are overlooked among flocks of Common Goldeneye. Bufflehead (BucephaZa aZbeoZa) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrival is at Sandy Pond on 11 September 1960. One also occurred on Lake Ontario on 14 September 1972. Most early arrivals occur from 25 to 30 September. The normal arrival period is between 5 and 15 October. They are usually sighted first along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The high count is 350 birds at Derby Hill on 16 November 1966. Most maxima are between 70 and 100 birds, but some go as high as 250 birds. The average daily count is between 10 and 40 birds during October and November. Highest numbers occur along Lake Ontario, but Bufflehead are common on ponds and rivers also. Departure. Not determined.

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WINTER-This species regularly winters along the Oswego and Oneida Rivers from Brewerton to OsHeso. Tf1ey are also present in small groups along Lake Ontario. The highest counts are from the mid-lJanuary waterfowl count, where over 220 birds have been reporter:!. r1os t waterfowl count totals are between 20 and 140 birds. The record high count is 300 along Lake Ontario on 11 February 1965. Daily .:aunts average between 15 and 60 birds. Bufflehead are most common along the Oswego River Minetto and Oswego Harbor. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but the first seem to start arriving between 20 February and 10 t1arch. t1aximum. The highest counts are 250 birds at Brewerton on 12 Arril 1969 and 200 at Oneida Lake on 17 April 1970. Other maxima range between 50 and 120 birds per day. Counts average between 10 and 30 per day. The highest numbers seem to be between 10 and 25 April. Small groups may stay to the middle of Departure. The last of this species usually depart by 20 May. Individuals present after 25 t1ay could be attempting to summer in the area. SLJt1t1ERRecords inc 1 ude: 1. One female at the Nine r1ile Point po1t1er plants on 3 June 1971. 2. Two females on Oneida Lake on 24 July 1971. 3. Three off Shore Oaks, Town of Ne\ Haven, on 4 lJune 1972. 4. One male at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 14 ,June 1972. Note: All records are within a two year period. Oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) FALL-Arrival. Arrivals usually occur between 5 and 15 October along Lake Ontario. Several later arrivals have been reported between 22 and 27 October. l'l'.Ximum. The highest counts are 525 at Derby Hill on 30 October 1975 and 1,225 at Derby Hill on 30 December 1972. These are exceptional numbers and most high counts ranqe between 300 and 600 birds. Oneida Lake counts tend to be much lower. They are very rare on smaller inland ponds. Departure. Difficult to determine, but most migrants have left by early December. \'iiNTER-Oldsquaws are one of the most common waterfowl along Lake Ontario in the winter. They may be present, but never in large numbers, along the larger rivers. Most counts along Lake 0ntario range between 75 and 200 birds per day. The highest counts are between 250 and 400 per day. They are common along the edges of the ice floes at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. 73

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74 SPRING-Arrival. birds are probably joined by migrants during early f1arch. Maximum. Both high counts come from Oneida Lake. They include 500 birds on 17 April 1970 and 530 on 10 April 1971. The highest counts along Lake Ontario range between 200 and 250 per day. The average count is 10 to 30 birds per day. The largest numbers occur during the two middle weeks of April. Oeparture. The latest departures are between 19 and 22 They usually leave between 5 and 15 May. SUt1t1ER-No records. Harlequin Ouck (Histrionicus histrionicus) FALL-Records include: 1. One fema 1 e at Sandy Pond on 23 November 1957. 2. One immature at Derby Hi 11 on 15 November 1975. 3. One female at Derby Hill on 20 November 1976. WINTER-Records include: 1. One adult male at Oswego on 20 February 1955. 2. One immature male or female at Oswego from 8 to 16 February 1964. 3. One immature male noted on the Oswego Christmas Count on 22 December 1966. 4. One immature male at Osv1ego from 15 February to 16 March 1969. 5. One female at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 5 March 1972. 6. One female at Oswego on 1 February 1976. 7. One immature male at Oswego from 8 to 13 February 1976. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Oswego on 23 March 1967. 2. One immature male at Osv1ego, present until 16 March 1969. 3. One adult at Fair Haven Beach State Park and Little Sodus Bay area from 8 to 20 March 1971. records. COMt1ENTS: All records are from Lake Ontario and the mouth of the Oswego River. There are very few records of spring migrants in this area. Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I FALL-Records include: I 1. One female at Selkirk Shores State Park during the fall of 1960 ( W. t1 in or) I 2. One adult male, in partial molt, at Derby Hill on 17 November 1962. (Jean Propst and Marge Rusk). 3. Three, including a female and an immature male, at Sandy Pond on 1 12 September 1976 (F. G. Scheider).

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One immature male at Osv1ego on 2 t1arch 1968 (F. La France and R. Sutliff). SPRPlG-no tecords. SLHfER-rlo records. r: I ,) COHt1ENTS: This is the rarest 11::ea duck11 in the area. Identification of the Common Eider is difficult and as a result all records for this area are questionable unless studied by experienced observers. l \'linter. In the last 17 years the average has been l to 4 birds per day. Almost all are females and immature males. During the vJinter of 1970-71 an exceptional number of 18 birds was reported in Oswego Harbor. This included 11 females and 7 immature males. Away from OsvJeyo Harbor this species is very rare. <:;PRING-\Jintering birds at Oswego may remain into late t1ay. The latest record is of a female on 31 March 1962. There is no evidence of migrants. SUt1t1ER-No records. ite-v1i 11 Seater (Melanitta deglandi) FALL-Arrival. There are several early arrivals of small flocks along Lake Ontario between 4 and 9 September in different years. Arrival varies considerably for this species. In some years they are not seen until the third \'leek of September.

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76 Maximum. The highest count is 4,700 at Derby Hill on 23 October 1965. There are several other high counts ranging between 1,700 and 2,000 birds per day. Maxima average between 500 and 1,000 birds. The highest counts occur during strong northwest gales at Derby Hill. Numbers are usually much higher on Lake Ontario, but 870 birds were sighted on Oneida Lake on 26 November 1968. Counts average between 150 and 300 birds per day. Small flocks are common in the fall on small inland ponds and along rivers. Their numbers vary considerably from year to year, but the largest numbers are present from 10 October to 15 November. Departure. The majority have left by 15 to 25 November. Small flocks are common sights into early December. Birds after 10 December may be attempting to winter. WINTER-Since the mid-1960's this species has been on the increase in the winter months. Prior to 1960 counts averaged 1 to 5 per day. After 1966 groups of 40 to 85 have been present along the shore of Lake Ontario. At Oswego they are present in the warm water that is discharged by the Niagara Mohawk power plant. After 10 December the highest count is 115 at Oswego on 18 February 1971 and 110 on 8 February 1975. It appears that the large numbers of birds in recent years is tied to the warm water discharges from the powerp1ant. Survival rates of this species appear to be poor in Oswego Harbor. Deaths usually occur when the flocks are at their lowest numbers during late February and early March. From January to March 1977 C. G. Spies and others recovered a number of carcasses. These carcasses represented approximately 100% of the winter population for 1976-77. Numbers of live birds declined until 1 to 4 birds remained. SPRING-Arrival. Away from Oswego, the first are usually noted during the last two weeks of April. There are several early arrivals from Lake Ontario between 5 and 7 April in different years. The record high count is 900 at the Nine r1ile Point power plants on 10 May 1973. The maxima average between 200 and 400 birds per day. The numbers vary quite a bit from year to year. Occasionally extensive mortality caused by disease is reported along Lake Ontario. Systematic bird mortality surveys are conducted along the entire Lake Ontario shoreline of this area by C. G. Spies of Syracuse, N.Y. In the spring of 1972 mortality was massive, between 173 and 498 birds were found dead on each survey during April and May. White-winged Seaters are most common from late April to mid-May. Counts average 15 and 60 birds per day. Departure. t1os t depart between 19 and 28 May. SUMMER-A few, probably diseased, birds have stayed to 10 June. After this date there are no records. i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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COMMENTS: This species is commonly along Lake Ontario. They seem prone to mass die-offs to disease. The exact reason for the extensive mortality is unknown. Surf Seater (MeZanitta perspicillata) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred 23 30 September in several different years. The arrival varies considerably and often isnt reported until 5 to 15 October. Prior to 1963 the highest counts were 15 to 30 per day. CounLs have increased greatly since then and now average high counts range between 350 and 600 per day. Large flights totaling 1,500 to 3,000 birds per day have passed Derby Hill in the l9701s. These counts include both the Surf Seaters and Black Seaters. Counts average between 15 and 50 per day from Lake Ontario area. They are most frequent along Lake Ontario from mid-October to mid-November. Departure. The majority have departed by 22 to 30 A fev1 1 inger into winter. WINTER-Small flocks of 1 to 10 per day are present to 10 December along Lake Ontario. Singles persist into mid-,January. After 31 January records include: 1. One female at Oswego on 6 March 1955. 2. One at Fulton from 31 December 1960 to 4 t1arch 1961. 3. One female at Osv1ego on 3 to 14 February 1962. 4. Two at Oswego on 3 February 1963. 5. One at Oswego on 3 February 1963. 6. One at Phoenix on 14 February 1965. 7. One at Oswego from 3 to 7 February 1968. 8. Two \
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78 Maximum. The highest count is 3,500 at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. Recent maxima are in the 200 to 600 birds per day range. Daily counts during October and most of November average 30 to 80 birds. This species is restricted primarily to Lake Ontario. Departure. The leave at the end of Nover11bcr, but a fev-1 are present through the first 10 days of December. WINTER-This species is rare in winter. A few singles have stayed through the third week of January in the Oswego area. In 1972 one to six reported along Lake Ontario until 17 February. SPRING-No records. records. COMMENTS: This species is primarily a fall migrant through the area. The number of sightings of this species has increased dramatically from 1966 to the present. This is due, in part, to increased observation. Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) FALL-Arrival. The earliest reported arrival was on 26 September 1955 at Mex1co. Very little information is available, but they probably arrive during the first two weeks of October. 11aximum. The high counts prior to 1959 were between 30 and 50 birds per day. Recent counts average 1 to 2 birds per day. Departure. They usually depart between 25 November and 8 December. WINTER-Small groups persist, along Lake Ontario, to about 8 to 10 December. Records after that date include: 1. Three at Oswego from 10 February to 31 March 1957. 2. Two males wintered at Oswego in 1957. 3. One male at Oswego on 15 January 1961. 4. One at Oswego on 18 February 1971. 5. One at Oswego on 12 March 1971. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest record is of one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 31 1962. The normal arrival period is between 5 and 10 April. Maximum. The highest counts are from 4 to 6 per day from Lake Ontario. Their numbers average 1 to 2 per day. Departure. They are rare after late April. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: This species has declined as a migrant through the area. I I I I I I I I I I

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Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) FALL-Arrival. The arrival dates vary greatly from year to year. The earliest arrivals occur bet\'Jeen 18 and 20 August. Tvto arrival dates have been reported in Kingbird prior to this but these may represent summering birds. In some years they are not reported until early October. t1aximum. There are several high counts of 150 to 180 birds per day. The majority of high counts are in the 30 to 50 per day range. Counts average 15 to 30 birds per day bet\'.Jeen 10 October and 15 November. They are most common on Little Sodus Bay, the mouth of the Salmon River, and other smaller streams flo\'ting into l.i1.ke Ontario. Departure. The majority leave betvte:::n 10 and 25 November. .fl. few may linger into December. HHlTERThe January vJaterfat/1 counts average 2 to 4 birds. Hov1ever, in 1961 nineteen were reported. They are sighted along the Oswego River, particularly at Phoenix, Fulton, Minetto, and Oswego. A few may be seen at Adult males are rare in the Hinter. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrival is at Brewerton on 1 t1arch 1965. They generally arrive bet\.'/een 10 and 20 March. The highest counts include 46 at Derby Hill and Selkirk Shores State Park on 27 i1arch 1971 and 45 at Fairhaven Beach State Park on 2 April 1970. t1axima average btween 20 and 25 birds per day and are usually from Lake Ontario. Counts average 10 to 20 birds per day. The highest numbers are seen from 25 to 25 April. Departure. The majority have left by 10 t1ay. Pairs present after tn1s date may be breeding. SUt1t1ER-Bull (1974) lists a breeding record for the Haopy Valley Game Management Area. That is the only confirmed breeding record. They may breed in small numbers on the Tug Hill plateau where they are sometimes sighted in the summer. Common t1erganser ( Mergus merganser) FALL-Arrival. The earliest record is of 9 at Sandy Pond on 5 October 1971. They usually arrive from 15 to 20 October. Maximum. Most maxima are in the 50 to 150 range. Daily counts average 10 to 25 birds. t1ost often seen in November in this area. De11arture. Not detennined. 79

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80 1950 to the mid-19601s January waterf!Jdl count totals ranged from 2,500 to 6,470 birds in the Oswego area. Since 1970 high counts average from 400 to 600 birds. The highest count since 1970 was 1,090 at Oswego on 5 f1arch 1972. The largest numbers are from the Oswego Harbor and River areas. SPRING-1\rri val. Numbers increase after 15 to 20 February. The time varies with the winter weather conditions. t1aximum. Maxima range from 25 to 75 birds from Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario. Total records average 15 to 25 birds per day. They are most common from late February to mid-April. Departure. The majority have left by 1 to 20 May. Individuals remain ing after 20 f1ay are probably attempting to summer in the area. There are no confirmed breeding records for this area. There have been a number of sightings of small groups in July and August in the Salmon River Reservoir. COMMENTS: There has been a drastic reduction in the populations of Common that winter in the area in the last 20 years. The number of migrants doesnt seem to have been affected. In the summer, breeding pairs should be looked for in the Tug Hill plateau. Red-breasted (Mergus serrator) FALL-Arrival. The earliest record occurred at Sandy Pond on 4 September 1954. There have been a few reports between 9 and 15 September, but the majority arrive 28 Septerrber and 6 October. Maximum. There are several high counts in the 10,000 range from Lake Ontario. Counts of 4,000 to 7,000 birds have been common in the last 20 years. They are most frequently sighted between 10 October and 15 November. lhe majority are sighted at Derby Hill, Sandy Pond, and Fair Haven Beach State Park. Departure. Large numbers leave from 15 to 20 November, but they are common into December. numbers vary considerably at this time of year. Tallies from the January Federation of New York State Birds Clubs waterfowl census range from 150 to 250 birds prior to 1965. Counts average 50 to 150 after 1965. are found in the area and sometimes at the warm water discharges at the Niagara t1ohawk nuclear pov1er plants near Nine f1i 1 e Point. SPRING-Arrival. Migrants generally arrive at the end of March. Wintering populations makes spring arrival predictions difficult.

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Maximum. The highest recorded counts are 6,000 birds at Fair Haven Beach Stijte Park on 16 April 1972 and 6,000 at Oswego on 8 May 1957. A records of 1,000 to 2,500 have been reported, but most maxima range between 200 and 700 birds. The highest numbers are from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake from 20 /\pri 1 to 10 t1ay. Departure. Only small flocks remain after 10 May and departure probably is complete by 25 May. SUM11ER-One to four are present during June to August and is the most common diving duck in the area in the summer. They are common on Lake Ontario and around the Oneida Lake islands. This species breeds in northeastern Lake Ontario making fall arrival predictions difficult. A breeding record on Oneida Lake is a possibility and the presence of 1 or more males should be investigated. 81

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i I t 82 I. Derby Hill Spring Hawk Migration Arri va 1 Departure Species and Year Date Date Turkey Vulture 1963 30 Mar 29 Apr 1964 2 Apr 4 t1ay 1965 7 Apr 8 1966 6 Apr 18 1967 1 Apr 1 May 1968 26 Mar 23 May 1969 28 t,1a r 10 t1ay 1970 25 t1ar 31 t1ay 1971 1 Apr 18 1972 31 t1ar 14 Jun 1973 15 16 tjay 1974 26 Mar 15 Hay 1975 22 Mar 20 May 1976 20 Mar 16 May Goshawk 1963 16 Mar 30 Apr 1964 25 Feb 21 Apr 1965 2 f1ar 3 t1ay 1966 24 Feb 5 May 1967 2 t1ar 30 Apr 1968 7 Mar 24 Apr 1969 1 f1ar 7 f1ay 1970 18 Feb 10 t1ay 1971 26 Feb 2 f1ay 1972 27 Feb 30 Apr 1973 1 Mar 6 Jun 1974 21 Feb 15 May 1975 21 Feb 3 t1ay 1976 15 Feb 5 May Summary 1963-1976 Maximum Total for Date No. Year 6 Apr 9 30 13 Apr 15 77 29 Apr 10 40 21 Apr 22 78 15 Apr 48 162 12 Apr 12 89 10 Apr 66 278 17 Apr 40 181 3 Apr 42 124 12 Apr 57 171 21 Apr 71 239 4 Apr 197 365 11 Apr 54 311 17 Apr 34 221 17 t1ar 10 81 3 7 53 28 Mar 6 42 17 Mar 15 93 29 Mar 11 103 15 Mar 19 55 4 Apr 23 141 26 Mar 20 156 3 Apr 26 98 31 Mar 6 48 29 Har 88 397 3 Apr 44 210 21 Mar 18 51 20 Mar 14 87

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i33 Arrival Departure 11aximum Total for Soeci es and Year Date Date Date No. Year Sharp-shinned Hawk 1963 16 r 30 Apr 17 Mar 10 1335 1964 7 t1ar 15 12 .1\pr 400 2289 1965 l Apr 27 May 21 Apr 328 1409 1966 14 Mar 18 t1ay 21 Apr 2787 5138 1967 23 t1a r ll t1ay l t1ay 272 1783 1968 16 Mar 19 May 23 Apr 317 1877 1969 17 t1ar 19 t1ay 9 Apr 605 2331 1970 22 Mar 29 21 Apr 408 2060 1971 14 Mar 20 Jun 9 Apr 410 1460 1972 21 Mar 2 Jun 15 Apr 1002 2547 1973 6 Mar 29 t1ay 21 Apr 909 3913 1974 23 Mar 31 t1ay 4 Apr 571 3492 1975 18 Mar 26 t1ay 18 Apr 930 3046 1976 10 Mar 16 May 17 Apr 410 3410 Coopers Hawk 1963 16 Mar 8 t1ay 26 Mar 13 116 1964 7 t1ar 6 May 28 t1a r 27 133 1965 l Apr 3 t1ay 1 1\pr 20 70 1966 9 t1ar 5 21 1\pr 17 127 1967 9 t1a r 27 1\pr 31 r 48 196 1968 15 t1a r 8 t1ay 26 t1a r 21 113 1969 16 4 May 4 Apr 26 177 1970 12 Mar 1 May 26 t1a r 16 132 1971 12 t1ar 16 t1ay 3 Apr 55 165 1972 12 t1a r 6 t1ay 12 1\pr 29 156 1973 6 Mar 10 f.1ay 29 t1a r 40 257 1974 28 Feb 21 t1ay 4 Apr 47 240 1975 28 Feb 15 May 13 Mar 37 176 1976 25 Feb 5 May 20 t1a r 38 193 Red-ta i 1 ed Hawk 1963 l 0 t1ar 29 Apr 17 t1ar 126 971 1964 25 Feb 6 t1ay 12 Apr 205 1133 1965 2 t1ar 27 t1ay 8 A;-r 133 789 1966 24 Feb 26 May 21 Apr 155 1307 1967 8 Mar 6 t1ay 31 Mar 749 2224 1968 7 t1ar 27 t1ay 26 t1ar 216 1335 1969 1 f1a r 10 t1ay 9 Apr 534 2594 1970 22 Feb 15 Jun 6 Apr 241 1768 1971 26 Feb 20 Jun 3 Apr 558 2121 1972 2 t1ar 14 Jun 12 1\pr 803 3354 1973 1 t1a r 29 11 Mar 535 4080 1974 21 Feb 29 May 4 Apr 1184 3620 1975 21 Feb 20 18 Mar 504 2660 1976 15 Feb 16 t1ay 20 Mar 677 2729

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84 I I Arrival Departure t1aximum Total for Species and Year Date nate Date No. Year I Red-shouldered Hawk 1963 16 Mar 25 Apr 26 Mar 203 867 I 1964 3 t1ar 6 May 28 Mar 198 492 1965 17 27 May 8 Apr 98 309 1966 3 Mar 5 May 18 Mar 2501662 I 1967 10 Mar 1 May 31 Mar 420 977 1968 9 Mar 14 May 26 Mar 154 490 1969 17 Mar 4 May 18 Mar 69 422 I 1970 15 Mar 1 t1ay 28 193 455 1971 12 Mar 18 t1ay 3 Apr 277 560 1972 12 Mar 29 Apr 21 Mar 131 528 1973 3 Mar 10 May 25 Mar 113 542 1974 6 Mar 14 May 3 Apr 190 656 1975 28 Feb 18 May 28 77 304 1976 29 Feb 16 May 20 Mar 184 465 Broad-winged Hawk 1963 6 Apr 14 May 3.) Apr 2878 7289 1964 10 Apr 15 t1ay 23 Apr 8097 21542 1965 8 Apr 27 25 Apr 2282 7154 1966 17 Apr 26 t1ay 21 Apr 10287 18130 1967 29 t1a r 6 30 Apr 4364 13573 1968 12 Apr 23 t1ay 23 Apr 5336 12273 1969 4 Apr 30 t1ay 27 Apr 7224 16080 1970 14 Apr 15 Jun 25 Apr 2735 12532 1971 24 Apr 20 Jun 2 May 4517 8785 1972 15 Apr 14 Jun 18 Apr 3337 6148 1973 16 Apr Jun 29 May 3515 10767 1974 14 Apr 31 t1ay 22 Apr 3201 11617 1975 22 Apr 26 May 29 Apr 2238 7116 1976 16 Apr 16 May 22 Apr 3694 10436 Rough-legged Hawk 1963 7 Mar 30 Apr 24 t1ar 32 193 1964 1 Mar 27 Apr 28 t1ar 16 118 1965 2 Mar 8 May 7 Apr 26 116 1966 1 t1ar 3 May 2 Apr 9 144 1967 9 t1a r 2 Hay 31 Mar 28 193 1968 7 Mar 14 t1ay 28 Mar 22 188 1969 17 Har 27 Apr 3 Apr 35 234 1970 1 Mar 30 Apr 26 26 142 1971 26 Feb 10 May 12 Apr 42 188 1972 2 t1ar 20 t1ay 18 Apr 55 274 1973 3 Mar 6 May 11 t1a r 26 215 1974 19 Feb 11 t1ay 4 Apr 16 97 1975 21 Feb 5 t1ay 18 Apr 48 222 1976 15 Feb 14 t1ay 20 t1ar 57 199

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85 Arrival Departure 11aximum Total for Species and Year Date Date Date No. Year Golden Eagle 1963 21 r 4 t1ay Singles Only 3 1964 24 Mar 6 t1ay 27 1\pr 2 9 1965 18 f1ar 29 1\pr Singles Only 3 1966 18 11a r 5 t1ay 18 t1a r 2 13 1967 30 30 Apr 21 Apr 3 10 1968 12 Apr 9 t1ay 13 1\pr 2 7 l 969 15 2 t1ay 15 Apr 2 6 1970 26 Apr 30 1\pr 30 Apr 2 3 1971 3 Apr 5 t1ay 3 Apr 2 6 1972 31 11a r 13 t1ay 31 !1a r ') 6 '1973 1 5 t1a r 2 3 1\p r 22 1\pr 5 20 1974 3 1\pr 28 Apr 4 Apr 5 16 1975 18 t1a r 30 /\pr Sinqles only 4 1976 24 Feb 2 t1ay 17 /\pr 3 11 Bald Eagle 1963 l 7 r 26 Apr Singles only 2 1964 9 ta r 6 11ay 7 Apr ll 1965 l3 Apr 2 7 t1ay 21 1\pr 2 7 1966 17 r 5 t1ay 21 Apr 4 9 1967 23 t1ar 30 Apr 2 Apr 4 11 1968 28 11ar 9 t1ay Singles only 3 1969 9 Apr 27 Apr 27 Apr 3 5 1970 24 Apr 30 t1av 26 1\pr 2 9 1971 12 Apr l t1ay l t1ay 4 5 1972 25 Mar 14 t1ay 18 Apr 2 6 1973 5 t1ar 22 /\pr 29 t1ar 2 6 1974 29 14 t1ay 4 Apr 3 11 1975 9 Apr 28 Apr 2 1976 13 Apr 2 Singles only 4 Harrier 1963 7 t1ar 8 t1ay 26 t1ar 26 235 1964 4 t1ar 15 t1ay 7 Apr 71 370 1965 16 t1a r 2 7 t1ay 7 Apr 74 191 1966 11 t1a r 26 11ay 21 Apr 67 378 1967 8 t1ar 5 t1ay 31 t1a r 71 405 1968 7 t1ar 20 t1ay 26 t1a r 39 275 1969 16 t1a r 19 t1ay 4 1\pr 68 420 1970 12 t1a r 19 May 26 t1a r 108 455 1971 26 Feb 18 t1ay 1 Apr 92 388 1972 2 r1ar 14 Jun 15 Apr 146 479 1973 3 '1<', r 2<3 tay 29 :iD 43G 1974 22 Feb 31 t1av 4 Apr 94 423 1975 22 Feb 26 t1ay 18 Apr 118 368 1976 21 Feb 16 f1ay 20 t1a r 44 378

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86 Arrival Departure Maximum Total for Species and Year Date Date Date Ho. Year Osprey 8 1963 29 Mar 8 20 Apr 53 1964 7 Apr 15 3 49 224 1965 7 Apr 27 3 Hay 21 101 1966 17 Apr 18 May 21 Apr 2 204 1967 2 Apr 12 1 May 4 108 1968 7 Apr 16 May 21 Apr 1 5 104 1969 6 Apr 19 May 27 Apr 46 135 1970 9 Apr 15 Jun 1 t1ay m 233 1971 9 Apr 2 Jun 1 May 34 95 1972 12 Apr 14 Jun 29 Apr 28 150 1973 8 Apr 29 1 70 226 1974 4 Apr 31 May 11 Hay 46 201 1975 15 Apr 20 t1ay 29 Apr 62 186 1976 16 Apr 16 May 2 tay 39 148 Peregrine Falcon 1963 1964 5 Apr 27 Apr 26 Apr ') 4 ,_ 1965 25 Apr 3 May 25 Apr 2 4 1966 one 20 Apr only 1 1967 30 t4ar 15 Apr 2 1968 one only 30 Mar 1 1969 4 Apr 21 Apr Singles onlv 4 1970 17 Apr 1 May Singles only 4 1971 1 1 May 1 t4ay 2 2 1972 18 Apr 14 May 2 3 1973 All Apr 1974 one only 21 Apr 1 1975 11 Apr 16 Apr 2 1976 one adult 16 May 1 ferlin 1963 7 Apr 25 Apr Singles only 3 1964 2 Apr 26 Apr 7 Apr 3 19 1965 14 Apr 25 Apr 20 Apr 2 5 1966 14 Mar 8 May 19 Apr 4 22 1967 22 Mar 4 31 Mar 2 5 1968 15 t1ar 9 May 13 Apr 5 17 1969 24 11ar 25 Apr 4 Apr 3 10 1970 25 t1ar 16 t1ay 23 Apr 4 16 1971 3 Apr 29 Apr 3 Apr 3 7 1972 13 Apr 21 Apr 18 Apr 3 7 1973 25 t1a r 2 May 21 Apr 2 7 1974 23 11ar 22 Apr 21 /\pr 3 8 1975 29 Mar 18 Apr 18 Apr 3 4 1976 20 t1a r 2 May 20 Mar 2 4 __________________ .............

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Species and Year American Kestrel 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Unidentified Hav1ks 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Arri va 1 Departure Date Date 16 Mar 4 t1ay 7 t1ar 6 t1ay 18 t1ar 27 t1ay 13 Mar 18 t1ay 2 Mar 1 May 15 t1a r 27 t1ay 24 t1a r 19 tay 7 t1a r 31 t1ay 7 t1ar 20 ll un 2 Mar 2 llun 3 t1ar 29 r1ay 27 Feb 31 12 t1a r 26 t1ay 21 Feb 16 t1ay t1aximum No. 29 r 45 7 Apr 117 7 Apr 60 20 Apr 113 31 t1a r 166 4 Apr 62 9 Apr 80 26 Mar 97 1 Apr 104 1 5 /\p r 296 8 Apr 65 4 Apr 97 18 Apr 159 20 t1ar 134 Total Year 226 510 165 550 502 273 422 446 335 654 449 468 397 451 345 264 126 0 316 195 470 156 0 0 0 342 80 0 87 for

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,__,_, ... : "'"'="-'""_ ... --....,. . I' 'I OJ OJ 1963-1977 Hill HavJk Summary earliest Latest High Lm'l Day Species /\rrival Departure Year tlo. Year iaximum No. Total Tutokey Vulture 9 :1a r 77 14 Jun 72 77 683 63 30 4 Apr 74 197 3049 Goshav1k 15 Feb 76 6 Jun 73 73 398 77 4() 29 73 88 1656 27 Feb 77 20 Jun 70 66 5138 63 1335 21 Apr 66 2787 40,009 Cooper's Hawk 25 Feb 76 21 t1ay 74 77 269 65 70 3 Apr 71 55 2520 Red-tail Pd Ha11k 15 Feb 76 20 Jun 71 73 4080 65 789 4 .A.pr 74 1184 34,386 Red-s hou 1 red : l a,,, k 28 Feb 75 18 t1ay 71 ,75 G7 977 75 304 31 67 420 8664 BroJd-wi nged Hilvik 29 ia r 67 7 Jun 77 63 21 '542 72 6148 21 Apr 66 10287 179,549 Roqll-legged :;a\Jk 12 Fel) 77 20 t1ay 72 72 274 74 97 20 76 57 2726 Golden Eagle 24 Frb 76 13 '1ay 72 77 25 63 2 ?.1 Apr 77 10 142 Bald Eagle 5 t1rH' 73 2 Jun 70 6 '6 7' 7 4 11 63,68,75 2 6 dates 4 98 Harrier 21 Feb 76 14 Jun 72 72 479 65 191 15 Apr 72 146 5538 Osprey 29 t1ar 63,77 15 Jun 70 70 233 63 53 1 May 70 81 2298 Peregrine Falcon 30 Mar 66,6716 76 64,65,69,70 4 63 0 25 Apr 64,65 2 34 Merlin 12 Mar 77 16 70 66 22 63 3 13 Apr 68 5 139 Arne ri can Kes t re 1 21 Feb 76 20 Jun 71 72 654 65 165 15 Apr 72 296 6131 286,939 TOTAL Total all Hawks minus Broad-wings

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1963-1976 Derby Hill Hav.Jk Summary by Percentage Average No. Approx % Approx % all Hawks Species Per Year all minus Broad-wings Turkey Vulture 169 .9 2.4 Gosha1-1k 115.5 .6 1.7 Sharp-shinned Hawk 2577.8 13. 9 37.3 Cooper's Hawk 160.8 9 2.3 Red-tailed Hawk 2191.8 11.8 31.7 Red-shouldered Hawk 552.0 3.0 8.0 Broad-winged Hawk ll ,674.4 62.8 Rough-legged Hawk 180.2 l.O 2.6 Golden Eagle 8.4 .04 l Bald Eagle 6.6 .03 09 Harrier 371.5 2.0 5.4 Osprey 154.8 .8 2.2 Peregrine Falcon 2.2 0 l .03 rl in 9.6 .05 l American Kestrel 417.7 2.2 6.0 \3

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90 Vulture (Cathartes aura) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Highest counts are 10 to 12 birds per day. The average is 1 to 2 per day. Many sightings in fall probably involve family groups of birds that may breed locally. Groups of more than four birds ;\re uncommon. No peak period has been determined, although this species is common in the small hawk flights that occur along eastern Lake Ontario during late September and the first few days of October. Departure. The record late departure appears to be 1 at Snake Swamp, west of Oswego on 10 October 1965. This species is rare after 5 to 10 October. WINTER-No records. SPRHIG-Although there are no proven breeding records for Turkey Vultures \'lithin the area, it is obvious that they are breeding here. Adults are often present at a variety of Lake Ontario plain sites through the summer. Proof of breeding requires a diligent search for nests by a persistent observer. This species first began to expand into the area in the early 19601s. Since then it has become a regular summer resident. After the first summer records in 1962, sightings increased rapidly and by 1966, Kingbird regional editor, F. G. Scheider, reported that sightings averaged 3 to 8 per day in Oswego County. Numbers have remained in this range since that time. Turkey Vultures are most common during the summer in the area 'rest of U. S. Route 11. Pairs are scattered over much of this area, with the majority in Colosse, Hastings, Parish, and along the Lake Ontario shores. COMMENTS: Turkey Vultures have expanded into the area. There is no indica tion that this trend is decreasing. Spring migration tallies have increased dramatically in the 1 ast few years, revealing the spread of this species into more northern areas. A quick reference to the Derby Hill Spring Hawk Migration Summary will illustrate just how intensive this expansion has been. From late March to early October this species is frequently sighted in lowland areas of Osv1ego County. Glack Vulture (Coragyps atratus) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. I I I I

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SPRING-Records: 1. One passed Derby Hill on 22 April 1974 (Gerald A. Smith, Harold H. Axtell, John R. Bart, Stiles Thomas, et al.). It was viewed and studied by all observers, several of whom are familiar with this species in the south. 2. One was present in the vicinity of Derby Hill for more 91 than an hour on 30 March 1977 (Gerald A. Smith and H. H. Axtell). SUMt1ER-No records. COMMENTS: This species is one of the numerous rarities that occasionally drift past Derby Hill. It is likely that this species will appear more often in the area, as the frequency of sightings at hawk look-outs has increased in the northeast. The weather map data suggests that these individuals have originated in the Ohio Valley area rather than from eastern populations. Sv1 a 1 1 ow-ta i 1 ed K i te (Elanoides forficatus) records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One passed over Derby Hill at 9:10 .L\.11. EST on 16 April 1976 and was clearly observed for about three minutes by Bill and Larry Holland, Janet and David t1uir, and Gerald A. Smith. SUt1tER-No records. This one sighting was one of the greatest of the many rarities which have occurred at Derby Hill. It \'las sighted during the srring of 1976 when a number of southern species were sighted well north of their normal ranges. Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) FALL-Arrival. The earliest knOtm arrivals occurred during the first week of September in the massive fight of 1972. t1igrants that early are exceptional. Goshawks generally arrive during the first 10 days of October. Arrival dates vary greatly. The first migrants are often noted at the eastern end of Lake Ontario because the majority of are present in that area.

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t1aximum. The highest single day counts were of 3 to 4 per day in October and November of 1976 along Lake Ontario. These counts are exceptiona 1 and reflect the massive flights of Gosha\-Jks throughout the northeast during the fall of 1972. In 11good11 years a full day afield may produce 1 or 2 of these birds. In 11off11 years 1 or 2 per season is more likely. Goshawks are best observed in late October and November along the south and east shore of Lake Ontario. Departure. Not detennined tHNTER-Gosha1.1ks are distributed in winter. Usually 1 to 2 per day is the maximum. A few counts of 3 to 4 per day are known. Higher tallies result from the Oswego Christmas counts. were noted in areas northeast of Fulton and in the Town of Hannibal on the Christmas counts. In general, they are sparsely but evenly distributed through out the area in winter. SPRING-See Derby Hill Hawk Spring Migration Summary Goshawks are usually scarce away from the south shore of Lake Ontario. Counts average one to tvm per day. Presence of adults inland after mid-April should be investigated forpossible breeding pairs. Sut1MERThis bird is a scarce but evenly distributed breeder in the Tug Hill plateau and nearby areas. Bull (1974) lists four breeding records in the Tug Hill plateau area of Oswego County between 1963 and 1970. tiple sightings in that region from 1957 suggests that the Goshav.k is a well established breeding species in that area. A number of sumr.,er records from the north shore of Oneida Lake and other lowland areas suggest the pass 1bll ity of breeders in these areas as well. The 40 mile wide gap between the confirmed reports of Tug Hill breeders and those in the high country of southern Onondaga County may be occupied by a very sparse breeding population. Look for breeding pairs in heavily wooded areas of the Lake Ontario plain. COMI1ENTS: Many observers feel that this species may be partially expanding into the empty niches formerly occupied by the declining numbers of Coopers Hawks. The local Goshawk breeding population is still small and requires careful study in the future. The count of 88 Goshawks whic passed Derby Hill on 29 March 1973 is exceptional. This residue of the great flight of 1972 constitutes more Goshawks than have been seen durin a of seasons at Derby Hill. Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter s triatus) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is one at Sandy Pond on 19 August 197: There are several records of singles from the Lake Ontario shore during last few days of August. They are regular after 1 September. A large percentage of these early migrants are first year birds.

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Maximum. The record high count is 90 at Derby Hill on 9 September 1977. Other high counts of 10-15 per day are reported at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Most daily counts range from 3 to 10. "Sharpies", as they are sometimes called, are most common from early September to mid-October. They are also observed hunting during the passerine flights at Sandy Pond. Prior to 1965 there is little infonnation available regarding the status of this species as a migrant, making it difficult to document any changes. Sharp-shinned Hawks are still one of the most common hawks to migrate through the area. Departure. Departure dates for this bird usually occur between 20 October and 10 November with a few lingering individuals. /\ny remaining after the last week of November are probably attempting to winter. 93 small numbers are common well into December, they are rare during January and February. r,1ost sightings in these months involve individuals hunting around bird feeders. An active observer would be fortunate to see more than 1 to 2 birds in a normal winter. In very severe winters sightings increase as hawks are concentrated about bird feeders. Unfortunately, at such times, many are shot to protect the smaller This occurred throughout upstate York during the blizzards of 1976 and 1977. SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Migration Ha\vk Summary Away from Derby Hill they are quite scarce 2 to 6 per day being the average. After early May adults sighted inland should be considered potential breeders and investigated further. present this species is a rare breeder in the area. It has been decreasing in numbers as a breeder since the mi d-1950 s. Very few nests have been found recently. In summer they are most frequently sighted on t:1e Tug Hill plateau and nearby areas. A few scattered pairs have been noted along Lake Ontario. It is unknown whether the species is still declining as a breeder or has levelled off. There is little question that this is a very rare local breeder. This species should be watched carefully. CDr1MENTS: There are some hopeful signs that this species may be increasing as a migrant through the area, but great caution is advised since it is too soon to tell. It may be that Canadian populations of this species are increasing due to a reduction of pesticide use. The Sharp-shinned Hawk is still a greatly reduced breeder and is in need of further study. Every effort should be made to protect them from additonal man-induced stresses on their environment. For the ;wesent, their numbers seem to be stabilizing.

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94 Cooper s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine because August arrival dates include birds that were breeding on the Tug Hill plateau. The data available suggests that this species probably arrives between 1 and 10 September. r1aximum. All counts are -of 1 to 4 per day with the highest numbers frorr the Lake Ontario shoreline. It is most common from mid-September to early November. Departure. Difficult to determine, but most have left by 20 Noverrber. Birds present after that date may be attempting to winter. t-JINTER-Coopers Hawks are very rare in winter and their situation is similar to that of the Sharp-shinned Hawk. sightings are l per day. They also are often sighted in the vicinity of bird feeders. SPRING-See Derby Hi 11 Spring Ha\llk t1i grati on Summary Away from Derby Hill this species is very scarce. t1ost sightings are of and usually occur along Lake Ontario. Adults, particul a pair, present anywhere after early t1ay should be i nves ti gated as potential breeders. species is virtually non-existent as a breeder in the area. Sightings are most common on the Tug Hill plateau and along Lake Onta1 tlith the exception of a nest near Butterfly Swamp, Town of Mexico, wh produced two young in 1976 breeding has not been confirmed for many Y' COMMENTS: At present there is little cause for optimism, as it is likely the Coopers Hawk will soon vanish completely as a breeding species f this area. Soon the only place the observer may regularly observe tr birds will be at Derby Hill in the spring. Fortunately, it appears 1 the numbers of these birds passing Derby Hill lookout in spring is relatively stable. Red-tailed Ha\lk (Buteo jamaicensis) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. i1aximum. The record high is 76 which passed over Selkirk Shores Stc Park on 15 October 1970. During the falls of 1976 and 1977 counts c 40-65 birds per day were recorded passing over Derby Hi 11. These f' resembled the spring migrations and resulted from similar weather c, tions. Other maxima of 15 -30 per day have been recorded. However, counts average 5-12 birds per day with the highest numbers from low areas. Most sightings are between 10 October and 20 November. At present the exact status of these birds is uncertain and further st of their flights areunder wa_v.

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Departure. Not determined. IHNTER-Sightings of 3-10 per day may occur in mid-December depending on the amount of snowfall. From late December through to mid-February the number of Red-tailed Hawks decrease rapidly. tost counts in mid-winter are 1-2 per day, in sharp contrast to areas in northP.rn Onondaga County, just 20 miles south, where 15 to 35 Red-tailed Hawks per day are common. The presence of this species in mid-winter appears to be correlated to the amount of snow cover. Red-tailed Hawks are most frequently observed along the shores of Lake Ontario where strong winds expose large ex panses of bare ground. SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk r1igration Summary. Away from Derby Hi 11 counts average 5-12 per day through mi d-Apri 1. By early March territorial pairs are engaged in courtship and they are nesting by early April. SUMt1ER-In contrast with most other local raptors this species is breeding successfully and may be on the increase. Counts average 2 to 4 birds per day during the summer. Pairs are evenly distributed in woodlots throughout the area including high-country areas. Between and December a lone Red-tailed Hawk perched atop a tree in a field is a common sight. In these days of greatly reduced raptor populations, it is hoped that Red-tailed Hawks may help fill the void left by other declining Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo Zineatus) FALL-Arrival. No extreme early date is kno\'m for this species. It usually arrives between 10 and 20 September. t1ost arrivals involve singles. 95 Maximum. Highest known count is 14 along Lake Ontario on 30 October 1972. Other maxima of 4 to 6 are reported, but the average range is 1 to 3 per day. The highest numbers of sightings have occurred along Lake Ontario. Most common from late September to early November with a peak in late October. Departure. Insufficient information for an exact departure date but it probably occurs between 10 and 20 November in most years. \-JHlTER-Records are: One along Lake Ontario on 14 January 1973. One at Fulton in December 1973. A fe\'J other records may exist, but this species is rare in winter and all winter should be positively verified.

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Departure. Not determined. IHNTER-Sightings of 3-10 per day may occur in mid-December depending on the amount of snmJfall. From late December through to mid-February the number of Red-tailed Hawks decrease rapidly. Most counts in mid-winter are 1-2 per in sharp contrast to areas in northP.rn Onondaga County, just 20 miles south, where 15 to 35 Red-tailed Hawks per day are common. The presence of this species in mid-winter appears to be correlated to the amount of sno\'/ cover. Red-tailed Hawks are most frequently observed along the shores of Lake Ontario where strong winds expose large expanses of bare ground. SPRING-See Derby Hi 11 Spring Hawk r1i grati on Summary. Away from Derby Hi 11 counts average 5-12 per day through mi d-Apri 1. By early March territorial pairs are engaged in courtship and they are nesting by early April. SUt1t1ER-In contrast with most other local raptors this species is breeding successfully and may be on the increase. Counts average 2 to 4 birds per day during the summer. Pairs are evenly distributed in woodlots throughout the area including high-country areas. CQr1t1ENTS: Between t1arch and December a lone Red-tailed Hawk perched atop a tree in a field is a common sight. In these days of greatly reduced raptor populations, it is hoped that Red-tailed Hawks may help fill the void left by other declining Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) FALL-Arrival. No extreme early date is kno\'m for this species. It usually arrives between 10 and 20 September. t1ost arrivals involve singles. 95 Maximum. Highest known count is 14 along Lake Ontario on 30 October 1972. Other maxima of 4 to 6 are reported, but the average range is 1 to 3 per day. The highest numbers of sightings have occurred along Lake Ontario. common from late September to early November with a peak in late October. Departure. Insufficient information for an exact departure date but it probably occurs between 10 and 20 November in most years. HINTER-Records are: One along Lake Ontario on 14 January 1973. One at Fulton in December 1973. A fe\'J other records may exist, but this species is rare in winter and all winter sighting; should be positively verified.

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96 SPRING-See Derby Hi 11 Spring Hawk gration Summary. In recent years this species has become increasingly rare away from Derby Hill. sightings involve singles. Adults present at any location after 20 April should be considered possible breeders and carefully investigated. SUt1t1ER-This species has virtually disappeared as a breeder in the area. Bull(l974) reported this buteo as a common breeder along the Lake Ontario shoreline. Red-shouldered are now breeding only on the Tug Hill plateau. The most recent breeding record in Oswego County is of a nest that produced a single young bird in 1978. Virtually all summer sightings since the early 1960's have been confined to the Tug Hill plateau. Sightings of immatures in late summer suggests some reproductive success. The status of this species as a breeder requires careful study. Red-shouldered Hawks are but another on a seemingly endless list of threatened birds of prey. This species is nou usually sighted only in late March and early April at Derby Hill. Fortunately the overall numbers of these spring migrants seem relatively stable. Their numbers vary greatly from year to year depending upon the \'leather. Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) FALL-Arrival. The earliest known sighting occurred along Lake Ontario on 12 August 1972. Several arrivals have been reported along Lake Ontario between 18 and 25 August in other years. t1ost early sightings involve immatures. t1aximum. Record high counts consist of 75 passing over Derby Hill on 24 September 1977, 64 along Lake Ontario on 19 September 1972, and 62 birds were reported over Selkirk Shores State Park on 14 September 1970 Noother maxima of more than 20-25 birds per day are known. Fall flights are not as great as the spring flights although it is likely that flight of 100-500 occur occasionally. Most daily counts range from 3 to 12. Broad-winged Hawks can be observed in substantial numbers on occasion, particularly along the east end of Lake Ontario and over the Tug Hill plateau. However, such flights are very erratic and difficult to predict. The highest counts in the area usually occur between 8 and 20 September. Departure. A record late bird occurred near Constantia on 17 October 1970 and was suspected to be a sick individual. There are no other sightings after the first few days of October. WINTER-No records.

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SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk Migration Summary. Broad-winged Hawks are uncommon away from the immediate shoreline of Lake Ontario. Large flocks may be observed inland in years when there are strong northerly winds during the last two weeks of April. Adults remaining after 15 May at locations away from the Lake Ontario shoreline should be investigated as potential breeders. SUMMER-Small numbers breed regularly throughout the Tug Hill plateau region. One to 4 birds per day may be seen in this area. Nests have been reported along the north shore of Oneida Lake and eastern Lake Ontario. In general Broad-winged Hawks are a scattered breeder throughout the area, with the highest densities in the eastern sections. In the summer Broad-winged Hawks are a regular sight in northeastern Oswego County. COMMENTS: It is probably the 11boils11 of Broad-winged Hawks more than anything else, that draw bird lovers to Derby Hill in late April, when thousands of Broad-winged Hawks and numerous other raptors swirl past riding on gusty southwinds. SvJainsons Havtk (Buteo shlainsoni) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: An adult light phase bird passed Derby Hill on 22 April 1973. This record sighting was clearly observed by a host of birders including Fo G. Scheider, Robert Smart, David Finch and G. A. Smith. As expected the first occurrence of this species at Derby Hill occurred along a large Broad-winged Hawk flight. COMMENTS: This wanderer from the Great Plains has been occurring more frequently in the northeast during recent years. This species should be watched for carefully during the Broad-winged Hawk migrations in late April and early Mayo Since both the Broad-winged Hawk and the Swainsons Hawk migrate from Central and South America it is possible that additional Swainsons may wander east. Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lag opus) FALL-Arrival. No September records are known. The first birds usually appear along Lake Ontario. Earliest arrivals occur between 8 and 12 October in different years. This may vary from year to year but arrival of this species is usually prior to 21 October. 97

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98 Maximum. The record high is 32 birds hetween Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 7 November 1973. Other counts of between 12 and 17 have been reported along the Lake Ontario shoreline during November. Daily counts for the fall average between 3 and 5 birds. Numbers of this northern breeder vary considerably from year to year. The majority of birds in this area are immatures. Adults of either phase are relatively rare. The majority of birds present are in the light phase, but the phase ratios vary considerably from year to year. Rough-legged Hawks are most frequent along Lake Ontario and in farming areas in western and southern sections. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-Again, numbers vary considerably from year to year. The highest count of 54 in the western part of the Towns of Mexico and Richland on 1 March 1975 is an extraordinary concentration. In 11good11 years high counts usually range from 10 to 20 per day. In 11off11 years a maxima of 2 to 6 per day is average. Local snow cover conditions may be responsible for the great variation in numberso Local concentrations develop in response to local concentrations of their small mammal food source. Rough-legged Hawks are most common along the shores of Lake Ontario, especially in eastern sections. They are also common in southern sections of the Oneida River Peter Scott Swamp section. Most counts in winter average 2 to 5 per day. SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk Migration Summary. Away from Derby Hill occasional concentrations 10 to 20 per day may be found near Scott Swamp and Snipe Meadows, Town of Schroeppel, and along Lake Ontario. Average counts in other areas are between 2 and 5 birds per day. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: More of these large arctic buteos pass Derby Hill than any other hawk lookout in the northeast. This species is one of the most common raptors in the area between November and April. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) FALL-Records: 1. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park on 15 October 1970. 2. One near Selkirk Shores State Park on 22 October 1970. WINTER-No records.

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SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hav1k t1igration Summary. An adult was sighted near Fernwood on 12 March 1972. This is the only known record of a Golden Eagle sighted away from Derby Hill. SW1MER-No records. C0Mt1ENTS: The frequency of reported sightings of Golden Eagles has been increasing since 1970. During the 1960's the average was 6 to 8 birds per year. Now, the average nuni>er of birds passing Derby Hill is 15 to 20 a year. Golden Eagles are rare anywhere away from Derby Hill at any time of the year. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus albilcilla) 99 FALL-A total of 15 to 20 individuals have been sighted since the early 1960's. The average number of sightings is 1 to 2 oer year and usually represents an equal no. of adults and immatures. Bald Eagles are most frequently sighted from late August to 20 Septem ber and from October through mid-November. Sightings the early fall probably involve birds migrating from Florida. Sightings in October and Noverrber probably represent more northern breeders. In fall, Bald Eagle sightings occur primarily along Lake Ontario. tost of these sightings represent singles. No regular departure period has been determined. HINTER-Recent records are: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 11 t1arch 1962. 2. One immature at Oswego on 7 tarch 1964. 3. One adult at Fulton on 31 January 1965. 4. One immature at Brewerton on 26 December 1965. 5. One adult at Sandy Pond on 3 December 1970. 6. One immature along Lake Ontario on 17 February 1972. 7. One adult at Port Ontario on 18 January 1976. SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Summary. Recent 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. sightings avtay from Derby Hill are: One adult at Sandy Pond on 21 May 1961. One immature at Peter Scott Swamp from 28 April to 4 May 1963. One at Brewerton on 5 Arril 1969. One adult at Palermo, Town of Palermo on 17 May 1971. One at Mcintyre Bluffs, Town of Sterling on 20 May 1972.

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100 SUt1t1E R-Recent sigh tin gs are: l. One adult near Oneida Lake on 21 June 1969. 2. One immature along Oneida Lake on 17 July 1970. 3. One immature at Rice Creek BioStation on 13 June 1976. The last active nest in the area was destroyed during the sunmer of 1960 when the nest tree was felled. This nests located near Derby Hills had not produced any young between 1955 and 1960 and was last nest along Lake Ontario. No attempts at breeding have occurred since the destruction of this nest. In additon to this nest Bull( 1974 describes two other nest sitess one near Constantia and one on Frenchmans Island in Oneida Lake. At present there are only a few potential sites for recolonizatit of Bald Eagles in the area. Unfortunately, one of the prime areass the Sterling Bluffs areas is a proposed site for a nuclear power plant. Hopefullys such areas \'lill be preserved to permit re-coloniza tion by the small number of Bald Eagles remaining. COMMENTS: Sightings of Bald Eagles continue to decline and the future of this species in the area seems dim. It is a far cry from the mid-to late 19501s when as many as 12 Bald Eagles could be seen in a single day at Derby Hill. In those years observers were entertained at intervals by the adult eagles from a nearby nest. Harrier (Circus cyaneus) FALL-Arrival. This hawk is one of the earliest fall migrants in the area. The first few Harriers to arrive are usually first year birds. Arrival takes place between 15 and 22 .August. They can be seen during the last two weeks of August. During this time the majority of sightings are of juveniles and adult females. Adult males are rare prior to early Octobers but constitute a substantial part of the birds sighted in November. Maximum. A record high of 32 passing over Selkirk Shores State Park was reported on 15 October 1970. Most other maxima range from 8 to 14 per day. The highest counts are reported along the eastern end of Lak1 Ontario between early September and late October. Departure. There is little data available on this species, but most have left by 20 November.

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WINTER-Scattered singles are reported into December. Harriers are virtually non-existent during January and the first half of February in the area. Uirds sighted after are probably spring migrants. SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk Summary. Away from Derby Hill counts range from 1 to 4 per day in late March and early May. The presence of an adult male in a pair early May should be investigated as a possible breeder. have virtually vanished as a breeder from the area over the last 20 years. Several sightings have occurred during the breeding season, but most of these involve single brown colored birds which are probably unmated wanderers. Only one breeding record exists in this decade. A breeding pair raised three young from a nest near South Pond, Town of Sandy Creek in 1976. This species was common in marshes and some upland areas prior to 1950. C0Mt1ENTS: At present the Harrier is only common as a spring and fall migrant. Once a common breeder in our area, it is now rapidly disappearing. These birds require intensive investigation on a local basis to see if localized management efforts could help stabilize their numbers. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrival dates between 25 July and 10 August, but whether these represent actual migrants or summer wanderers is unknown. Single Ospreys are common after mid-August at Derby Hill, Sandy Pond, and nearby areas. Maximum. A record high of 16 birds passed between Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 14 September 1970. Another high count of 11 also occurred at Sandy Pond on 30 September 1965. All other maxima are betv1een 3 and 7 per day. counts average 1 to 2 per day. The highest number of sightings occur along Lake Ontario. Osprey are present in small numbers between mid-August and early October, but are most common bet\'1/een 1 and 20 September. Departure. Several sightings have been recorded in early November, but the latest departure date is of one individual at Sandy Pond on l 01 8 November 1970. During most years the departure period occurs between 25 October and 5 November. WINTER-No records.

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102 SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk Migration Summary. Away from Derby Hill most sightings involve singles and counts average 2 to 3 birds per day. SUtt1ER-Single Ospreys have been reported along Lake Ontario, and occasionally elsewhere, through June and July. These birds probably represent wanderers from southern breeding areas. The presence of these birds may lead to false breeding reports. Ospreys do not presently breed in the area and there is no historical evidence that they have ever done so (Bull 1974). COt1t1ENTS: As a migrant, Ospreys have increased s 1 i ghtly since the 19601s but hard evidence is lacking. In view of its relatively Gyrfalcon few numbers, however, the limited evidence available is no reason to reduce the concern for this species. (Falco rusticolus) FALL-Record: 1 immature gray phase at Sandy Pond on 2 November 1974. (F. G. Scheider) \liNTER-Record: 1 immature gray phase at in the vicinity of the harbor from 17 to 23 February 1969. (Jean W. Propst et al). SPRING-Record: 1 \'lhite phase at Derby Hill on 12 April 1963. (John R. Haugh et al). records. Cor1t1ENTS: The extreme rarity of this species at Derby Hill is somewhat of a mystery. Either no birds return via this route or they fly directly across Lake Ontario as the Peregrine Falcon and Snowy Owl are suspected of doing. Peregrine Fa 1 con (Falco peregrinus) FALL-Prior to the early 19601s, peregrines were regular migrants along the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Since then this species has declined to a point where this powerful falcon is rarely seen anymore. Between 1960 and 1972, 1 to 4 peregrines are reported annually at Sandy Pond. Since 1972 very few have been sighted along Lake Ontario. Peregrines are virtually unknown prior to 20 September or after 30 October. All recent sightings have involved singles. Since 1960 the adult to irrrnature ratio is approximately equal. WINTER-No records. SPRING-See Derby Hi 11 Spring Hawk Migration Summary.

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The majority of sightings in spring singles, \'lith an average of 1 or 2 peregrines per sighted. In some years none have been reported. Peregrines may be sighted from 30 t1arch to the middle of t1ay. The majority of repo1ts are from the last three weeks of April and the first week of Away from Derby Hill this species is extremely rare although occasionally singles are noted at other points along the Lake Ontario shoreline. Inland this species is virtually unknown. C0Mt1ENTS: The Peregrine is one of the rarest raptors in the area. It is exceptionally scarce in spring in comparison to the large concentra tions of migrant hawks that pass Derby Hill. It is possible that 103 some of the peregrines may cross the 45+ mile wide width of Lake Ontario. This may account, at least in part, to the scarcity of the Peregrine Falcon in the area. t1e rl in (Falco columbarius) FALL-Arrival. The earliest known arrivals have occurred between 6 and 17 September. This species may be expected anytime after early September. Any sightings in August should be accompanied by full details. Maximum. Merlins are primarily restricted to the Lake Ontario shoreline and are very rare at most inland locations. Almost all sightings involve singles, although 1 to 3 per day are possible during hawk flights along the eastern end of Lake Ontario. f1erlins are most frequent from 10 September to 7 October betv1een Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. The peak probably occurs during the last two \'Jeeks of September. A large majority of the birds seen in the fall are in brown plumage. Departure. No records are known after mid-October, but it is likely that this species may remain into early November in mild years. Under such mild conditions substantial numbers of shorebirds may also remain to early November there by providing a potential food scarce. records. SPRING-At Derby Hill small numbers of t1erlins, 1 to 3 per day, can be sighted from about 30 t1arch to mid-t1ay. (See Derby Hill Spring Hawk f1igration Summary). They are most common during April but their numbers fluctuate substantially from year to year. As with the peregrines some of these birds may regularly cross Lake Ontario far north of Derby Hill. It has been observed that many falcons fly on days with strong northerly winds and under other conditions considered to be unfavorable for most hawk migrations. On such days Derby Hill is rarely manned and some may pass uncounted.

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104 Away from Derby H1ll are rarely sighted either along the shore of Lake Ontario or inland. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: Merlins and peregrines pass rapidly through the area and are usually restricted to the flight lanes along Lake Ontario. Greater frequency of sightings in these areas may be due, in part, to the distribution of observers, but most of the sightings along the lakeshore result from a preference for these flight lanes. Sighting at inland locations should be well documented. Inexperienced observers should exercise great caution to avoid confusing Merlins with Sharp-shinned Hawks and Coopers Hawks. Such confusion probably accounts for reports of this species out of season and at such unlikely locales as bird feeders. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) FALL-Arrival. Arrival is difficult to determine. Small numbers may be seen passing over the Sandy Pond dunes during the last few days of August. These small groups are probably migrant since this species is an infrequent breeder on the dune spits. The highest counts known are from 39 to 47 reported during flights along the Sandy Pond dunes in September of four different yea1s. Most maxima are much lower. The average maxima are between 12 and 25 at Sandy Pond. The highest numbers of birds occur during the last three weeks of September and fall off after 7 to 10 October. Most counts average 4 to 9 per day. Numbers along Lake Ontario are often slightly higher than at inland locations. Departure. Difficult to determine. There is a gradual reduction in numbers after mid-October. Most migrants have departed by mid-November. Individuals present after that date are probably attempting to winter in the immediate central New York area. WINTER-American Kestrels winter in small numbers throughout most of the area. They are least common in 11Snowbelt11 areas in the Tug Hill plateau, in areas a few m1les east, and south of Lake Ontario. They are most frequent along rivers in the southern part of the county particularly in the Town of Schroeppel. During most winters counts of 2 to 7 per day are the average. 2 miles of Lake Ontario 1 to 4 per day is the average. The local distribution is uneven and due, in part, to the amount of snow cover. Near Lake Ontario there are areas that usually are free of snow as a result of the wind. Southern areas have less snow to begin with. Areas from Sandy Creek south to Hastings and west to Fulton, usually have substantial snow cover which limits the availability of the American Kestrel s main prey, the mouse. Often the highest counts are noted in December as opposed to January and Februaryo This is probably due to mortality and local snow conditions.

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105 SPRING-See Derby Hill Spring Hawk Summary. Away from Derby Hill counts average 4 to 10 birds per day. The highest counts occur during April. Unlike the other two species of Falcons, this species does not regularly cross large expanses of Lake Ontario. The American Kestrel is a regular breeding species throughout most of the area. Most common in farming and brushy sectors in western and southern sections as well as along Lake Ontario. Least frequent in the wooded areas of the Tug Hill plateau. They are present, however, in the farming areas of the Tug Hill plateau. From late May through early June the counts average 2 to 4 per day. After early July the average count rises to 4 to 10 per day. This is due to the presence of family hunting groups. This species along with the Red-tailed Hav1k are the only two well-distributed breeding hawks in the area. Unlike most other raptors these two species have not suffered any noticeable decline and in fact have increased in numbers over the last 80 years. These species are quite common and a quantitative determination of the total number of breeding pairs would require considerable work. Species such as the Red-shouldered Hawk and the Northern Harrier would require considerable field work to locate a single breeding pair. effort should be expended by field workers to quantify the raptor breeding populations in the area. Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) All seasons. Resident. Bobwhite The Ruffed Grouse is a resident of the woodland areas. It is a cyclic species and numbers may vary greatly over a period of years. The average counts range between 2 and 5 birds per day in suitable habitats. Several counts of 10 to 15 per day have been noted. They usually represent flush counts from roosting and feeding areas. Although Ruffed Grouse are well distributed, the highest numbers usually occur in large wooded tracts such as those in the Tug Hill plateau and other areas. Isolated woodlots in farming areas contain relatively few individuals. No data is available for phase ratios for the area. (Colinus virginianus) Resident. This species has been reported in all seasons except winter. Records include l to 2 birds for each season. The exact status of this species is impossible to determine. They may represent released or escaped birds. The lack of winter records indicates that these few individuals perished due to the severe weather. There is no evidence of a reproducing Bobwhite population within the area in this century. Historical data is

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106 rather limited (see Bull 1974). Bobwhite sightings in the area should be considered releases unless the sightings include broods. Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Resident. --All seasons. Following introduction of this species into the area and spread from nearby areas, intensive stacking efforts made pheasants a common sight on farmlands throughout the area. Counts of 10 to 30 birds per day were common, particularly in central and southern sections and along Lake Ontario. Only in the Tug Hill plateau and adjacent areas was this species scarce. This abundance continued until the cessation of in tensive stocking programs in the early 19701s. Since then, the population has crashed. Ring-necked Pheasants are scarce even in areas of prime habitato Counts since the mid-19701s have ranged between 1 and 5 per day" There is evidence that the decline is continuing. It appears that this species is totally unable to maintain its numbers by natural repro duction and may disappear completely in a few years. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) Formerly resident. The local data on this species is very limited. It was present prior to the 18501s (see Bull 1974). There are no recent sightings. There is also no evidence that this species is spreading toward this area from nearby populations. At present the nearest location of this species are the artificially re-established populations in extreme southern Onondaga County and parts of Jefferson County. Sandhill Crane canadensis) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One near Stevens Pond on 16 May 1965 (F. G. Scheider, John R. Bart, and Christian G. Spies). 2. One at Derby Hill .on 31 Harch 1976 (Bruno and Dee Desimon and G. A. Smith)o SUMMER-No records.

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COMMENTS: This migrant passed Derby Hi 11 when 1 at'ge numbers of these birds were moving north through the prairies. It is possible that this bird was a straggler from the small population in Michigan. King Rail (RalZus eZegans) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. 107 SUMMER-Record: One pair in the Six Mile Creek floodlands near Pennelville, Town of Schroeppel, from 4 to 18 July 1976 (F. G. Scheider and others). No evidence of breeding was obtained. COt1MENTS: King Rails may occur more often than reported, particularly in large infrequently visited wetlands. Intensive studies of such areas might prove that this bird is more common than it appears to be. Virginia Rail (RaZZus ZimicoZa) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 6 to 10 per day from the larger wetlands. Counts average from 2 to 4 per day in suitable areas. This species is probably more common, particularly in large wetlands such as Peter Scott Swamp and Deer Creek Marsh, than the limited data on hand would suggest. De arture. Difficult to determine, but many sightings have been reporte during the first 10 days to 2 weeks of November. The last have usually left by 20 November. Individuals present after mid-November may be attempting to winter or are in some way unable to migrate. WINTER-Records include: 1. One at Peter Scott Swamp on 1 January 1972. 2. One live and 5 dead birds at Peter Scott Swamp on 18 January 1972. It is unlikely that most Virginia Rails could survive to 1 January in a normal winter.

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108 SPRING-Arrival. The first arrive betv1een 27 April and 5 The first records are often from the Peter Scott Swamp area. It is likely that many birds may arrive prior to the above dates but escape detection. t1aximum. All maxima range bet\'leen 3 and 10 birds per day with the highest counts from larger wetlands such as Peter Scott Swamp. Counts average between 2 and 4 er day. Departure. tlot determined. SUMt1ER-This species is a local breeder in large relatively undisturbed wetlands such a:; Peter Scott Swamp and Deer Creek t1arsh. Counts 2 to 4 per day with substantially higher numbers in certain areas. ':OM1"1ENTS: \Jhile a population trend is not discernable due to limited data it is logical to assume that this species has suffered from v1etl and habitat destruction. Information is needed on the breeding status of this species in the area. This species and all other wetland dwellers must be closely v1atched for future trends. It is particularly easy for such secretive species to decline undetected. Sora (Porzana carolina) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. Highest maxima are 5 to 6 birds per day. Average counts are only 1 to 2 per day. This species is scarce in the fall. The highest numbers are often from Peter Scott Swamp and Lake Ontario shoreline marshes. Departure. The departure varies greatly from year to year. The lat' reported departures have occurred between 10 and 15 November in different years. This species is common to late October early November in mild years. Fe\'1 remain after mid-November, but Soras may occasionally attempt to winter. WINTER-Record: One alive and one dead bird at Peter Scott Swamp on 18 January 1972. SPRING-Arrival. There are several early arrivals from 26 April to 3 May Soras are probably present in most v1etland areas by this time. A 11 maxima range between 3 and 6 birds per day. Fie 1 d counts average 2 to 3 per day. The highest numbers are from the Lake Ontario shoreline marshes and the larger inland marshes. The highest counts are often from the last three weeks of May. f)eparture. not determi;l:2d.

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SUMMER-Soras breed locally in large marshes throughout most of the area. They are least frequent on the Tug Hill plateau where large marshes are limited. Counts during breeding season average 2 to 4 per day in the larger marshes and 1 per day in other areas. COMMENTS: Data on the breeding status of this species are limited. All species of specialized habitat and limited localized breeding distribution should be closely watched. Like the Virginia Rail, Soras are quite scarce in small or disturbed marshes. It is clear that the maintenance of large tracts of undisturbed habitat such as Deer Creek Marsh and Peter Scott Swamp are essential to maintaining viable populations in the area. Common Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. 109 Maximum. The highest count is 55 at Sandy Pond on 26 September 1970. Other maxima average from 10 to 20 per day. The highest numbers are often from the North Pond -Sandy Pond Inlet sector and in the Deer Creek marshes. Total counts average 5 to 12 birds per day. They are most frequently sighted during September. Departure. The normal departure period is from 4 to 14 October. They are very rare after the middle of October. The latest record is of an unknown number at Sandy Pond on 31 October 1954. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest record is of one freshly dead, found at Derby Hill on 12 April 1964. Several arrivals are on record for the period 16 to 20 April. The majority of arrivals have been noted between 22 and 27 April. Maximum. Spring maxima are between 8 and 10 birds per day. Daily counts average 3 to per day. The highest numbers occur during the last three weeks of May. They are frequently noted in the marshes along Lake Ontario, Peter Scott Swamp, and in flooded fields during wet springs. Departure. Not determined.

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110 species is a regular bre
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Maximum. The highest maxima are in the 20 to 30 per day range. Spring counts average 5 to 10 per day during late March and the first three weeks of April. They are most frequent along Lake Ontario. Departure. The majority have left by 10 May. SUMMER-Records include: 1. Two on Oneida Lake on 24 July 1971. 2. One at Brewerton during the summer of 1972. COMMENTS: No record of breeding exists for the area. Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipaZmatus) FALL-Arrival. The first birds, almost always adults, appear along the Lake Ontario shoreline between 8 and 20 July. Maximum. The highest count is 90 at Sandy Pond on 30 August 1958. Other maxima are in the 15 to 35 per day range and are usually seen along the Sandy Pond spits. Counts average 4 to 12 birds per day from all areas. This species may be seen in substantial numbers anytime from the middle of July to the end of September. Departure. The majority have left by the middle of October. Most departure dates have been between 25 October and 5 November. A few birds may linger well into November. The latest departures have been reported from 18 to 23 November. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They may arrive anytime from mid-May to early June. Maximum. The highest spring counts range between 10 and 20 birds per day and almost without exception are from the Sandy Pond spits. The spring passage of this species occurs very rapidly through the area. The majority of movement is restricted to the period between 20 May and 10 June. Most have left by 3 June, but some may linger a days longer. SUMMER-See Spring and Fall. 111

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112 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) FALL-All the Fall records involve sightings of one bird per date and all sightings occurred at Sandy Pond. The dates of each sighting are 1 is ted l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. below: 30 September 1951. 21 August 1957. 7 to 15 September 1958. 5 September 1959. 26 September 1959. 4 October 1959. 26 August 1961. 28 September to 10 October 1967. 17 to 19 September 1968. 14 November to 8 December 1968. Note that the last record was extremely late. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 25 April 1974. 2. Two at Sandy Pond from 20 to 31 May 1956. 3. One nest located at Sandy Pond on 26 May 1957. 4. One pair at Sandy Pond from 17 to 29 May 1961. 5. Two at Sandy Pond on 17 May 1971. 6. One at Sandy Pond on 22 1975. 7. One adult at Sandy Pond on 27 May 1978. Records 1 through 4 may have resulted from the breeding colony, which no longer exists, at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. 1961 a small breeding population of this species existed at Sandy Pond and other barrier beach locations along the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Since that time only a few scattered sightings are known for the area. Posi tive breeding records are listed below: 1. (See Spring Number 3) 2. One at Sandy Pond from June 1955. 3. Three at Sandy Pond on 30 June 1956 with 2 present to late July. 4. Five adults at Sandy Pond on 16 June 1957, and a juvenile was seen there on 28 June 1957. 5. One at Sandy Pond on 4 June 1961. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I COMMENTS: Piping Plovers have been on the decline in this area since the 1960's. This is a result of the increased recreational pressures for the limited sand I spit habitat. Nesting Plovers can not tolerate the foot or vehicle traffic along the beaches. Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine. The congregations which develop in late July probably consist of both locally breeding birds and migrants. I I Maximum. The highest counts range between 160 and 215 per day during various I years. Most maxima range between 100 and 150. The largest I

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numbers are generally recorded during August with smaller numbers present into early October. Departure. Small groups and singles are noted well into November. The departure varies considerably in November, but none are noted after 10 to 15 November in some years. In other years, they may persist into December. ,n;nER-A number of records exist for the first two weeks of December. After mid-December this species is extremely rare. The only record after the Oswego Christmas count is 1 at Har.nibal on 27 December 1970. SPRING-Arrival. Killdeer are the earliest migrant shorebitds. They may be expected any time during the last 10 days of February or the first week of March depending on the weather conditions. The first migrants often appear at Derby Hill. Maximum. The highest spring count occurred at Derby where the record high is 1,248 birds on 13 April 1972. Several counts of 100 to 150 per day have been reported at Derby Hill. In most years maxima from all areas range between 40 and 70 birds per day. Most spring counts range between 10 and 35 per day from early March to mid-April. Departure. Difficult to determine. Most migrants have left by the first week of May. late April to early June Killdeer pairs are distributed evenly throughout most of the area. They utilize farmlands, shorelines, roadway edges, and parking lots for nesting. Young usually hatch at the end of May. It is possible to see 15 to 30 per day in suitable habitats. Post breeding congregations begin to form throughout the area by early July. COMMENTS: Flocks of migrant Killdeers occur in all parts of the area, including the Tug Hill plateau and it is undoubtedly the most widely distributed shorebird in the area. American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is at Fernwood, Town of Richland, on 10 August 1969. This species is often noted from 14 to 18 August. In some years they are not sighted until the last few days of August. Maximum. In some years counts of 20 to 30 per day have been recorded while in other years the peak is 4 to 10 per day. The highest counts may occur anytime during the 1 ast two weeks of August and during September. 113

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114 Departure. Tilis species is relatively rare by the middle of October. November records are extremely rare. The latest departure is of one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 9 November 1970. HINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: l. One along Six t1ile Creek, near Phcenix, on 17 April 1966. 2. Two along Six Mile Creek from ll to 12 April 1968. 3. One along Six Mile Creek on 17 April 1975. Note that all the records are from the same location and are all within one week of each other. SUMMER-No records. The majority of fall flocks arenoted in plowed fields at inland locations where the species is often more abundant than it is along the Lake Ontario shore. The Towns of Mexico, Richland, and Hastings seem to be favored locations for this species. Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis FALL-Arrival. They are consistently seen between 3 and 9 August in most years. Occasionally they do not arrive until the middle of the month. These early migrants are sometimes in breeding plumage. They are generally seen along rJntari o and at Sandy Pond. The highest maxima range between 20 and 25 birds. Maxima in some may only be 8 to 10 birds per day. They are usually seen at the eastern end of Lake Ontario from late August to mid-October. Departure. They usually depart betwe,::-n 5 and 10 November. There are several departures recorded between 12 and 18 November. The latest records are of three separate sightings on 23 November. November birds are almost ah-1ays immatures and often appear to be in poor health. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record of one at Brewerton on 21 March 1971 is extremely early. The arrival dates of one on 9 April 1977 and one on 22 April 1971 both at the Six Mile Creek mudflats are also very early. No other birds have been reported prior to 10 May. The usual arrival period is from 10 to 16 May. Maximum. The highESt count is 29 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 May 1954. Other maxima are in the 2 to 8 per day range and most counts average only l to 4 per day. They are usually sighted along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

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Departure. They are present until 5 June with only scattered sightings after that date. The record lates are at the Nine Point power plant impoundment on 15 June 1970 and one at Sandy Pond on 30 June 1977. Many of the last migrants are in complete winter plumage. SUMMER-(See Spring) Ruddy Turnstone (krnaria interpres) FALL-Arrival. The earliest listed arrival is ut Sandy Ponrl on 1 July 115 1956, which may have been either a late sp1in0 or early fa'll migrant. There are several arrivals on record between 20 and 27 July. This species can be expected anytime after mid-July. The majority of July and early August individuals are adults in breeding plumage. t1aximum. The highest counts arange between 20 and 30 birds per day with the majority of maxima in the 10 to 22 per day range. counts along Lake Ontario average 4 to 6 birds per day. The greatest numbers are noted along the Sandy Pond sand spits in the inlet 'tery rare in 1 and, although sma 11 numbers have been seen on the is 1 ands off Constantia on Oneida Lake. Departure. Turnstones are after 10 to 15 October in most years. There are very few records after this. The record late is one at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 14 November 1976. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is 3 birds at Sandy Pond on 11 May 1969. They usually arrive between 16 and 20 May along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high count is 250 at Sandy Pond on 1 June 1975. Two more very high counts include: 135 at Sandy Pond on 29 May 1961 and 100+ at Sandy Pond from 27 to 31 May 1956. All other maxima are in the 10 to 25 range. Turnstones are almost entirely restricted to the Lake Ontario shoreline during spring migration where most counts average 3 to 6 per dav. Departure. They are present in small numbers through the first week of June with feH recorded after that date. The latest was reported at Sandy Pond on 13 June 1971. SUMMER-(See Spring and Fall).

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116 American Hoodcock (Philohela minor>) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. There are several high counts of 8 to 10 per day. These come primarily from the Lake Ontario shore. In many years high counts are only 2 to 3 per day. Counts average only 1 or 2 per day for all areas. The highest frequency of sightings appears to be between 15 October and 5 November. Departure. It appears that most depart by early Novenber. The latest records are sightings betv1een 10 and 17 November. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival varies somewhat depending on the weather conditions. Woodcock can be expected during the first major spring thaw, which often occurs in the period of 15 to 25 March. Maximum. In late April and early most counts are of singing birds. The highest counts usually range between 10 and 15 per night. d.wtime counts range between 2 and 7 per day. Counts average 2 to 5 birds per day in most sectors. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-Woodcock are a well-distributed breeder throughout the area. They are usually found in wet fields with shrub type grov1th and in other damp areas. This species is active nocturnally making hard data 1 imited. Singing counts such as the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service routes would provide the best data on yearly abundance. After mid-June when cessation of their regular flight si;lging causes fewer birds to be recorded. Common Snipe (Capella gallinago) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine. Arrival dates have been listed as early as 21 July and as late as August. Maximum. The record high is 70 at Sandy Pond on 13 Octobet 1974. Several othet maxima betv1een 25 and 50 per day have been recorded. The average maxima for fall ranges betwen 20 and 30 birds per day. Numbers usually average 5 to 12 birds per day in suitable habitat. The highest numbers are usually recorded from Lake Ontario shoreline areas, often in the mudflats of creek mouths. Common from 22 October to 2 November.

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Departure. The departure occurs between 5 and 10 November. The latest record is 3 near Texas, Town of Mexico, on 23 November 1968. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They most often arrive between 23 and 28 March. Occas1onally, they are not present until early April. Maximum. The highest maxima range between 25 and 40+ per day, often from the Six r1ile Creek floodlands in the To.m of Schroeppel. Counts vary considerably from year to year and the maxima may only be 5 to 15 per day in some years. The largest numbers occur during the last t1t10 weeks of April. Most days field during April yield 2 to 15 per day. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers decline rapidly after the first few days of r1ay. SUMMER-Common Snipe breed throughout the area. They are fairly common in some arei:\ and much rarer in other areas. have been recorded in small numbers, 2 to 4 per day, in all areas. Nocturnal roadside surveys would probably be useful in establishing data for the species in this area. Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) FALL-Recent records include: l. One at Sandy Pond on 27 .l\ugus t 1954. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 12 September 1959. 3. One at Sandy Pond on 24 July 1960. 4. One at Sandy Pond on 26 August 1961. 5. Two at Oswego on 18 August 1962. 6. One at Sandy Pond on 14 September 1967. 7. One at Sandy Pond from 5 to 6 August 1968. 8. One at Sandy Pond on 27 September 1969. 9. One at Sandy Pond on 19 August 1973. l 0. One at Sandy Pond on September 1973. ll. One at Sandy Pond from 9 to 12 September 1974. 12. One at Sandy Pond on 22 August 1976. 13. One at Sandy Pond on 16 September 1976. 14. A total of 9 along Lake Ontario, primarily, Sandy Pond, on various dates betv/een 26 July and 28 J\ugus t 1977. 15. Two at Derby Hill on 17 August 1978. WINTER-No records. 117

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118 SPRING-Recent records include: l. Thirteen at Sandy Pond on 24 May 1959. 2. One to two per day at Sandy Pond from 27 to 29 May 1961. 3. Eight at the Six t1i le Creek fl oodl ands on 19 t1ay 1969. FALL). COMMENTS: The is perhaps the most elusive regular migrant shorebird in the area. Individuals rarely stop for more than part of a single day in their migration along the eastern end of Lake Ontario. Hith one exception they are restricted to the Lake Ontario area. Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis) All Seasons -Extinct in this area and perhaps totally extinct. Cm1MENTS: Only ancient records of this species are known for this area. Eaton (1909) stated that D. D. Stone had noted this species several times during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. He also stated that it was rare even then. Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 3 to 4 per day with most records of 1 to 2 per day. The highest numbers occur during August. Distribution in the fall is primarily inland fields, rery fev1 are present along the Lake Ontario shore. Departure. The departure date is often reported between 3 and 10 September. Sometimes all birds may have left by the end of August. The latest birds usually leave between 13 and 19 September. The record late is one near Phoenix on 24 September 1959. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals occurred in the period 13 to 14 April. They usually arrive between 18 and 25 April in most years. Maximum. The vast majority of high counts range between 5 and 7 birds per day. t1ost records come from the Lake Ontario shore line areas. The average during late April and early May is l to 3 birds per day.

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Departure. Difficult to determine, but bi r.ds present after 10 may be breeders. SUMMER-Upland Sandpipers are a scattered local breeder at several locations in the county. known breeding sites include: Derby Hill area, along the northwest shore of Oneida Lake, and in northern areas east of U. S. Route 81 around Pulaski and Redfield. Most breeding records are of 2 to 5 birds per day in these areas. COt1MEriTS: The Upland Sandpiper should be closely v1atched and breeding areas carefully surveyed as the evidence suggests that they are declining here as in many parts of their range. This 11Audubon Blue 1 is ted .. species may well vanish as a 1 oca l breeder. Efforts should be made to convince private landm,mel'S v1ith colonies not to disturb. the birds inadvertently and ;;n :::t.::-'l,l!"t n:ade to managecutting activities etc. whenever possible. A careful investigation of this species' local status is needed. Spotted Sandpiper (Acti tis macu Zaria) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine. Flights during the first week of July probably contain some migrants. They are undoubtedly moving in larger numbers by the third week in July. Maximum. range between 20 and 35 birds per day. Most field counts average only 7 to 12 per day. The highest counts often occur from early July to early September from Lake Ontario. Smaller numbers of these birds are seen at inland water sources. Departure. The departure usually occurs sometime during the first tvw weeks of October. The latest record is at f1ile Point pm,JPr plants on 24 October 1970. HINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. on 2 April between 21 Ontario. The earliest known arrival is one along Lake 1972. Most arrivals occur at least three weeks later, and 26 April. First sighting frequently occur along Lake Maximum. Maxima average in the 10 to 15 per dav range. Average counts range from 5 to 12 per day from late April onv1ard. Common along Lake Ontario and certain sections of Oneida Lake. Departure. Not determined. 3potted Sandpiper is a fairly common and evenly distributed breeder in the area. It breeds along lake shores, on small islands, along creeks, and around ponds. Counts are usually betv>Jeen 5 and 15 of +hese birds per day.

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COMMENTS: Spotted Sandpipers breed regularly along spits. They seem able to tolerate the human act1v1ty wh1ch thf Piping Plover could not. Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) FALL-Arrival. The earliest migrants have appeared between 7 and 10 July in several different years. The species is.commcn by mid-July. The arrival usually involves 1 to 2 b1rds and may occur in any wet area in the county. Maximum. The recmd high is 20 at Ponds Pond, Town of Mexico on 9 August 1956. The vast majority of sightings fall into th1 1 to 2 birds per day range, although occasionally 3 to 5 may b! present at a particular spot. Daily maxima average between 5 < 10 birds. Departure. They are well distributed as singles and small groups frommid-July to mid-September. The majority of migrants have left by late September or early October. Very rare after 10 October. The latest record is of an immature along Lake Ontario on 28 October 1972. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest records are both at Derby Hill, one on 15 April 1973 and the other on 21 April. They usually arrive c the last week of April and usually at Derby Hill. Maximum. The record high is 32 that passed Derby Hill on 8 May 1973 most of which were singles" Most counts afield in spring average 2 to 4 per day. They are usually seen in the largest numbers during the first two weeks of t'Jay. Departure. Departure dates usually range from 16 to 20 May. The latest sighting is on 23 May. SUMMER-(See the Fall counts) COMMENTS: The highest numbers are often noted along the Lake Ontari This may be due to the 1 arge number of observers there rather t species distribution. Willet (Cato ptrophorus semipalmatus) FALL-Records include: lo One at Sandy Pond on 5 August 1957. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 27 August 1957. 3. One bird of the western subspecies at Derby Hill on 15 Oct( 1964. 4. One at the Nine 1 e Point power plant complex on 6 July 1

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records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 22 May 1969. 2. One at Nine Mile Point power plant complex from 30 May to 1 June 1972. 3. One at the Nine Mile Point power plant complex on 5 May 1973. SUMMER-(See SPRING and FALL records). Three of the 7 oca 1 records were near the Nine Mile Point power plants. now been filled in. Greater Yellowlegs (Totanus melanoleuca) rom a sewage impoundment This impoundment has FALL-Arrival. The first migrants are often noted between 12 and 18 July. They may occasionally be a few days earner. The first sightings are usually 1 to 2 per day. 121 The highest counts range between 30 and 40 per day. Most of the seasons maxima are in the 10 to 25 birds per day range. Greater Yellowlegs are well-distributed and the daily counts from mid-September through October average 4 to 10 per day. They are less frequent from late July to early September and counts are only 1 to 5 per day at this time. The peak period is during the first three weeks of October. Departure. One of the latest departing migrant shorebirds. They are common into November. In mdst years they depart between 14 and 21 November. The latest sighting occurred on 23 NovEmber. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred between 29 March and 2 April. Although the may vary substantially, they are usually present by the first week of April. The first sightings are often reported in flooded fields and wetlands around Peter Scott Swamp area and in creek mouths along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest maxima range between 20 and 30 birds per day. The total of all high counts average closer to 15 to 25 birds per day. All counts totalled average only 4 to 14 birds per day from all areas. They are well distributed in most areas \'lith the exception of the Tug Hill plateau. The highest counts are from the last ten days of April and the first few days of May. Departure. Small groups usually persist to mid-May. The departure occurs between 17 and 23 May. A few linger to about 28 May. The late record is one at the Nine Mile Point Power plants impoundment on 4 June 1972. SUMMER-(See SPRING and FALL records).

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122 COMMENTS: The peak migration occurs late along with the Dunlin and Kil They are usually the dominant shorebird after the third week of Oc They are less frequent than the Lesser Yellowlegs. Lesser Yellowlegs (Totanus j1avipes) FALL-Arrival. This species is the earliest arr1v1ng fall migrant shore They usually appear in groups of 1 to 4 between 1 and 4 July. The earliest arrival for this area is 30 June. Most of these early mi are adults in breeding plumage. The highest maxima range between 70 and 90 birds per day often during the peak of their migration between 7 and 21 July. l average seasons maxima are 40 to 60 per day. t counts average 10 to 24 birds per day from mid-July through early September. Thi species has a peak of adults in July and early August and a peak c immatures in late August and early September. Frequent at inland ponds, the shoreline of Ln.ke Ontario, and Oneida Lake. Departure. Small groups are pres0nt through early October. The normal departure occurs between 19 and 27 October. Several late occurences between 3 and 6 November have been noted. The last migrants are usually from Lake Ontario. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They are first noted between 31 March and 4 April. Tl are not reported until 15 to 20 April in some years. In most yea they can be expected in early April. Most arrivals involve singl or small groups from the Peter Scott Swamp, Snipe Meadows, and al Lake On ta ri o Maximum. The highest record is 65 at Peter Scott Swamp on 7 May All other maxima are lower, with the average between 20 and 30 bi per day. The majority of counts are 4 to 15 birds per day during April and early May. The highest numbers are rep0rted from 25 Ap to 1 0 May us ua 11 y. Departure. Numbers of this bird decline during the two middle we of May. The last are usually noted between 24 and 31 t1ay. Small numbers may persist into very early June. The last migrants are often noted along Lake Ontario. SUMMER-(See SPRING and FALL records). COMMENTS: Substantial concentrations have been reported at the islan Oneida Lake, but observers are usually not present very often in area.

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123 Red Knot (Calidris canutusJ FALL-Arrival. The arrival varies greatly from year to year. The record early arrival is one at the Nine Mile Point power plant impoundment on 22 July 1970. They are usually very rare in July. Several records have been from the first two weeks of August, but most records are from the last two weeks in August. In some years they may not be reported until early September. Maximum. The high counts are 7 to 9 birds per day. The majority of sightings are of less than 4, and the average is closer to 2 birds per day. Restricted to the Lake Ontario shoreline where they are noted during the last week of August and the first three weeks of September. Departure. The last birds have usually departed by 15 October. The record late departure is one in breeding plumage at Oswego on 6 November 1971. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record arrival is 8 at Sandy Pond on 20 April 1956. The next few early dates i1re from 2 to 5 t1ay. These dates are all early. In years the arrival occurs the last 10 days of May. The first inv;1riahly notP.d the Lake Ontario shoreline primarily at Sandy Pond. Maximum. This species is generally more common in spring than in fall. The record high is 65 at Sandy Pond on 21 May 1978. Several maxima of 20 to 34 per day have been reported at Sandy Pond. Their counts average between 2 and 6 birds per day. The highest counts usually occur during the last few days of May and the first week of June. They are very rare i..IWay from the Sandy Pond area. Departure. They are common through the first week of June. Very rare after this date. The record late is one at the Nine Mile Point power plant impoundment on 9 June 1972. SUMMER-(See SPRING and FALL records). COMMENTS: The Red Knot is one of the least frequent shorebirds in our area. They pass over this area very rapidly and very few are seen away from Sandy Pond. Purple Sandpiper ( Ca lidris r7ari ti ma) FALL-Arrival. One of the latest shorebirds to arrive in the fall. The earliest is of 3 birds at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. There are very few records before the last four days of October. They normally arrive between 30 October and 10 November along Lake Ontario. Most

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124 counts at th.is time are 1 to 2 per day. Maximum. The highest counts for the area are between 3 and 5 per day from Lake Ontario. In most years only scattered counts of 1 to 2 per day are noted. t1ost common from 4 to 18 November, but numbers fluctuate considerably from year to year. On Lake Ontario, they are limited to Sandy Pond and Fair Haven Beach State Park. Departure. They are common through the third week of November. The last birds are often sighted between 20 and 25 tloverrter. One on the west breakwall of Osv;ego Harbor on 14 January 1968. (F. C. Dittrich, S. Rusk, C. G. Spies). SPRING-Records include: 1. One adult at Sandy Pond on 27 May 1961. 2. One at Sandy Pond from 22 to 25 May 1969. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: The best place to find this bird is along the breakwall on the east side of Little Sodus Bay that juts out from Fair Haven Beach State Park. This species is being sighted more frequently in fall migrations. This does not necessarily represent a population increase. Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos) FALL-Arrival. Most arrivals occur between 15 and 20 July. Occasionally they have been noted as early as 12 July. The first arrivals involve singles. Maximum. Numbers vary considerably from year to year. The record high count is 90 at Port Ontario, Town of Richland, on 6 October 1974. A few counts of 25 to 45 birds per day exist but most maxima range between 10 and 20 per day. daily counts are 5 tol5 per day from suitable habitats. The peak counts occur from late July through early October. They are most common in Lake Ontario shoreline areas with some sighted at inland v;etlands. Departure. In some years the departure has occurred by the middle of October. Small numbers of these birds often persist into early November. Late individuals generally depart by 14 November. The latest sighting is at Port Ontario on 23 November 1974. The last migrants are usually sighted along Lake Ontario. I

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WINTER-No records. SPR!NG-Arri va 1. The first m; grants are usually noted between 10 and 15 April, usually from the Peter Scott Swamp-Snipe Meadows area in the Town of Schroeppel. Maximum. The record high is 130 at the Six Mi 1 e Creek Snipe Meadows floodlands, Town of Schroeppel, on 14 April 1968. No othercounts of more than 60 birds per day are on record. The high counts usually range between 30 and 50, but in some years they are only 10 to 20 per day. The highest counts occur during the 1 ast two weeks of April. The high counts are usually from the wetlands and spring floodlands around Snipe 1-teadows and along Six Mile Creek. They are less frequent along Lake Ontario. _!Lepa rture. 11os t depart by 10 11ay. The 1 a test hi rds leave between 14 and 20 The latest record is at the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment on 27 May 1971. SUMrER-(See SPRING and FALL records). COMMENTS: This species and other early migrant shorebirds utilize the floodlands in the Town of Schroeppel heavily. These wetlands provide important resting areas for these species. These areas should be protected from filling, dredging, or other water control plans which may affect their use by spring migrants. White-rumped Sandpiper (CaZidr-is fuscicoZZis) FALL-Arrival. The arrival varies considerably. occurs during the first ten days of August. not sighted until much later in the month. have occurred on 31 July for t\'IO years. The normal arrival period In snme years they are The earliest arrivals 11aximum. The highest counts are 25 to 30 birds per day from Sandy Pond in 1957. 11os t high counts are in the 8 to 12 per day range. Counts along Lake Ontario average 2 to 6 per day with a few from in 1 and 1 ocati ons such as One; da Lake. 11os t colllllon from mid-August to mid-September. Small groups of 1/hite-rumped Sandpipers are often seen among the shorebird flocks at the Sandy Pond inlet area. The departure varies greatly and may occur as early as mi'-September.Often the laSt birds are noted between 9 and 25 October. Individuals may be present to the first 10 days of November. The latest departures have occurred between 12 and 15 November of different years, often noted in the Sandy Pond vicinity.

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126 WINTER-No records. SPRHlG-Arrival. The record early arrivals are in the period between 19 and 21 t1ay. The first birds may be noted anytime during late Hay. The majority of these spring migrants occur along Lake Ontario. Counts range between l and 4 per day. The highest count is 8 on 27 May 1971 from the Nine Mile Point power plants and Sandy Pond. Most spring sightings involve l to 2 birds and are restricted to Lake Ontario shoreline areas, primarily Sandy Pond. They are most often sighted during the last 10 days of t1ay and the first few days of .June. They are rare at inland locations althoL some probably occur at the islands on Oneida Lake. Departure. They are common through the first four days of June. One in \'linter plumage at SandyPond on 30 June 1977 is the latest on record. SUt1t1ER-(See SPRING and FALL records). C0Mt1ENTS: This species is noted most often at the Sandy Pond inlet area. The increasing human use of that area has caused some problems for the species which utilize this area. The importance of this area to many species cannot be overemphasized and an effort should be made to protect some of it as a refuge. Bairds Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii) FALL-Arrival. The arrival varies considerably. The early record is 3l July 1965 at Sandy Pond. They are usually noted beb'>/een 8 and 20 August in most years. In some years they may not be sighted until early September. The first arrivals are often along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The highest counts range beb'>/een 9 and ll per day, all from the Sandy Pond area. Seasonal maxima vary from l to 2 per day in 11lOW11 years and 4 to 7 per day in 11high11 years. They are most often sighted along Lake Ontario at Sandy Pond. They have been reported in small numbers on the islands off Constantia on Oneida Lake. The majority of records are from the last week of August through September. Departure. Numbers decline by late September with a few often lingering into early October. The last birds are often noted during the first two weeks of October. Several departures have occurred from 4 to 12 October. The record late sighting is one at Sandy Pond on 8 November 1959.

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WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SlJf1MER-No records. COMMENTS: This species is only a fall migrant in this area. Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutiZZaJ FALL-Arrival. This species is usually noted between 1 and 5 ,July. No arrivals have occured later than 10 July. These first migrants and are always adults in breeding plumage. r1aximum. The highest counts are 75 to 100 birds per day. Along Lake Ontario 15 to 30 per day are usually sighted. The average of all counts is about 10 to 20 birds per day. The high counts are often noted between 8 and 20 July and usually involve adults, many of which are in breeding plumage. Departure. Small groups are often present through early October. Usually the last migrants are noted between 10 and 17 October. The record late is one at Sandy Pond on 6 November 1977. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is of one at Peter Scott Swamp on 3 April 1972. This individual is 3 weeks to a month early. The first sightings usually occur between 28 April and 4 May. Often first observed from the Snipe Meadows-Six Mile Creek floodlands or along Lake Ontario. t1axi mum. The record maxima range from 40 to 50 birds per day, usually occurring between 15 and 26 t1ay. Counts average 10 to 25 per day during May from all areas. Less common in the Tug Hill plateau. Departure. Their departure occurs between 30 t1ay and 3 June primarily along Lake Ontario. None remain after the first three days of June. records. COt1t1ENTS: One of the earliest of all fall migrants, usually arriving at the same time as the Lesser Yellowlegs. 127

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128 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is of one at Sandy Pond on 26 August 1973. Several arrivals have been reported between 1 and 4 September. Often, however, the first migrants are not present until 12 to 18 September. Most frequently reported along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Numbers of birds vary greatly from year to year. The record high counts are 720 at Sandy Pond on 7 October 1976 and 708 as groups passing Derby Hill on 16 October 1970. Several Maxima of 150 to 250 have been reported. High counts, in some years, are only 50 to 100 per day. They are widely distributed as 8 to 20 per day during late September and October. The highest counts are from October. They are well distributed along Lake Ontario with smaller numbers on Oneida Lake and other inland bodies of water. Departure. Small flocks often remain into mid-November. The departure often occurs between 15 and 20 November, but several records exist to 26 November. WINTER-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 23 December 1971. 2. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 23 December 1972. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest sighting is of one in winter plumage in the Six Mile Creek floodlands near Pennelville, Town of Schroeppel on 10 April 1976. The next earliest arrivals occur during the last 5 days of April. A normal arrival period is difficult to determine but 5 to 12 May is probably when they may be expected. t1aximum. The highest counts are 1,500 at Sandy Pond on 21 May 1978 and 100 at Sandy Pond on 23 t1av 1964. Most other maxima range btween 30 and 75 birds per day. Numbers in recent years have been only 20 to 50 per day. Numbers usually average 5 to 18 per day in May. The highest counts often occur between 15 and 25 May and frequently occur at Sandy Pond. Departure. They usually depart between 31 May and 6 June. Very rare after the first week of June. The latest departure record is of 4 birds at the Nine Mile Point power plants on 11 June 1972. The last birds are usually sighted along Lake Ontario. SUMMER-(See SPRING records). COMMENTS: Dunlins occur in larger numbers than any other migrant shorebird except Semi-palmated Sandpipers. Flocks are regularly noted passing Derby Hill in the northwest gales of October and early November.

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Short-bi 11 ed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus) FALL-Arrival. A few have been reported between 1 and 4 July. usually present bet\'leen 8 and 12 July in small numbers. first records usually involve small groups of adults in plumage. They are These breeding Haximum. The highest counts are between 10 and 15 birds per day and are from the Oneida Lake islands and a variety of Lake Ontario areas. counts are 2 to 6 per day at irregular intervals during July and August with smaller numbers later in the season. Occasionally 8 to 12 per day are noted during August and are probably mostly immatures. Departure. Early departures occasionally occur during the third week of September. Small numbers occur into October and departure often occurs between 5 and 15 October. The record late is one near Texas, Town of Mexico on 24 October 1966. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early sighting is of 2 at Sandy Pond on 7 1961 11os t a rri va 1 s are noted between 16 and 23 May. The first sightings occur along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Numbers vary from year to year. The record high from a 11good11 year is 40 at Sandy Pond on 23 May 1976. Several other maxima of 15 to 30 have been recorded, but in many years only 1 to 4 per day are noted. Short-billed Dowitchers are mainly restricted to Lake Ontario shoreline areas at this season. The highest counts usually occur at Sandy Pond between 23 and 2 June. Departure. The departure usually occurs between 30 May and 3 June. The record late is one at the rline t1ile Point power plants impoundment on 15 June 1970. SUMI1ER(See SPRING and FALL records). Cm1MENTS: November records for Dowitchers should be well documented. 129

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130 Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scoZopaceus) FALL-Records include: 1. Two at Sandy Pond from 7 to 28 September 1958. 2. One at Sandy Pond from 30 August to 7 September 1959. 3. Two at the tJine Mile Point power plants impoundment on 26 September 1969. 4. Four at the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment on 5 September 1970. 5. One at Sandy Pond on 7 October 1970. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: This species should be looked for among the populations of other Dowitcher species. Stilt Sandpiper (MicropaZama himantopus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 4 to 8 per day from areas along Lake Ontario during late July and early August. Most counts average 1 to 4 birds per day. They are irregular migrants from late July to early September. There are very few records away from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Departure. Very few records exist after mid-September, but a few sightings are reported for the first half of October. The latest sighting is of 4 birds at Sandy Pond on 17 October 1959. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. {See FALL records). COMMENTS: Whether this species is as scarce a fall migrant as the data at hand seems to indicate is uncertain. I I I I I I I I I I

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Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) FALL-Arrival. The record early arri va 1 was one at the Nine t1i 1 e Point power plants complex on 2 July 1971. One other arrival is known for 5 July. This species is rare prior to 10 July. The first migrants are usually noted betvteen 11 and 17 July. Maximum. Often occurs as very large flocks with many counts of 250 to 500 birds per day on record. Counts average between 50 and 125 per day and are mainly from areas along Lake Ontario. There are two peaks, one in late July and early August, and one in late August and early September. Concentrations occasionally occur along Oneida Lake. Departure. In some years departure occurs of October. Often, however, small numbers November. Fe\'1 are seen after 8 November. along Lake Ontario on 16 November 1972. HINTER-No records. during the last week persist into early The record late is one SPRING-Arrival. The arrival consistently occurs between 16 and 20 May. Maximum. Several maxima of 100 to 175 per day are on record. Numbers vary considerably and in some years the maxima are only 15 to 50 per day. Usually the average count is 10 to 30 birds per day. The highest counts occur any time during the last two weeks of May and the first few weeks of June. They are most frequent at the Sandy Pond of Six t1ile Creek floodlands areas. Departure. Regular in large numbers from 28 May to 4 June. The last migrants may persist to mid-June in small numbers. The record late departure was 2 at the Nine Mile Point power plants complex on 20 June 1971. (See SPRING and FALL records). Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) FALL-Arrivals. The record early sightings are in the period from 17 to 19 August. Sometimes regular in small numbers during late August. Usually first noted as singles along Lake Ontario. 1 31 All sightings on record involve one to two birds. Never very common and 1 to 8 is the usual total for a season. Virtually non-existant in some years. All records are from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake, with the greatest frequency at Sandy Pond. Most common from 20 August to 15 September.

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132 Departure. have left by the end of Septenter. A few records are known for early October, with the record late sightings on 13 October in two different years. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 25 May 1957. 2. Five at Sandy Pond on 1 June 1957. 3. Eight at Sandy Pond on 7 June 1957. 4. Two at Sandy Pond on 16 June 1957. 5. One adult at Sandy Pond from 27 to 29 1961. 6. One at the Six Creek floodlands from 30 to 31 Hay 1969. 7. One at Sandy Pond on 21 1978. These records indicate that the spring of 1957 was an year for this species. records. Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficoZZisJ FALL-Records include: 1. Two at Sandy Pond from 5 to 6 September 1957. 2. One at Sandy Pond from 14 to 18 September 1959. 3. One at Sandy Pond on 27 August 1960. 4. One at Sandy Pond on 1 September 1968. 5. One at Sandy Pond on 30 August 1970. 6. One at Sandy Pond on 18 September 1971. 7. Two at Sandy Pond on 4 September 1971. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One at Sandy Pond from 28 to 30 May 1977 (P. A. DeBenedictis SUt'lMER-No records. COt1MENTS: This rare and beautiful migrant is unknown away from Sandy Pond inlet. All fall records involve immatures. f1a rb 1 ed Godwit (Limosa fedoa) FALL-Record: One at Sandy Pond from 30 August to 6 September 1958. \JINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. <;1JMt1ER-No records.

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133 Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica) FALL-Records include: 1. Five at Sandy Pond on 4 October 1959. 2. One at Sandy Pond from 2 to 9 October 1960. 3. Six at Sandy Pond on 14 September 1963. 4. Four to twelve per day at Sandy Pond from mid-September to 2 November 1964. 5. One at Sandy Pond on 15 October 1969. 6. One at Sandy Pond on 8 October 1972. 7. One at Sandv Pond on 6 October 1973. 8. One at Sandy Pond on 3 October 1974. 9. One at Sandy Pond on 26 November 1974. 10. Nine at Sandy Ponrl on 7 October 1976. WHilER :-No records. SPRING-No records. One fernal e in breeding pl urnage at Sandy Pond on 13 June 1972. Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One male at the Six Mile Creek floodlands on 11 May 1978. SlH1t1ER-tlo records. Sanrlerl ing (Calidris alba) FALL-Arrival. The earliest is of 4 at Oneida Lake on 12 July 1971. Very rare before 18 to 21 July. Occasionally they may appear as late as 24 July. They usually arrive along Lake Ontario often at Sandy Pond. The record high is 230 at Sandy Pond on 1 August 1976. Several other maxima of 100 to 150 vtere reported, primarily from the Sandy Pond area. The normal maxima ranges between 50 and 90 per day. r1ost daily counts are 10 to 30 per day along the eastern end of Lake Ontario \'lith 5 to 12 elseHhere. The largest numbers occur during the first tvJO weeks of August for adults and in September for i mmatures. f1os t common a l onq Lake Ontati o with substantially fewer inland except along Oneida Lake.

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134 WINTER-No records. 1 1 SPRING-Arrival. The record early sighting is at Sandy Pond on 17 May l971. The majority of arrivals occur during the last l 0 days of May. Sometimes as late as 29 to 30 May. Maximum. The highest counts recorded are 35 to 60 per day at I Sandy Pond from 27 to 29 May 1961. These are very high counts for spring. Most maxima are 2 to 10 per day. Most counts average to only 2 to 4 birds per day. Virtually restricted to the Sandy Pond area at this season. Departure. The departures usually occur during the last week I of May. A few often linger to 1 to 3 June. The record late is at Sandy Pond on 15 June 1972. SUMMER-(See SPRING and FALL records). COMMENTS: In this area this species is primarily present at the east end of Lake Ontario, particularly in the Sandy Pond area. They are most co!1111on on sandy beaches with fewer in the rocky areas. They probably occur on the small islands of Oneida Lake but data is limited because this area is not visited by observers very often. Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is an immature at Sandy Pond on 24 August 1971 (F. G. Scheider). It is almost two months prior to most other arrival dates. The next earliest is one at Derby Hill on 3 October 1965. The arrival is noted during mid-October in some years, but not until November in other years. The first birds occur along Lake Ontario, primarily at Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. Maximum. The record high counts are 13 at Derby Hill on 22 November 1969 and 11 at Sandy Pond on 14 November 1971. Most high counts are 3 to 6 per day. All counts average 1 to 2 per day. The greatest frequency of occurrence is from 20 October through mid-November. They are regular migrants in small numbers along Lake Ontario, Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. Departure. Present through 20 to 22 November. In many years the last birds are noted between 23 and 29 November. often at Sandy Pond or Fair Haven Beach State Park. This species may stay into December in some years.

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WINTER-Records include: 1. One at Oswego Harbor on 29 December 1957. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 5 December 1959. 3. Two on Oswego Christmas count on 21 December 1969. 4. One at the Nine fHle Point power plants on 19 December 1971. 5. One at Nine tHle Point, Town of Scriba on 23 December 1971 SPRING-No records. SUMt1ER-No records. COMt1ENTS: Fieldwork has revealed that this species is much cq_mmon than previously suspected. These birds are part of an overland migration route through LakeOntario to coastal areas. The best place to see this species is at Derby Hill when northwest gales are blowing. Wilson's Phalarope (Steganopus tricolor) FALL-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond from 26 to 27 August 1957. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 7 September 1958. 3. One at the Nine f1ile Point PO.\'/er plants impoundment from 26 to 29 September 1969. 4. Two at the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment on 2 August 1970. 5. One at the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment from 28 to 31 August 1970. 6. One female in breeding plumage at Sandy Pond on 30 June 1971. May be a very late spring migrant. 7. One at the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment on 28 August 1972. 8. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 3 September 1972. 9. One along Lake Ontario during the first half of September 1974. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One pair at Stevens Pond, Tm
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136 COMMENTS: This species is a very early migrant in the area. Its movements overlap with the Northern Phalarope. It has left this area by the time the first Red Phalaropes appear in October. It is also the rarest in this area. Almost half of the fall records are from the Nine Mile Point power plants impoundment which is at present being covered by the construc tion of a third nuclear power plant. There are no inland records but they should be looked for in suitable inland habitats as well. Northern Phalarope (Lubipes lobatus) FALL-Arrival. The first arrivals are from 12 to 18 August. In some years the first birds are not noted until 10 to 17 September or even later. Arrivals usually involve singles sighted primarily along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high count is 39 at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. Another very high count is 26 at Derby Hill on 22 October 1969. Both high counts occurred in large water bird flights. Several other maxima of 6 to 10 per day are on record primarily with a few scattered reports inland. They are most common from late August through September, but the large flights at Derby Hill occur in October. August and September sightings are primarily from Sandy Pond and Nine Mile Point areas. Departure. These birds are present through mid-October. records exist to 22 October. Very rare after this date. record high is one along Lake Ontario on 31 October 1972. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SUMMER-No records. A few The COMMENTS: The total lack of spring records for the two species of pelagic Phalaropes, Jaegers, and Kittiwakes emphasizes the use of this area as a fall overland route. From the data at hand it appears that the vast majority of birds that take this route are first year birds. These occurrences form an interesting migration pattern that was unknown prior to the late 1960s.

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Poma ri ne Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine because this species is irregular in the area. The record early sightings have occurred on 7 and 8 September in three different years and all from Sandy Pond. This species is the 1 atest migrant of the tvJo common species in this area. They can be expected during early October along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. All known sightings involve 1 to 3 birds per day at Derby Hill and 1 to 2 per day at Sandy Pond. They are primarily restricted to these tv1o areas. All sightings except two involve immatures. The adult records include: 1. One at Derby Hi 11 on 21 October 1969. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 9 October 1971. t1ost immatures are light phase individuals. Data indicates that 1 to 2 birds every two years is a normal number. Departure. Scarce after October and only a few records are from early November. The record late is a dark phase immature bird at Derby Hill on 22 November 1976. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. records. COMHEtiTS: September s i ghti ngs are mostly from Sandy Pond. October and November sightings are most often from Derby Hill. This species is being observed in greater numbers since the 1950's. Intensive observations at Derby Hill would probably lead to sightings every year. Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals occurred at Derby Hill on 22 August in two different years. Parasitic .Jaegers are to be expected during early September. They have been sighted several times between 5 and 8 September. In some years they are not seen until mid-October. Maximum. The highest recorded counts occurred during the excep tional flight year of 1973. The record highs are all from Derby Hill and are 184 on 5 October, 104 on 14 October, and 94 on 3 November. Maximas vary from year to year with 4 to 10 per day for the high counts in some years. In other years 15 to 25 birds per day have been noted, but less frequently. With the exception of 1973 total counts vary from 2 to 50 with the average about 5 to 15 birds per day. Since the 1960's the Parasitic Jaegers have been noted regularly at Derby Hill. They are most often sighted at 137

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138 Derby Hill, Sandy Pond, and along Lake Ontario, but are unknovm inland. The peak period is from 10 to 25 October. Dena rture. They are common into early november. records occur after the lOth and are virtually unknown after 17 to 20 tlovemher. The latest sighting is 4 at Derby Hill on 29 November 1972. The r.1ajority of Nover.1her sightings are singles. 'liNTER-flo records. SPRING-No records. records. COMMENTS: The fall high counts were from days when jaegers were passing constantly and at one time a single flock of 47 was sighted. It has been suggested that the majority of birds observed were flying past into extremely strong winds and drifting back out of sight only to pass over and be counted again. This circling doesn't appear to be a major problem in the counts although the year of 1973 is unprecedented. \Jhether these increased numbers in recent years represent a real increase locally is uncertain. Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius Zongicaudus) FALL-Records include: l. A dead immature found at Sandy Pond on 31 October 1971 (C. G. Spies). It vJas identified and sent to ,John Bull for confirmation. (Bull 1974) 2. A light phase adult seen at Derby Hi 11 on September 10 September 1977 (G. A. Smith and M. Freeban). See Smith (1977). records. SPRING-No records. SUm1ER-Ho In the northeast this species is extremely rare in contrast with the other jaegers.

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Glaucous Gull (Larus hypePboPeus) FALL-Arrivalo The record early arrival is an adult at Derby Hill on 29 October 1969. Most arrivals are from 10 to 15 November. In some years they may not appear until late November or December. The majority of arrivals involve first or second year birds and usually occur along Lake Ontario. 139 Maximum. The majority of sightings in fall occur as singles during the last two weeks of November. They are mainly restricted to Lake Ontario between Derby Hill and Sandy Pond with a few inland at Oneida Lake and the Oswego River. Departureo Difficult to determine. WINTER-Glaucous Gulls are most frequent at Oswego in the winter. Small numbers may occur along the Oswego River to Phoenix. Maxima at Oswego in most years is 4 to 10 per day. Occasionally higher counts of 12 to 15 per day occur. The record high is 20 at Oswego on 22 February 1969. At other locations numbers are smaller, with 2 to 5 birds per day at scattered sites along the Oswego River. Along Lake Ontario scattered sightings of 2 to 4 birds per day occur. The highest numbers often occur in the last week of January and the first three weeks of February. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to but the concentrations which develop auring late February may contain migrants. Maximum. Populations decline rapidly after the first 10 days of March and 2 to 4 per day are present at Oswego during 1 ate March. The record high count is 7 near the Nine Mile Point power plants on 5 May 1973. Most April records involve singles. Departure. Quite rare after mid-April with the exception of the previously mentioned 5 May 1973 concentration. The following are 1 ate May records : 1. One at Oswego on 28 May 1963. 2. One at Oswego on 18 May 1975. COMMENTS: The highest percentage of those present in winter are first or second year birds with few sub-adults or adults.

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140 Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides) FALL-Arrival. The record arrival is one at Derby llill on 4 November 1973. They often occur after early tlovember and they rrny stay into winter. t1aximum. /\11 fall sightings involve singles only, but are vJidely distributed and not restricted to Lake Ontario. They are most frequent during the lastvJeek of November. Departure. Difficult to determine. \liNTER-The Iceland Gull is most common at Oswego and along the Os\'/ego River. The highest counts from these areas range from 10 to 12 per day with the record high of 15 along the Oswego River from Phoenix to Oswego on 14 January 1968. In a low year maxima range from 4 to 8 birds per day. /\long Lake Ontario counts average 2 to 3 rer day. with only 1 to 2 per day in the unfrozen area of Oneida Lake near Brewerton. Field counts average 2 to 5 per day in most river and lake areas. The highest counts are from mid-December to late February, with the 1 as t two v1eeks of ,January often rroducing peak counts. SPRI:IG-1\rrival. Difficult to determine, but late February concentrations probably contain migrants. t1aximum. The high count is 2 at the Nine Mile Point power plant area on 5 1973. There are only a fev1 records of singles along Lake Ontario in /\pril, primarily at Oswego and Fair Haven Beach State Park. No inland sightings are knovm for spring. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly ilfter late Februar_" makinQ spring counts low. Only b1o records are for f1ay, the record high and 1 immature at Fair Haven Beach State on 18 t1ay 1969. records. Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) F/\LL-1\rrival. There are several early arrivals from 15 to 20 1\ugust. In some years the first may not occur until September, but they can probably be expected anytime after 15 August. The first sightings usually involve first year immatures along Lake Ontario. They occur most often at Sandy Pond inlet.

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142 Cm1t1ENTS: This bird increased from almost none 50 years ago to their present numbers. At present this increase is continuing but at a rate than that of 10 to 15 years il.90. It is most numerous along Lake Ontario but occurs in small numbers even in the Tug Hill plateau. In winter this species is highly predacious. There is no evidence of breeding in the area but isolated pairs could, someday, appear among the gull and tern colonies on the Oneida Lake islands. Small popula tions of summering immatqres occur each year as close as the western end of the St. Lawrence River. Lesser-Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) records. \liNTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 12 April 1973 (F. G. Scheider and P. A. DeBenedictis). 2. One adult present in a field near Derby Hill on 30 April 1978 (P. A. DeBenedictis). S' .. 't1r1ER-No records. Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) FALL-.1\rrival. Arrival is difficult to determine, but juveniles in first year plumage are often noted passing Derby Hill or other Lake Ontario locations by mid-July. This species arrives by age class th the majority of irrmatures from July to 1 ate Septernher and adults after this period. t1aximum. The highest counts along Lake Ontario are 3,000 to 4,000 with several maxima in the 2,000 to 3,000 ner day range. Counts of more than 1,500 per day have occurred as early as mid-October, but most often occur during the last three weeks of October. t1ost days afield after mid-October will produce 500 to 1,000 per day in concentration areas such as Oswego and between Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. The highest counts occur in along Lake Ontario. They are usually most abundant rluring or immediately after severe north vJest winds follovJing the passage of a cold front. It is nresent in small numbers at most inland areas. I I I

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Maximum. The record high is 300 at Sandy Pond on 16 November T969. The high counts in fall usually range between 50 and 75 per day with only a few 100+ counts known. Counts average 5 to 10 per day before November and 15 to 25 per day after. Numbers during September and October are relatively low. The maxima usually occurs during November from lake Ontario areas. Most numerous along lake Ontario at Sandy Pond with smaller numbers at Oneida lake and along the major rivers. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-The highest count is 550 at Oswego on 18 February lg62. Counts of 450 + are infrequent, but many maxima of 300 to 400 per day have been recorded. Most seasonal high counts are in the 150 to 300 range. Along the Oswego River daily counts of 80 to 150 per day are common with 20 to 40 per day in other areas. This species is well-distributed along Lake Ontario, the Oswego River, and any other open water areas. The higher counts are mostly from the Oswego River, primarily from the mouth and Oswego Harbor. Small numbers are often noted flying over inland sections. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but concentrations present after mid-February probably contain some migrants. Large concentrations are common in early to mid-March. Maximum. Counts during late March may range from 50 to 100 birds per day, but 20 to 50 per day average. Most counts after late March are less than 30 per day along the rivers and at Oneida Lake. The highest count after March is 80 at Sandy Pond on 16 April lg77. After mid-April counts range from 10 to 25 per day and are mostly immatures. Departure. Very few remain after 20 May but some usually persist into summer along Lake Ontario. They are very rare after mid-May in other areas. SUMMER-This species does not at present breed locally. Small numbers of immatures are present through June along Lake Ontario in most years. Three to five are present at Sandy Pond through the summer of lg78. After the end of June only a few records of one to two are known from 1 July to 10 August. These birds are most common at Fair Haven Beach State Park, Oswego and Sandy Pond during the summer. All records from early June on are restricted to Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Any sighting of adults after 20 May should be carefully investigated for possible breeding pairs. 141

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Departure. Difficult to determine, but it probably occurs sometime after early November. HINTERThe high count is 22,000 at Oswego on 20 January 1966. Huge concentrations are frequent at Oswego Harbor where several counts of 8,000 to 12,000 have been reported. Counts of 3,000 to 6,000 are common in winter. They are present as 1 ,000 to 3,000 per day along the Oswego River. During mid-winter 500 to 1,000 per day occur along Lake Ontario. The large concentrations may occur anytime from mid-December to mid-February but are most common during January. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine but adults are probably moving by late February. Northbound migrants are usually noted at Derby Hill by the first week of March. Maximum. Concentrations of more than 2,000 to 3,000 even at winter concentration areas are rare after 20 to 22 February. Except for the 8,000 at Oswego on 14 March 1959, counts of more than 1,500 are rare after early April. Occasionally 1,500 to 2,500 birds per day occur along Lake Ontario, primarily at Little Sodus Bay and Sandy Pond, as late as early May. Counts average 100 to 250 per day at inland concentrations at Brewerton. Most counts after late April are 20 to 50 per day along Lake Ontario. Departure. Difficult to determine because small numbers of non-breeders persist through the summer. The majority of adults have left by late April and early May with sub-adults persisting in many areas along Lake Ontario. SUMMER-Prior to the mid-1950's this species was unknown as a breeder in this area. It was first noted breeding on the islands in Oneida Lake off Constantia where two pair were discovered in 1955. The colony numbers have fluctuated since then but an average of 5 to 7 pair have been present on Long Island. These birds have shown no sign of expansion and generally nest in the midst of an expanding Ring-billed Gull colony. They seem to be producing 1 to 2 young per pair in recent years. Away from these islands the species does not breed locally. The adults noted in January and early July along the Lake Ontario shoreline undoubtedly originate from the colonies off Henderson Bay in northeastern Lake Ontario. COMMENTS: The Herring Gull is one of the most common large waterbirds. There is clear evidence that the local breeding population of Herring Gulls in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River is in severe trouble. Personnel of the Canadian Wildlife Service have documented the reproductive problems of these birds due to an excess of a variety of toxic chemicals in northern Lake Ontario. Problems were also observed on the St. Lawrence River during the 143

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! 44 summer of 1977 and 78, including thin egg shells, embr_\tonic mortality, high numbers of dead chicks, and very poor rerro ductive success. Careful study of all breeding waterbirds along Lake Ontario and the St. in relation to excess intake of toxic chemicals is urgently needed. T!1aye r s Gull (Larus thayeri) records. \Jlf!TER-1\ few sightings hilve been reported during January and February of several different years in this decade (F. G. Scheider and P. /\. DeBenedictis). /\11 sightings are of single individuals from along the River and Lake Ontario. SPRING-No records. records. C0Mt1ENTS: The status of the Thayer's Gull is uncertain and cause of great debate observers. Ring-billed Gull ( Larus de laNarensis) F/\LL-1\rrival. Early arrivals are difficult to determine due to presence of summering birds. First year birds, rom huge colony at Little Galloo Island Henderson 13ay, flev1 York, appear in late July. These birds are probablv the first arriving wanderers. Adults and birds from other areas arrive throughout the season. f1aximum. This species has exploded throughout the Gren.t Lakes in the last 30 to 40 years. The record high is 14,000 at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. maxima are in the 3,000 to 5,000 per day range from areas along Lake Ontario. During the peak of r.1igration counts of 750 to 1,500 or more per day are common in many areas. The highest nur:1bers often occur bet1-1een 15 October and 10 ilovember. Departure. Difficult to determine as large numbers are usually present v.Jell into f"Jecember and sometimes 1 ater. The majority of first year immatures and some sub-adults depart prior to late :jovember.

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WINTER-The numbers present during mid-winter varies substantially from year to year. Large concentrations usually develop in December at Oswego and in some years persist through winter. The highest recorded winter counts are both from Oswego, 7,000 on 6 January 1974 and 8,900 on the 1967 Oswego Christmas count. In many winters, however, numbers decline rapidly after late December to mid-January. This species is often very scarce from mid-January to spring. SPRING-Arrival. There is usually a noticeable increase during the third week of February. Counts will often go from none to hundreds in a few days. Usually by late February and early March concentrations at Oswego and Little Sodus Bay have reached the thousands. This early movement is almost ex clusively adults. Maximum. The highest spring maxima are several counts of 15,000 birds per day from Little Sodus Bay and Oswego during late March and early April of various years. Counts of 3,000 to 10,000 per day are regular at these locations during the last 3 weeks of March. Numbers generally decline after mid-April, but counts of several thousand are common into June. They are least frequent in the Tug Hill plateau. Difficult to determine due to the presence of large nu ers of non-breeding sub-adults and many feeding adults from the Little Galloo colony. SUMMER-As a breeder in Oswego County they are restricted to the islands on Oneida Lake. This species first established as a breeder on Grassy Island on Oneida Lake in 1954, but none nest there today. From this beginning the colonies reached 34 nests in 1957 and in 1978 about 120 nests were present. It appears that this species is raising 75 to 200 young per season during the 1970's. This species does not breed anywhere else within the area. The Little Galloo colony, however, is only 20 miles away from Sandy Pond and this mass of 55,000 to 77,000 pairs undoubtedly provide most of the Ring-billed Gulls seen in central New York and along Lake Ontario. The highest summer count is 6,000 at Sandy Pond on 7 June 1957. In June 1,500 to 3,000 per day are often noted along Lake Ontario with 500 to 750 the average for early July. Away from Lake Ontario numbers are smaller but a few may be noted at inland areas through the summer. Flocks are frequently feeding in fields in areas near Lake Ontario. 145

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146 I I I COt1MENTS: The population explosion of Ring-billed Gulls throughout 1 the Great Lakes region is well documented. These numbers have increased incredibly during the 1 as t 30 to 40 years and iFwe reached tl1e point of becoming a serious nroblem in certain areas. There is little doubt that they have had a deleterious effect upon I Common Tern populations through direct competition for nesting space. There is evidence that the population increase is con-tinuing vJith established colonies reaching the saturation point I and new colonies being established. In Lake Ontario the status of this species is closely tied to Little Galloo Island where 99% of the pairs nesting in upstate t!ev-1 York breed. Such a concentrated colony is potentially vul nerab 1 e to human disturbance I and steps should be taken to assure the protection of this important colonial 1'/aterbird nesting island. 1\t present this species does not exhibit evidence of the reproductive difficulties I which have beset the Herring Gull. It is nrobahly due in part to the tendency of Ring-bills to feerl more in fields thus becoming a part of the terrestrial rather than the contaminated aquatic I food chains. Black-headed Gull ( Larus ridibundus) FALL-Records include: 1. One adult in winter plumage along Lake Ontario on 7 Septer.1ber 1972. 2. One adult in \'linter p 1 umage along Lake Ontario on 6 October 1972. 3. One adult in winter plumage along Lake Ontario on 2 November 1972. 4. One at Sandy Pond from 15 Septer.1ber to 28 October 1973. s. One at Oswego from 15 to 17 November 1973. \liNTER-no records. SPRING-No records. SUf1t1ER-Record: One adult at Sandy Pond from 22 July to 5 August 1967. The Fall records could involve as feH as one or tHo individuals for the two seasons. I I I

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Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla) FALL-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond from 10 to 17 October 1954. 2. Two along Oneida Lake on 10 October 1954. 3. Eight between Selkirk Shores State Park and Oswego along Lake Ontario on 17 October 1954. 4. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 18 October 1954. 5. One in delayed second year or advanced thir year plumage along Lake Ontario on 10 October 1971. records. SPRING-No records. Two including a breeding plumaged adult at Oswego Harbor on 25 June 1972 (G. A. Smith, E. Freeborn). Records 1 through 4 for Fall are all a result of Hurricane Hazel. The summer record is probably the result of Hurricane Agnes. Two of the few strong Hurricanes ever to penetrate so far inland. Frankl in s Gull ( Larus pipixcan) FALL-Records include: 147 1. Two adults at Sandy Pond on 27 September 1969, one remaining through 28 September. 2. One in second year plumage at Sandy Pond from 13 to 16 August 1970. 3. One in second year plumage (different from #2) at Sandy Pond on 7 October 1970. 4. One immature along Lake Ontario on 28 October 1972. 5. One immature at Sandy Pond on 23 September 1973. 6. One immature at Sandy Pond on 29 September 1974. 7. Two at Sandy Pond on 2J September 1976. 8. Two at Sandy Pond on 2 October 1976. 9. One illTilature at Derby Hill on 15 October 1976. One in second year plumage at Oswego on 3 January 1960. SRRING-Records include: 1. One adult at Oswego from 15 March into April 1958. 2. One adult at Sandy Pond on 27 r1ay 1971. 3. One adult in breeding plumage in the Six Mile Creek floodlands on 13 t1ay 1978. ----

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148 SUt1t1ER-Records include: l. One adult in breeding plumage at the tline e Point power plants impoundment on 8 June 1969. 2. Tvto to three adults in breeding plumage at from 30 June to l July 1973. Cm1t1ENTS: This soecies has increased greatly since 1960. Apparently this is not due to an increase in the numher of observers. ( Larus phi 1ade 1 phi a) FALL-Arrival. The arrival is difficult to deten1ine due to the presence of summering birds. Small numbers !lave been noted passing Oerby Hill during the last ten days of July in several years. These are probably the earliest records. They usually arrive fr:m the first 10 days of ,July to the first v1eek of August. t1ost common alon!] Lake Ontado at Sandy !bnd inlet. Tlwsn. early arrivals arP usually in full breeding plumage. t1aximum. The record high is 735 at Derby Hill on 19 October 1968. /\lmost all of the high counts fall in the 50 to 100 per day but in some years high counts are only 20 to 35 per day. t1ost daily counts average 15 to 30 birds per day along Lake Ontario. Occurs in concentrations both along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake v1ith the ln.rgest numbers frequently from Sandy Pond. They o.re most numerous from late August to early October. Scarce from Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Oeoarture. Flocks n.re common during October in most yeo.rs. llsuil.lly numbers decline during the first 10 dil.ys of ilovernber, but in some years they may be present to n.ecember. The usual departure period seems to be from 26 november to 7 December in most yeil.rs. Sor:'le may be present during winter. \IIflTER-Small numbers frequently rersist through early and singles have been recorded occasionally to mi d-Decernt:P.r. Very rare after 15-16 December in most years. An exception to this is the 72 at Osvwgo Harbor on the 1969 Osvtego Christmas count. These numbers are extremely high with after mid-December usually involving singles. After the third week of December the records include: l. One adult at Osv1ego on 12 February 1956. 2. One adult at OsvJego on 16 January 1972. The vast majority of records after late November are from the moJth of the 0Si'/P.go River and Harbor. SPRHIG-1\rrival. No records before the middle of The earliest sighting is at Oneida Lake on l7 March 1963. All other records are after 23 March with many sightings during late March. Consistently arrives betv1een 23 and 28 with the first sighting along Lake Ontario o.nd occasionally Oneida Lake. Sometimes they are not noted until the first week of Anril. naximum. Spring maxima are usually in the 15 to 40 ner day range.

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149 Daily counts, in most years, average 10 to 15 per day during the last half of April and through most of May. In some years very few are reported. The higher counts usually occur during the 1 ast two weeks of and sometimes during April. They are most abundant along Lake Ontario especially at Sandy Pond. Small groups are present along Oneida Lake and at some inland swamps and fl oodl ands. Departure. The 1 ast migrants are often seen between 30 t1ay and 4 June at Sandy Pond. Records bet\'1een 10 ,June and 20 ,July are rare and birds present after the first week of June are probably attempting to summer. some years substantial numbers of summering birds have been seen along Lake Ontario. They have been recorded through late June and July usually as singles. Occasionally larger numbers are present and records include: l. Many summered along Lake Ontario, with a maximnm of 20 at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 16 July 1972. 2. Five to nine per day from 30 June to 18 July 1971. The majority of birds are immatures but occasionally breeding plumage adults are present. Very irregular in mid-summer and most sightings are of singles. The relative scarcity of this species as a migrant along eastern Lake Ontario in comparison with the large numbers which pass through western parts of this lake is very interesting. Rarely do we record totals approaching those which are regular in Rochester, New York area and never do our counts approach the high numbers recorded along the Niagara River near Buffalo, N.Y. Even extremes in weather conditions fail to produce large numbers in this area. Little Gull (Larus rrrinutus) FALL-Records prior to 1976 include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 1 September 1958. 2. One to two adults at Sandy Pond from 7 September to 5 October 1967. 3. One adult at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. 4. One adult in winter plumage at Sandy Pond on 28 August 1969. 5. One adult and one sub-adult at Derby Hi 11 on 7 November 1970, with the adult present to 8 November 1970.

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150 6. Two present intermittently at Sandy Pond fran 30 /\ugust to 30 September 1973. 7. One adult at Derby Hill on 10 November 1973. 8. One adult at Derby Hill on 16 October 1975. 9. One adult at Derby Hill on 22 November 1975. 1 0. One adult at Derby Hill on 1 December 1975. Since these records several more have been noted during the falls of 77 and 78. HINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One adult in breeding plumage at Oswego Harbor on 18 May 19 (P. A. DeBenedictis, F. G. Scheider). SUMMER-No records. This species has increased dramatically as a migrant since the late l9601s. It can now be expected as an irregular migrant in small numbers along Lake Ontario. 8lack-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) FI\LL-Arrival. The record early arrival is one at Derby Hill on 9 October 1976. Usually very rare in October and often not noted until early November. This species was virtually unknown in this area prior to the early 196os. During this decade it has been noted almost every year and in recent years unprecedented numbers and flights involving as many as 10 to 15 per season have occurred. The high count for a season is 10 to 18 in 1976. The high counts are of 3 to 5 per day and occurred during large waterbird flights at Derby Hill. All fall records are of immatures and this species is totally restricted to Lake Ontario especially at Derby Hill and Sandy Pond. They are most common during the last three weeks of November and early December. Departure. Fe\'/ Deceni:Jer records e;dst but they are probably regular in early December along Lake Ontario. WINTER-A few records of singles exist, but most of these are carcasses found in the vicinity of Oswego. The scarcity of these records and lack of data make it difficult to determine the species status in December. It is likely that small numbers occur to early December and they are very rare after this time.

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SPRING-No records. SUMMER-No records. It is likely that some of the apparent increase in local sightings is due to increased coverage of lakeshore lookouts, primarily Derby Hill, in November. Forsters Tern (Sterna forsteri) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrival is at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1958, with two other early crrivals between 5 and 10 August. Usually not present until the 1 ast week of August. However, they may occur as late as 10 September. The first birds are singles almost always from Sandy Pond. The vast majority of sightings are singles, but occasionally small groups of 2 to 4 have been noted at Sandy Pond. Higher counts are very rare, with 14 at Sandy Pond on 27 September 1958 the record high. All non-singles have occurred at Sandy Pond. They are often most frequent from 25 August to 20 September, with fewer present in 1 ate Septembf r. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One adult at Sandy Pond on 22 19E9. 2. One adult at Pond on 18 May 1971 include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 26 July 1959. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 8 July 1978. These records may represent very early migrants. Cm1MENTS: This species is virtually restricted to the Sandy Pond area with a few records from Fair Haven Beach State Park and Derby Hill and none inland. l 51

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152 Common Tern (Sterna lzirundo J FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but birds passing Derby Hill ifuring very late ,July and early /\ugust may be migrants. r1aximum. The record high is 700 along Lake Ontario from Derby Hill to Oswego on 3 October 1965. A number of other maxima of 300 to 500 per day along Lake Ontario, but most of these counts are frorn 1966 or earlier. Since then most counts l1ave been 60 to 100 per day. There is some evidence that they are decreasing as fall migrants through the area since at least the mid-1960's. The largest numbers occur along Lake Ontario, with smaller numbers on Oneida Lake except in the vicinity of the breeding islands. They occur in small numbers along the rivers and occasionally elsewhere. Away from the breeding colonies the numbers increase in early August and the peak counts may occur anytime from late August to early October. Present along Lake Ontario during this period with counts of 15 to 30 per day in recent years. They rare 1 y occur in large numbers at Derby fl i 11 and with the exception of the record high. Oeoarture. In many years the last departures are noted between 13 and 20 October. A few are present during late October and early November in some years and these often depart bet\'teen 8 and 12 November. Very rare after this time with a fevt lingering singles until 10 to 21 November. The majority of November records are from Lake Ontario, frequently at Sandy Pond, and occasionally at Oneida Lake, and frequently involve inmatures. I HINTER-No records. SPRHJG-Arrival. The record early arrival is on Oneida Lake on 2 /\pril J 1961 almost three weeks before most dates. They are first between 20 April and 4 May. The first sightings usually occur along Lake 1 Ontario and Oneida Lake involving singles or small groups. t1aximum. The highest counts are 500 at Oswego on 16 May 1970 and 1 400 at Oswego on 13 May 1971. In addition several other maxima of 200 to 350 have occurred primarily at Sandy Pond and on the Oswego Harbor breakwalls. The maxima vary greatly and are often between 75 and 175 per day along Lake Ontario \'lith fewer at other I locations. Present in small groups in early May with the peak concentration usually occurring between 13 and 23 f1ay. Widely distributed along the rivers and large lakes, with a few individuals 1 or small groups at floodlands, marshes, and ponds. Departure. Difficult to determine. I I I

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species is restricted as a breeder to the small islands in Oneida Lake and Carl Is land in North Pond -Sandy Pond. On Carl Island 15 to 20 pair normally attempt to breed. From the data available, the breeding success of this colony appears very poor and the islands may be marginal habitat for this species at best. The colonies on Oneida Lake are present on Grass Island and Long Island and at one time they nested on Hantry Island. These colonies are arparently quite stable in overall populations, with 150 to 200 pair being noted at various times in the last half century. These colonies appear quite healthy at present although the increasing numbers of Ring-billed Gulls breeding on Oneida Lake could be a potential threat to the terns in the future. Away from these breeding colonies small groups of non-breeding terns and some adults are noted along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake, with most counts in the 15 to 20 per day range. The largest concentrations develop at Oswego where numbers can be seen on the breakwalls on the east side of the Harbor. COMMENTS: There is strong evidence that they are declining as a migrant through our area and the loss of most of the Sandy Pond breeding population \'/as a disaster. At one time this species nested on the spits of Sandy Pond, but was driven from these sites by disturbance in the mid-1950's. They nested in the marshes of Sandy Pond to the late 1960's but were apparently eliminated by water level conditions. These colonies have numbered several hundred nests. They are also suffering from intense competition for nesting sites caused by the Ring-billed Gull populations. It is also likely, though not proven, that they may be being affected by toxic chemical contaminents in their aquatic food chain. The Oneida Lake colonies are the largest and healthiest Common Tern colonies perhaps in all of Upstate New York. The islands upon which the terns breed are owned by New York State so there is no threat of their being occupied by humans. The status of this species should be closely monitored to prevent disruption of its habitat in the future. Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata) 153 All Seasons There is one ancient record of one being collected in 1878 along Lake Ontario at Oswego (Stoner 1941). Cas pi an Tern (Sterna caspia) FALL-Ar-ri va 1. Due to the occasion a 1 presence of birds during June and July along Lake Ontario the arrival is difficult to determine. In some years 1 to 4 per day are present at Sandy Pond and at other places along Lake Ontario between 20 and 27 July. These birds often occur

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154 in family groups. Substantial numbers are often present at Sandv Pond by the 1 as t fev1 days of July and the first week of August and occasionally at Oneida Lake. t1aximum. The record high is 98 at Sandy Pond on 27 August 1970, with a few counts of 55 to 70 per day. Most maxima range between 40 and 50 oer day in good years and 20 to 30 per day in low years. t1ost counts along Lake Ontario are between 15 and 25 birds per day and away from Lake Ontario counts are only 2 to 4 birds per day. A few are usually reported from Oneida Lake and the Salmon River Reservoir. The highest counts invariably occur along the east end of Lake Ontario from Derby Hill to Sandy Pond inlet. The peak of migration occurs between 23 Jl.ugust and 7 September with the highest counts during the last week of August. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after early September, but 5 to 10 per day may be noted to the first \'leek of October. In some years the last are noted between 4 and 10 October. The majority of birds present after early October are reported as 1 to 2 birds per day along Lake Ontario. t1ost of the late departures have been noted between 19 and 24 October, with the latest sightings on 26 and 27 October. \liNTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early occurred at Grewerton on 12 April 1959. Quite consistent and the first sighting is usually noted between 18 and 25 April, usually along Lake Ontario. The highest coLmt is 12 at Sandy Pond on 30 t1ay 1954. Almost all spring counts range between 2 and 6 per day primarily from Lake Ontario and occasbnally Oneida Lake. They are frequent in small numbers from late April through late r1ay and are usually sighted at Derby Hill or Sandy Pond. This may be due to observer presence in these areas. Departure. Small numbers are common through the last few days of t1ay along Lake Ontario. The usual departure period probably occurs betvteen 30 May and 3 June. SUMMER-The only nearby colony of this species is located at Pigeon Island, Ontario. Occasionally one to b1o birds are noted at Sandy Pond or at other ploces along Lake Ontario between 3 ,June and the fall arrival period. In mid-summer they are very scarce all over the area. J I I ;

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COMHENTS: The status of this species in the area is probably very closely tied to the one Lake Ontario colony at Pigeon Island, Ontario. A large portion of the late summer concentrations at Sandy Pond is probably derived from this colony and augmented with migrants from further west. The breeding population is potentially vulnerable and should be closely monitored. Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but some may be moving by the 1 as t few days of July and early August. Maximum. Relatively little data is on hand, but counts of 20 to 30 per day were probably not unusual prior to the mid-19601s. Since then, the higher counts are 10 to 15 birds per day and since 1973 the count of 10 per day is extremely high. The vast majority of sightings involve only 2 to 6 per day. Very few are sighted away from Lake Ontario. Departure. The departure can occur as early as the first week of September, but most often the last are noted between 16 and 23 September, usually along Lake Ontario. The record late bird is one at Derby Hill on 19 October 1967. This was almost a full month late. records. SPRING-Arrival. There are several early arrivals in the period from 23 to 25 April. April recordc:; are few and in most years they arrive during the first week of May. Maximum. Prior to the mid-19601s the highest counts were 20 to 35 per day during May. The highest counts since 1965 range between 10 and 15 per day. This species has decreased as a spring migrant through our area. In recent years most counts involve 4 to 10 per day during at scattered loca tions along Lake Ontario and large interior wetlands. The greatest numbers probably occur during the last two weeks of May. Departure. Difficult to determine. SUMMER-The present breeding colonies are restricted to the marshes at the eastern end of Lake Ontario including Ramona Beach, Deer Creek Salmon River mouth, and Sandy Pond. These colonies have ranged in size from 1 to 14 pair. Most counts at summer colonies are only 4 to 10 per day with 1 to 2 per day at other locations. from the Lake Ontario shoreline this species is extremely scarce in summer. 155 J

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156 COMMENTS: This species was a verv common breeder in this area prior to the mid-1960's. One colony of 100 to 150 oair existec through the mid-1960's at Health Camp Marsh (John Weeks), Town of Oswego, and it was totally destroyed by water level changes induced by the owner. Since the mid-1960's this species grown progressively scarce as a breeder until 1975 when only a few scattered colonies remain. There is little doubt that if the present decline of the species locally continues it could soon disappear as a breeder from the area. Thick-hilled Murre (Uria Zomvia) All Seasons One ancient record exists of a specimen found hy L. 0. Ashburv on 1 December 1902 in the Fair Haven area (Eaton 1909): Dovekie (AZZe aZZe) All Seasons One record of an individual in winter plumage which was shot on Oneida Lake on 11 November 1959. Rock Dove (Columba Zivia) All Seasons -Mainly resident. This ubiquitous species occurs throughout the year in suitable habitat in all parts of the area. They are very common with counts of 100 to 200 per day in the vicinity of large barns, farmyards, and at urban sites. They nest at all times of year, frequently raising young on the bridges over the Oswego River in January and February. Large populations may develop at favored locations such as urban centers, large buildings, and the grain elevator at Oswego. Although this species is considered resident, some individuals are regularly noted passing Derby Hill in spring and these probably represent migrants. COMMENTS: Although this species is an introduced pest, caution should be used in control measures because of the potential impact on non-target species. For example, the large population in the Oswego Harbor area is often reduced by poisoning. There is a potential here for the unintentional destruction of raptors and other larger birds feeding' on these pigeons. Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) FALL-Arrival. Not determined.

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Maximum. The highest counts are in the 80 to 100 per day range, with average counts usually around 30 to 50 per day. Most daily counts for fall are 6 and 20 per day. The largest concentrations are often noted in the vicinity of farm yards and in grain fields. Large concentrations may occur at anytime during the fall in almost any area. This species probably less common on the Tug Hill plateau. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers fall steadily after early November. Small groups may persist through November except in years of considerable sno\'/fall and cold temperatures. WINTER-The winter distribution of this species appears largely controlled by the sevErity of the season and the amount of snowfa 11. During early December very fev1 are present in northern sections except for occasional singles or small groups in wind blown fields near Lake Ontario. A few are often present along the rivers in southern sections at this time. In mid-December they are very scarce. Numbers present in \'linter vary considerably, but in most winters they are scarce and most sightings at this season are of at infrequent intervals. Most likely to occur at feeders in yards containing conifers and in fann yards near corn bins. SPRING-Arrival. Arrival varies depending on the season, but may occur anytime between 10 and 25 March and sometimes earlier. The first migrants are usually noted passing Derby Hill during the first major early movements of mid-March. Record early have been observed passing as early as 6-7 March, but migrants are usually infrequent prior to mid-March. The largest counts are 40 to 60 per day passing Derby Hill. Many counts of 25 to 45 per day have been recorded at Derby Hill with 10 to 20 per day elsewhere. The peak of migration occurs between 20 March and 15 April in most years. Deaarture. Difficult to determine, but a rapid reduction in numbers an frequency of groups passing Derby Hill occurs between 15 and 25 April with a few remaining to early Birds present after 5 to 10 May are probably attempting to breed in the area. SUMMER-A well distributed breeder in a variety of habitats except deep woods. Young are regularly present in B.te t1ay in many sections. Most counts average 5 to 12 per day. 157

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158 Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) All Seasons -Extinct. All the old records of this once numerous species exist from the period when it was declining during the late 1800's, although it was undoutedly once as abundant here as in other 1reas in eastern North America. The last local occurrence was a flock of 7 seen at Sandy Creek, in the Fall of 1898 by Dr. 11. L. Crockett (Eaton 1909). t1on k Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) FALL-No records. records. SPf\HIG-Record: One at Derby Hill on 29 April 1972 (F. G. Scheider). SlJI1r1ER-No records. COt1t1HlTS: In light of the of winters in this area it is unlikely ever to established here. Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. r1aximum. Very little data is available, but this species is generally very scarce and secretive in fall with almost all sightings involving singles or occasionally two birds. f1ost often noted during late August and early September along Lake Ontario. Departure. f)ifficult to determine, but very few records after 8 to 12 September. The record late is extraordinary with one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 October 1954. \JINTER-tlo records. SPRING-Arrival. A number of arrivals have occurred before 8 to 12 t1ay. Limited data are available but this period probably represents the usual arrival period.

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11aximum. The vast majority of data indicates that most sightings involve 1 to 2 per day, although 3 to 5 per day are present in some years. They are usually most frequent during the last two weeks of 1ay. Departure. Not determined. SUtMER-A very irregular breeder but some are present over parts of the area. Numbers vary greatly from year to year. In many years the species is very scarce \vith 1 to 2 per day at irregular intervals as the average. They are most frequent in years of high tent caterpillar density. COMMENTS: This species appears less common than the Black-billed Cuckoo in this area but the status of both cuckoos is poorly documented. these shy and secretive species are as scarce as they appear or v1hether intensive study would prove them more common than presently recorded is not certain. It appears from the limited data available that both cuckoos may be declining locally but hard evidence is lacking. Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthaZmus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Fall sightings are very infrequent and most often involve one or two individuals. They are most ftequently noted prior to 10 September. No October sightings for our area have been reported. Departure. Difficult to determine. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. No records prior to 7 to 10 May and other data is limited. In some years they may be sighted into mid-May. Maximum. Most sightings involve one to birds and occasionally 3 to 5 have been reported during Lake Ontario flights. Variable in numbers with few in some springs and larger numbers $ighted in other years. No peak of passage is readily apparent and they are present in small numbers from 10 t1ay on. 159

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160 Oeparture. Not determined, but some may still be moving through in early ,June. SlJf1f1ER-Present in sma1l numbers in most years in most of the area. Usually 2 to 4 per day are reported in suitable habitat. Larger populations may be present in years of high tent caterpillar densities and in these years 5 to 7 may be noted. The detailed study of the distribution and population status of both species as breeders in our area is needed. 8arn Ov1l (Tyto alba) FALL-Record: Four near Brewerton on 5 October 1960. The exact location of this sighting is uncertain, possibly northern Onondaga County. WIMTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SIH1f1ER-Record: T\'JO adults and five young near Creek on 1 August 1962. This lone hreerling record indicates that they do breed in the area on rare occasions. Screech Owl (Otus asio) All Seasons Resident. This species is essentially a resident although small numbers of wanderers from other areas pass through undetected. Some juveniles disperse to other areas during fall and winter. This makes the status of this species confusing. It exists in a variety of wooded habitats throughout the area. t1ost sightings are 1 to 2 per day except 1<1hen nests or family groups are encoootered. numbers of this species increase after the breeding season. They are frequently sighted during winter and the early spring courtship period when their frequent vocalizations make sightings easier. They are least common from late to mid-October. The Great Horned Owl has often been considered an important control of Screech 0\!Jl populations. Considering this, and many other factors, some veteran local observers feel that this

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species is on the decline in this area. Documentation on all owl species is lacking and efforts should be made to adequately determine the status of this and other owl species. 161 Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) All Seasons Resident Snowy Owl This species is essentially a resident, although small numbers of wanderers from other areas may pass through undetected and dispersal of juveniles occurs during fall and winter. It is the most common owl in the area. It is \'/ell-distributed in most suitable woodlands in all sectors. t1ost counts average 1 to 3 per day. Intensive nocturna 1 searches such as those during the Christmas counts often yield 5 to 10 birds per day in some sectors. The peak nurrbers are noted from 1 ate November through mid-March. These are due to the frequent vocalizations during courtship and early nesting activities when territories are being defended. Latein summer family groups containing 1 to 2 young are sometimes noted. This species and the Red-tailed Hawk are the only large birds of prey that breed locally. Again, a comprehensive study of this species is needed. (Nyctea scandiaca) Fall-Arrival. This is a cyclic species and as a result its arrival varies considerably. None may be noted during fall in some years. The record early arrivals are from Sandy Pond on 31 October in their different years. They are very rare prior to 6 to 10 November even in 11good11 years. In years when few are sighted most records involve singles arriving after mid-November. The first arrivals are most often from Lake Ontario t1aximum. The vast majority of fall sightings are of singles and are usually from along Lake Ontario. Only in heavy flight years do numbers reach 2 to 3 per day extensive areas are covered 3 to 6 per day may be observed. Very rarely do concentrations of more than 2 birds develop at ene location, but the following are exceptions: 1. Four at Sandy Pond on 15 November 1964. 2. Five on the State University of Ne-t York, Oswego campus on 10 November 1974. Departure. Not determined.

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162 vJINTER-Numbers vary from none in 110ff11 years to as many as 5 fror.1 different locations, in other years. Most sightings are of singles, but occasionally concentrations of 2 to 3 birds occur with a few of 4 to 5 birds. These concentrations generally occur during early to mid-December and may involve late migrants. From late December on concentrations of more than 2 birds are rare. The greatest number of sightings seem to be along Lake Ontario. They are often sighted on the break walls of Oswego Harbor where they appear to feed on waterfo\'Jl. /\9ri cul tura 1 1 and south and east of Os\'lego is also favored by Snowy Numbers aprear to be relatively stable during mid-vdnter and decline after mid-February. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine but an increase in numbers occur in late February would probably involve returning migrants. Spring numbers are generally less than fall counts with one sighting per day the average. Counts have not exceeded 2 per day. Most sightings occur before 20 March. Usually near Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Departure. Fe\'/ are noted after mid-r1nrch. The main departure probably is during the last ten days of March. /\pril birds are rare witiJ only one record after 15 /\nril at Sandy Pond on 7 1965. records. COm1ENTS: The sightings of tht cyclic visitor from the arctic have been well documented in Kingbird. This is due in part, to its diurnal habits and easy visibility. This cyclic species occurs in higher numbers in this area every fout or five years. Barred Owl (Strix varia) /\11 Seasons Resident. The exact status of this species is uncertain. There is evidence that small numbers of Barred Owls come into the area in late fall or viinter of some years. They appear in pine plantations where none were previously noted. During the non-breeding season singles have been noted from throughout most of the area on an irregular basis. Rirds are often noted along Lake Ontario and in the To\tln of f1exico in the Tug Hill plateau and at other locations. tJhether these

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sightings represent wandering birds or residents is often uncertain due to lack of follow-up investigation. The breeding status, nesting success, etc. are poorly documented. Such limited data makes it difficult to determine trends, but it has been suggested that this species has increased in frequency in recent years. This may be due also to an increase in observers. 163 The vast majority of sightings involve singles, but occasionally as many as 2 to 3 at a single location have been noted. This srecies has been recorded at the follo\'ling sites, among others, since the mid-1960's: Fair Haven State Park, Lycoming, Peter Scott Swamp, Selkirk Shores State Park, Nine Mile Point, Constantia area, Pleasant Lake area in the Town of Schroeppel, Pulaski area, several sites in the Tug Hill plateau, and Butterfly Swamp area. Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) FALL-No records. WINTER-Records include: 1. Two in the Pulaski area, Town of Richland, during January 1960 (r1. Bitz). 2. One at Sandy Creek during February 1962 (r1. Crouse). 3. Two well photographed birds in the Town of Oswego near Snake Swamp from 17 February to at least 15 April 1979. rioted in the Lakeshore Road Lake road area. SPRING-No records. SUMMER-No records. During the winter of 1979 several Great Gray Owls were sighted all over New York State. This incursion may be due, in part, to a decline in mammal populations in the north and to the extremely cold weather conditions present during that winter. I

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r 164 Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) FALL-Record: One at Noyes Sanctuary at tline Point, Town of Ne\'J Haven on 14 November 1976. records include: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 16 November 1966. 2. One dead along a rov1erline south of Nine Point power plant complex during mid-February 1976. 3. One found dead in the vicinity of Texas, Town of in mid-January 1977. 4. One found dead near Sterling in February 1978. SPRING-Recent records incluce: 1. One at Derby Hill on 4 March 1966. 2. One at Noyes Sanctuary, Nine Poi.nt, Town of New Haven on 30 April 1972. 3. One along Lake Ontario shoreline during ;ay 1972. 4. Tvw dead under power lines near nine point power plants during mid-April 1976. SUt1r'1ER-No records. CGr1t1ENTS: The records included here are the recent records for the area. It is likely that more records of the srecies have occurred and that it is not as rare as it appears, but only a very secretive nocturnal bird that is rarely reported in the area. fuch more information is needed on this species as \vell as on other nocturnal owls for a clear picture of their present status. Short-eared Owl ( Asio flammeus) FALL-Arrival. Very few records exist prior to early October and birds present in August and Sertember could be 1 oca 1 breeders that weren't reported. t1axirr;um. Prior to 1960 a fev1 records of 2 to 4 per day existed with most rerorted as singles. They are much rarer during the last 20 years and all records involve singles. Only one or less per fall have been reported in recent years. They are most often sighted in October. J J J J J J I J I I I I I I I I I I

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Departure. Very little data is available but a few November records exist with the latest at Oswego on 26 November 1971. WINTER-Very rare in winter locally and only a couple of records exist for the first 3 weeks of December, with none after this. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest record is one at Brewerton from 28 February to 18 1968. This bird may have wintered locally. The next earliest arrivals are between 23 and 26 but they are often not noted until April if at all. Maximum. All sightings involve singles, primarily from areas along lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. One has been noted at Derby Hill during mid-April in four of the last six years. Not enough data is available to determinE a peak migration period. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-No records. Cm1t1ENTS: It appears that they have declined in nearby counties and they are assumed to have done so locally also, but confirmation is lacking. No evidence of breeding exists and it is only a rare migrant though this area. Boreal 0\'Jl (AegoZius funereus) FALL-Record: One at Noyes Sanctuary, Nine t1ile Point, To\'m of New Haven on 21 November 1965. (Margaret S. Rusk). WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One near Centerville from 17 to 18 March 1962 (Margaret S. Rusk). SUt1MER-No records. 165

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166 Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) FALL-Arrival. No records exist prior to mid-October, although it is likely that some may be present by late September in many areas. Again, data is limited. Maximum. All records are of singles only. Often records are of road-kills or window killed individuals. Most frequently noted along Lake Ontario shoreline and neighboring areas. They appear to be most frequent from mid-October to early November. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-They probably persist in small numbers to early December, but confirmation is lacking. The following is the only mid-\oJinter record: 1. One at Brewerton on 29 January 1971. Along the south shore of Oneida Lake just inside northern Onondaga County. SPRING-A few scattered singles have been recorded during March and April in various years, primarily along Lake Ontario. Most records are from 20 March to 15 April. It is possible that they may occur later than this. SUMI'1ERRecords inc 1 ude: 1. One at Constantia on 18 May 1958. This may represent a breeder. 2. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 July 1955. There is little doubt that as a migrant this species is far morecommon than present information would indicate, due in part to its nocturnal habits. Nocturnal mist-netting programs in fall along Lake Ontario would probably capture many of these birds. Far more nocturnal field work is needed to clarify the status of this species and other owl species in this area. \Jhip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus) FALL-This species is very shy and secretive and as a result is rarely encountered during the fall. All reports are of singles and even these sightings are infrequent. No records are known after 21 September and most have probably departed by mid-September. The limited data available indicates that sightings occur most often along Lake Ontario during the first three \'leeks of September. I I I I I I I I I I I I J J

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WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival often occurs during the first week of May, but sometimes not until 10 to 15 May. Often the first birds are noted along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest counts are 3 to 6 per day from Lake Ontario shoreline during late in various years. Most counts during May are of 1 to 3 per day. recent counts average l to 2 birds per evening. They are most common along the Lake Ontario shore, but this may be due to the observer presence in these areas. This species probably occurs in small numbers in other areas too. Departure. Not determined, but it is thought that most migrants have 1 eft by the 1 as t few days of r1ay. SUMMER-Prior to the mid-19601s small numbers were regularly encountered in several sectors, but since then relatively few breeding occurrences have been reported. At the present it appears that they are primarily restricted to the Tug Hill plateau and fringing areas. One nest was reportPd near Pineville in the early 19701s and small counts of 1 to 3 evening have been recorded in the Tug Hill plateau in recent years, but only scattered singles elsewhere. They may also breed in small numbers north of Oneida Lake. COMMENTS: The exact status of the species as a migrant could be clarified by nocturnal surveys during the last two weeks of t1ay. Little concerted effort has been made to assess its current breeding status either. It has been suggested that this species is on a decline in many areas in recent years. Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but the small numbers during the first week of August are probably migrants. A few other sightings, reported away from known breeding areas, occurred between 28 and 31 July and are probably migrants also. Maximum. The highest maxima are in the 15 to 30 per day range. The majority of counts are 2 and 10 birds per day. Prior to 5 September counts are generally only 2 to 6 birds per day. The highest counts come from Lake Ontario. Migrants are most frequent from 15 August to 5 September with the peak in late August. Numbers of tt1is species decline after early Septerrber. 167

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168 Departure. May Gccur as early as 3 to 5 September in some years. They are frequently seen between 6 and 10 Septemher in most years. Occasionally a fe\11, mainly singles, Hill persist intc the middle of the month. The 1 a test record is one at Sandy Pond on 3 October 1976. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. This species is one of the last migrant landbirds to arrive locally. They arrive between 16 and 20 May in most years. The E'arliest arrivals are from 12 to 14 The first birds are usually noted along Lake Ontario, frequently at Derby Hi 11, and often involve 1 to 4 birds. The highest counts are 50 to 60 per day from Derby Hill at the end of in three different years. Most maxima are of 20 or less per day. Daily counts average only 5 to 15 with the numbers occurring between 25 May and 5 June. The limited data available suggests that a peak occurs during the last week of f1ay in this area. breed in small numbers in cities and larger villages in all areas. They are most frequent, counts averaging 1 to 3 pair per day, in cities such as Oswego and Fulton. Singles are occasionally reported from villages such as Mexico, Pulaski, and Sandy Creek where suitable roof-top nesting sites occur. They are very rare away from urban areas in summer. There is some indication that this species is declining as a local breeder. CQt,1MENTS: The Common NighthaHk is one of the few species that can utilize the concrete habitats of the urban areas. Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but small numbers present along the Lake Ontario shoreline during the first week of /\ugus t. Maximum. The largest numbers come from roosts or flights along Sandy Pond and range from 50 to 75 per day. Larger concentrations may occur within the area. for Oswego County are about 20 to 40 birds per day. Most counts are only 10 to 30 birds per day. The higher counts occur along Lake Ontario usually. Numbers increase after early August and are common until 10 to 15 September. Few are reported after this date. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Deoarture. Numbers decline rapidly after 10 to 15 September. In some years the last may be sighted between 12 and 20 September. Often singles or small groups persist to 24-30 September. Quite rare in October, with 2 at Derby Hill on 12 October 1971 and one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 15 October 1971 the latest. HHJTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They consistently arrive between 20 and 29 April. The earliest sighting of one bird occurred at Ramona Beach on 17 April 1966. The first birds are usually from Derby Hill and sometimes elsewhere along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high count is l ,000+ at Derby Hill on 6 May 1961. Most maxima are much 1 ower with a few in the 125 to 250 per day range, but 80 to 100 per day is the average high count. Most counts range between 25 and 40 per day along Lake Ontario and 10 to 20 per day inland. These counts are invariably from Lake Ontario shoreline areas, primarily Derby Hill. The highest numbers occur at these locations during the mid-two weeks of They may be recorded as early as the end of April or as late as the end of May. They are common in small groups into early June. Departure. Difficult to determine. It is likely that this species is still moving until at least 5 to 10 June in most even though most literature state the departure period as the end of May. SUMMER-They breed frequently in many urban areas. In these areas 8 to 20 per day are often noted. They are also present, in smaller numbers, in farm areas, and other areas where suitable chimneys exist for nesting. One to four per day are reported even in seemingly remote areas in the Tug Hill plateau. COMHENTS: Surveys of breeding Chimney Swifts in urban areas should be made to acertai n population status and to compare with those of the Common Nighthawk. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but individuals present on the Sandy Pond spits during early August are undoutedly migrants. 169

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170 I I 1 t1aximum. They \'/ere: more common prior to the mid-1960 s than J at the present. Counts prior to the late 196os vJere as high as 29 birds per day. Since then the high count is 13 on 31 August 1974 between Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park. recent counts are less than 8-10 per day with 6-10 per day often the high counts. Numbers are usually smaller inland, with only 2 to 4 per day the average in recent years. The peak movement isusually noted along Lake Ontario, particularly at the east end between Sandy Pond and Selkirk State Park during the last ten days of /\ugust and the first two weeks of September. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly between 12 and 20 September in most years. The departure occurs between 23 and 29 September. October birds are rare. The reccrd late is one at Sandy Pond on 9 October 1960. WHITER-No records. SPR:NG-Arrival. The earliest arrivals are between 1 to 3 May. They most often arrive at the end of the first week of f1ay, usually 7 toll 11ay. Usuc;lly they are first noted along Lake Ontario, especially at Derby Hill. The record high counts are 43 at Derby Hill on 16 May 1970 anc 42 at Derby Hill on 19 May 1978. A number of other maxima of 16 to 30 per day have been reported, primarily from the Lake Ontario shore. rhe maxima vary considerably from year to year v1ith 7 to 10 the highs in some years. Numbers away from Lake Ontario are usually lower. Counts average 1 to 6 per day. The peak of migration at Derby Hill usually occurs between 14 and 20 f1ay. Larqe flights have been noted anytime during the 1 as t two weeks of 11ay. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers have been noted passing Derby Hill during early June. SlH1f1ER-They are well distributed breeders in the Tug Hill plateau and surrounding regions. Two to five per day may be regularly recorded in these areas. In other areas hummingbirds are much less frequent as hreeders. t1ost sightings away from Tug Hill are of 1 to 3 per day along Lake Ontario or other lowland areas. This is the only local hummingbird and is only common as a spring migrant along Lake Ontario. At other seasons there is evidence of a slow decline which should be and rroblems of this species investigated. J I I I

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Belted Kingfisher (MegaceryZe aZcyon) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. All maxima are less than 12 per day, with 6 to 8 per day the average high counts. The highest counts occur along Lake Ontario and smaller counts occurring inland. Most counts average 2 to 6 per day along Lake Ontario and 2 to 4 day in other areas. They are well distributed along streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes throughout the area. Departure. Nurmers usually decline after 1 ate October, but may be present into mid-November in most years. It is 1 i kely that birds present after 20 to 25 November may be attempting to winter. \tiiNTER-Small numbers and occasionally larger numbers may be present into early Decerrber as shown by a count of 8 along Lake Ontario on 24 f)ecember 1956. In mild years or yea }'S of high abundance scattered singles may persist well into January and a number may survive the season. In more severe winters there is a noticeable decline through mid-January and very few are present after this. Wintering kingfishers are most common along the Oswego River where open water exists and occasionally along Lake Ontario. The number of kingfishers present in winter is directly controlled by the severity of the winter. SPRING-Arrival. The first migrants are usually sighted along Lake Ontario during the last 10 days of t1arch, usually between the 20th and the 25th. Maximum. The highest counts are usually of migrants passing Derby Hill during the first two weeks of April and are often 6 to 12 per day. The highest maxima for that area are 12 to 15 per day. The bulk of the migrants pass during the first three weeks of April with only a few after. Counts at this time are usually 4 to 8 per day along Lake Ontario and 2 to 5 per day elsewhere. They are widely distributed, as pairs, in suitable habitat by mid to late April. Departure. Difficult to determine, but very few migrants are noted passing Derby Hi 11 after 25 to 30 Apri 1. SUMt-ER-Pairs are scattered, but well distributed in suitable habitat along streams, rivers, and lakeshores throughout the area. Most counts involve 2 to 6 per day, but systematic surveys of streams and lake shores would undoubtedly yield higher numbers. Most 1 71

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172 resident birds are on their territories by mid to late April. COr1rAENTS: There is no evidence that this species has been seriously affected by contamination of aquatic food chains, at least locally. Common Flicker (Colaptes auratus) FALL-Arrival. The arrival date is difficult to determine, but small numbers are present on the Sandy Pond dunes during August and probably represent migrants. Maximum. The high count is 205 on 10 October 1970 from Sandy Pond to Derby Hill. r1ost maxima are 50 to 100 per day at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, particularly along the Sandy Pond dunes. Counts average 25 to 50 per day in lake shore regions. The peak of migration is during the mid-two weeks of September. Deaarture. Singles and small groups are regularly present into mi -November, but the majority have left by mid to late October They are rare after mid-November and the last are usually noted between 12 and 20 tJovember. Singles present during late November may be attempting to winter. winter records are of singles and this species is quite rare locally, in comparison to areas slightly further where they are regular in most winters. They are rare in December and very rare after mid-January in any year. Their presence is due largely to the severity of the winter. An attempt should be made to clarify this species'winter status. SPRING-Arrival. Arrival usually occurs during March and the fi rs t three days of .n.p ri 1 appear until 8 to 11 April in some years. at this time at Derby Hill. the 1 ast few days of The first may not Most often sighted t1aximum. The highest counts are of flights occurring at Derbv Hill, where the record maxima are 1,200 on 23 April 1959 and 1 ,000 on 22 April 1962. Several other maxima of 600 to 800 per dav have been recorded there. In most seasons at least one or days of 300 to 550 may be expected. Occasionally only 100 to 200 per day is the season high. The peak flights iilong Lake Ontario usually occur 13 and 27 April, \'lhen one can expect to see 30 to 100 birds per day along the lake shore even on 11bad11 days. Away from Lake Ontario concentrations are less, and 15 to 40 per day is the usual count.

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Departure. Numbers decline after the end of April. Few are present after mid-t1ay at Detby Hill. The majority of the indi vi dua 1 s present after 20 are 1 oca 1 breeders, but 3 to 10 per day have been noted Derby Hill into early June. are a fairly common and I'Jidesnread breeder in all areas, with counts of 8 to 22 per day common in the breeding season. They are found in a variety of habitats in all areas and are the most common breeding woodpecker in this area. Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) All Seasons-Resident They are an uncommon permanent in woodlands in all sectors. They have been recorded from a number of areas along Lake Ontario such as Derby Hill and Selkirk Shores State Park consistently for many years. Small numbers of 1 to 2 per day are usually noted from many sites over a period of years. All counts are 5 or less per day with 1 to 2 per day the average. The higher numbers usually represent family groups. COt1MENTS: In areas where observer visitations are in frequent, 1 ittl e long term data is available. Of considerable interest would be an effort to lacate, record, and chart the local distribution of the species and to assess its vulnerability to land use changes. Red-bellied Woodpecker (Me Zcmerpes caro linus) All Seasons-Resident This species Has virtually unknown locally prior to the early 1960's and remained very rare until the early 1970's. The first modern record was one at Pulaski during the fall of 1959. From 1960 to 1966 a few sightings were reported in the Town of New Haven during the fall of various years, mainly in the vicinity of Lake Ontario. 173

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174 After 1968 small numbers began to appear in other locations and by the etrly 1970's they were regular in Oswego, New Haven, and co and occasionally elsewhere. The majority of records prior to 1970 seem to have occurred in the fall and probably represent past-breeding dispersal that eventually led to colonization. This species is presently found in a helt 15 miles wide south of Lake Ontario from Hannibal to rexi co, with a few south and east of that area. They are less frequent to the east of Derby Hill and north and east of Mexico. They are virtually unknown in the higher country east of Lake Ontario. At present this species is a resident, in small numbers, over much of the area west of Route 81 and south of Derby Hill. 1ost of these birds are probably residents, but there issome evidence of migration in fall and spring at Derby Hill. At present most counts involve one to b1o per day, although 3 to 5 per day have been noted in local concentrations in the Towns of Oswego, t1exico, Haven, nnd very recently along the north shore of Oneida Lake where the species is still rare, with 2 sighted near West Monroe on 10 June 1978. CUMt1ENTS: It is probahle that expansion \'>lill continue to the north and east along the lake in the future. The high country of the Tug Hi:l plateau may prove difficult for this species to colonize. All sightings of this species should be carefully recorded, including location, sex, and age of birds involved. Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes eY'IJthrocephalus) F.ALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. The majority of fall sightings involve one or tvJo birds al as many as four have been reported. These birds may be migrants from farther north or breeders. The majority are sighted along Lake Ontario. They most frequently occur during the 1 ast week of August and the first week to 10 days of September. They are uncommon after 12 Septerrber and most prior to 20 August are probably breeders. They are rare away from the Lake Ontario shore in fall. I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I I J ] I

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Departure. The latest sighting occurred between 15 and 20 September with none after this period. This species apparently departs very early in most years. WINTER-Records include: 1. One immature at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 5 December 1971. 2. One adult, which successfully wintered away from a feeder via human support at Selkirk Shores State Park from 14 January to 1 t1arch 1973. This was an exceptionally mild winter. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Mexico Point on 18 1965. No other si ghti ngs are known prior to early t1ay. The arri va 1 frequently occurs between 2 and 6 t1ay, often at Derby Hi 11. In some years they may not be sighted until a few days Jater. t1aximum. The highest counts are of flights along Lake Ontario, primarily at Derby Hill, with a record high of 12 there on 13 May 1972. A number of other counts between 5 and 10 per day have been recorded from Derby Hill. The peak movement usually occurs between 12 and 18 t1ay. One to three are usually the average at other Lake Ontario locations and inland. Most often sighted between 10 and 25 May in all areas in most years. Quite rare in most interior sections especially the Tug Hill. Departure. Difficult to determine, but most have probably left by the last \'leek of t1ay. Small numbers, of 1 to 2 per day, have been noted passing Derby Hill until 7 June in some years. SUt1f,1ER-They are a rare and scattered breeder in lowland areas. They use to breed regularly in small numbers in most lowland areas prior to 1966. It appears that numbers have been reduced substantially since that time along Lake Ontario. At present a few scattered pairs are noted at scattered sites. Counts in summer average 1 to 3 per day at infrequent intervals. They appear extremely rare in the Tug Hill plateau. cm1r1EtHS: Many local observers feel this species has declined substantially since the mid-196os. This species should be closely monitored and efforts made to assess its status, particularly in the breeding season. 175

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176 Yellow-bellied Sapsucker CSphyrapicus varius) FALL-Arrival. Arrival varies considerably from one year to the next, but the earliest known sightings are between 23 and 27 August in various years. They appear to leave between 5 and 10 September or earlier. Maximum. Numbers vary greatly from year to year. In some years the maxima are 2 to 6 per day; in other years it is 15 to 20. The record high counts are 44 from Sandy Pond and Derby Hill combined, on 1 October 1970. Maxima are normally in the 6 to 12 per day range and are usually recorded along Lake Ontario. The highest numbers are frequently recorded during the last two weeks of September. Numbers along Lake Ontario average 3 to 5 per day with fewer inland. It is likely that large numbers are present in the Tug Hill plateau, but confirmation is lacking. Departure. Variable, but numbers decline rapidly during early October. Only scattered singles are present during the middle of the month. Lingering birds are present during early November and even later; may either be late migrants or attempting to winter. WINTER-A few singles usually are reported from late November to the Oswego Christmas count during the third week of December. No records are present for January, however, it is possible that a late migrant may have stayed until January. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is a male at Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 March 1963, with a couple of other arrivals on 2-3 April in other years. Most commonly sighted between 10 and 15 April along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high is 19 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 17 April 1969. Maxima are usually in the 5 to 10 per day range. Counts average only 2 to 6 per day. The peak movement occurs between 13 and 27 April in this area. Departure. Occurs as early as 2 to 5 May in some years, but frequently occurs betv1een 5 and 15 May. Very few are generally sighted after this. There are no records later than 20 May and any sighted after this may be potential breeders. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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widely distributed breeder found in the Tug Hill rlateau where 5 to 15 per day are regularly sighted. Occasionally intensive field work in that area will produce higher counts such as the 27 recorded at Otto Mills, Town of Redfield, on 9 ,July 1972. Occasionally small numbers are sighted in areas fringing the Tug Hill plateau. A fe\t/ suiTT11er records have been noted along the north shore of Oneida Lake near Constantia, in the Pulaski area and in nearby locations. Away from these areas they are unknown as breeders and any sightings should be carefully documented. COt1t1ENTS: This species is an excellent examrle of a species found only in the Tug Hill region during breeding season. Hairy (Picoides villosus) All Seasons-Resident This species is primarily a resident, however, flights resembling migrations occur along Lake Ontario during the fall and spring in some years. These flights are usually at Derby Hi 11 and the Sandy Pond spits and usually involve 2 to 5 per day. This species is slightly less common than the Downy lJoodpecker in most areas except the Tug Hill plateau \tlhere numbers of the bJo species are about equa 1. t1ost counts are 2 to 5 per day throughout most areas. The highest counts are usually from the Audubon Christmas count at Oswego. In winter they are winter residents in most areas. In summer they breed in most woodland areas, but are less frequently sighted than the Downy Hoodpecker. The ratio of Hairy to Downy in most areas is about 1:2 (F. G. Scheider). The ratio may approach 1:1 in the Tug Hill area and in winter in all areas. COt1MENTS: Further studies of population trends on a geographic basis would be of great interest. It 'tlould be extremely valuable to compare the status of these two closely related species. Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) All Seasons-Resident. Irruptions occasionally occur and in some years 10 to 15 per day may be noted durinq September and early October along Lake Ontario. Spring flightsare less noticeable, but 5 to 10 per day have been recorded passing Derby Hill during April in some years. Away from the Lake Ontario shore these flights are difficult to detect and rarely noticed. They are widely distributed in all areas. The highest counts are frequently noted in winter when 177

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178 they are more visible. Intensive field efforts such as the Oswego Christmas count may account for the larger numbers observed in the winter. Counts for all seasons average to 3 to 10 per day. Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) FALL-Records include: 1. A male at Sandy Pond on 25 Noverrber 1963, Spofford, Frank Clinch). 2. One at Pulaski, Town of Richlnnd, from 25 to 30 Noverrber 1966 (Mrs. E. Evans). WINTER-Record: One male near Constantia on 6 March 1966. SPRING-Record: One in Altmar area on 11 April 1964. SUMMER-No records. COt1tENTS: Note that all records are within a three year period when other incursions were noted in nearby areas. Increased observations in the Tug Hill area in winter may increase the number of sightings. Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) FALL-Arrival. Fall movements can be detected in non-breeding areas as early as the first week of July. The arrival period is difficult to determine because of the presence of local breeders. It appears that they are southbound by 5 to 10 July in rnos t years. The record high is 65 at Sandy Pond on 8 August 1959. Most maxima are in the 20 to 35 per day range, with highest numbers often noted along Lake Ontario especially at Sandy Pond-Selkirk Shores State Park area. In other areas thev are evenlv distributed with numbers of l 0 to 20 per day the average. The peak of mi gration occurs very early, \'lith the numbers of local residents augmented by migrants, during late July and early September. They are common in most areas in August. Numbers decline in Septerrter. Departure. In most years the first have left by the first week of September with some smaller numbers present to 10 to 17 September. Quite rare after this in most years. Very rare in October with occasional singles in the first week and the record late one at Noyes Sanctuary near Nine Point, Tol'm of New Haven, on 10 October 1971. \:liNTER-No records. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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SPRING-Arrival. Usually arrive during the lnst few days of April and the first few days of 11ay. Generally the ;:-eriod betv.1een 28 April to 3 May is the best. The first birds are often noted along Lake Ontario at Derby Hill during the large Broad-winged Hawk flights. t1aximum. The record high is 114 at Derby Hill on 14 May 1976. Several maxima of 40 to 50 per day have been reported in the Derby Hill-Selkirk Shores State Park area. Most maxima are 25 to 50 per day and most days will produce counts of 10 to 20 birds. They are widely distributed in suitable habitat. The peak of migration occurs from 10 to 25 r1ay in most years. Many pairs have establihsed territories and only a few migrants are present during late May and very early June. Departure. Ten to fifteen per day have been noted passing Derby Hill into early June in many years. They may still be passing as 1 to 5 per day as late as 15 June. They may be still migrating north in mid-June in some years. SUMMER-This species is a widely distributed and a fairly common breeder in open areas in all sectors. During June, 10 to 25 per day may be seen in suitable habitat. \lestern Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) FALL-Record: One near r1exico, Town of Mexico, from 4 October to 5 October 1969 (F. LaFrance, R. Sutliff). WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SUt1t1ER-No records. Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. t1ost high counts are between 6 and 10 per day occurring from mi<1-August through mid-September. Such counts are rather infrequent, however, and 1 to 4 per day is the average. A widely distributed migrant, but most of the higher numbers are noted along Lake Ontario.

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180 De:Jarture. They are present in small numbers through mid-September with the last often noted between 18 and 25 September. Very rare in October, but have been present as late as 2 to 3 October. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. This species is quite consistent in spring, with the fi rs t birds often noted bet\'1een 26 /\p ri l and 2 t1ay and occasionally a few days later. Maximum. They are more common in spring than fall, but this may be due, in part,to their increased vocalization in spring. Maxima of 10 to 15 per day have been noted along Lake Ontario in various years. In t1ay counts of 3 to 8 per day are reported over much of the area and the highest counts are often noted between 17 and 26 f1ay. Departure. One to three per day have been noted passing Derby Hill during early June in several years. In one year migrants were passing on 20 June. are widely distributed in most woodland areas where 5 to 10 per day are commonly noted. Occasionally 15 to 20 per day have been reported in the Tug Hill plateau. They appear slightly more common there in the lowland areas. Counts of calling individuals conducted in woodlands in June indicate that this species is second in abundance to the Eastern Pewee among the locally breeding woodland flycatchers. Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. I I I I I I I I I I I I I The highest counts are 10 to 12 per day from areas along Lake Ontario during late September in various years. Numbers are generally less away from this lake, vlith 5 to 10 per day the average highs for t1ay. r1ost days afield during late August and Septerrber will produce 2 to 6 per day in most sections. Larger concentrations occur at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Pari<. They are widely dis-tributed in small numbers throughout the area with the highest counts usually occurring during late September. I I I

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Departure. The numbers decline during the first ten days of October, some usually persist to mid-October. The departure often occurs between 15 and 20 October. Usually very rare in November with the record late one at NineMile Point on 22 November 1965. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They usually arrive about a month before any other flycatchers. The record early is one at Derby Hill on 11 March 1977. The earliest arrivals are usually between 15 and 17 March and the normal arrival period is between 22 and 29 March. They are affected considerably by the weather conditions and usually arrive just after mid-March in warm springs and not until the end of March in colder years. Most often reported first at Derby Hi 11. Maximum. The highest counts are usually of migrants passing Derby Hill with 30 on April 22, 1962, 30 on 4 April 1969, 23 on 13 April 1971, and 21 on 9 April 1970 the highest counts. Counts of 10 to 20 per day are common at Derby Hill during the first three weeks of April in many years. Away from Derby Hill numbers are only 5 to 8 per day in most sections during April. They often appear in late March and early April on their respective territories. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-They are widely distributed but only intermittent breeders around barns, houses, summer cottages, and bridges over most of the area. Eastern Phoebes occur as pairs at suitable breeding locations in all sections from Lake Ontario to the Tug Hill plateau. Two to six per day are frequently noted during the breeding season but they are never very abt..ndant in any particular locale. COMMENTS: This species seems to have declined recently as a breeder and migrant. This is possibly due to the recent severe winters in this area. Local breeding populations should be closely monitored. They nest in close!proximity to human habitation and could potentially be decreased by the use of pesticides in these areas. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 15 and 18 August of several years and they are almost always present by 20 August along Lake Ontario. 181

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182 Maximum. All counts are 4 or less per day and average only 1 to 2 per day. The majority of sightings are from along Lake Ontario, but this is probably due to the larger concentration of observers in that area. They are most frequent during the last ten days of August and the first week of Septerrber. In many seasons 7 to 15 per season are sighted for this period. Departure. Present usually to 10 to 15 September. Singles are often present after with a few late departures occurring between 25 September and 10 October. The record late sighting is one at Sandy Pond on 12 October 1973. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They may be expected after 10 May, but may not occur until substantially later in some years. Maximum. The numbers vary in spring as they do in fall. Overall they are less common in spring than fall. The record high count is 7 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 25 May 1973. The majority of sightings are 1 to 2 per day with 3 to 4 per day upon occasion. The peak migration usually occurs late, often between 24 and 2 June, and usually is from the Lake Ontario shore line. Departure. Some are usually present to the end of May. Departure is generally between 13 May and 4 June. None have been reported migrating later than this. Sm1MERThese birds breed in the Tug Hi 11 plateau but are rarely reported away from there in the summer. Even in the Tug Hill plateau they are rare breeders, with 1 te 2 sightings for a given breeding season on the normal situation. These reports are usually form the Town of Redfield and nearby areas and none reported elsewhere. Small numbers may breed in the higher elevations in the Town of Redfield but confirmation is lacking. COMMENTS: Because of the secretive nature of this species it is very possible that they are more common than the data at hand suggests and further study is needed. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Acadian Flycatcher FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. (Empidbnax virescens) SUMMER-Records include: 1. One in a woodland about a half-mile south of Lake at Milea Beach, Town of Scriea from 31 May to 1 June 1976 (G. A. Smith). 2. One along Stone Road near Colosse, Town of Mexico, on 8 June 1976. (Dorothy W. Crumb). 3. One near Williamstown from 12 to 16 June 1977. COMMENTS: It is hoped that these records indicate that this species are again re-occupying rangein which it was present in the last century. 11 ow Flycatcher A 1 der Flycatcher FALL-Arri va 1. (Empidonax traiZZii) (Empidonax aZmorum) Not determined for either of these species. Maximum. The record high is 30 along Lake Ontario on 19 August 1972. Counts of 4 to 10 per day of these two Empidonax flycatchers are common there from mid-August to Small numbers present in most other areas. Departure. Numbers of these two species decline after 15 to 22 September. The departure often occurs between 23 and 20 September and occasionally to 1 to 3 October. The latest record is on 12 in two different years. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first are usually present by 10 to 17 but sometimes later. 183

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, 84 Maximum. All counts for both species are 2 to 6 per day from all areas. The greatest frequency occurs during the last ten days of t1ay. Departure. Not determined. species breed locally and the Alder Flycatcher is primarily present in the Tug Hill region. The \'lillow Flycatcher is present in all sectors and is often numerous in suitable areas along Lake Ontario and in other sectors and least numerous in the Tug Hill region. Sightings of Willow Flycatchers involve 2 to 8 per day average. The Alder Flycatcher occurs as 2 to 5 per day mostly from the Tug Hill. COMMENTS: Relatively little datahas been published regarding the occurrence of and distribution of migrants of these two species. work is needed to clarify their status locally. Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) FALL-A rri va 1. Not determined. Maximum. The records are for all species of Empidonax flycatchers. The record high is 30 along Lake Ontario on 19 August 1972. Counts of 4 to 10 per day of these species of flycatchers are common from mid-August to mid-September. rtu re. The departure often occurs between 23 and 20 September an sometimes as late as 1 to 3 October. The latest record is on 12 October in two different years. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 27 and 28 April of d"ifferent years. They are usually not noted until 1 to 5 t1ay. Maximum. The record high is 100 at Sandy Pond on 19 May 1977. The next highest are 25 to 30 per day from Lake Ontario shoreline areas during the last 3 weeks of t1ay in various years. t1ost counts in these areas range between 6 and 15 per day with s 1 i ghtly fewer in other sections. They in woodland areas as a spring migrant. t1ost are seen between 12 and 26 t1ay in most years. I I I I I I I I I

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Departure. Difficult to determine, but some may be present in non-breeding areas, such as Sandy Pond, during late and the first few days of June. They may still be moving during the first week of June in many years. SUtt-1ER-They are vlidely distributed in woodlands in all areas. The highest numbers are usually from the heavily wooded Tug Hill plateau. A number of very high counts have occurred at the Town of Redfield including 83 near Otto r1ills on 14 June 1973 and 79 on 6 June 1970. counts in this area average 15 to 30 per day in June. Substantially less are present in lowland or sparsely wooded areas. Cm1MENTS: This is the most common flycatcher in the Tug Hill plateau, but is often the least common in sparsely wooded or lowland areas. Eastern Uood Pewee (Contopus virensJ FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest maxima are several counts of 30 to 85 per day along Lake Ontario between 20 August and 20 September of various years. Counts of 8 to 20 per day are common along Lake Ontario. They are often noted well into September and are one of the latest singing species present. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after 15 to 20 September with a few present into the first vJeek of October in many years. The departure occurs between 4 and 10 October. The latest departures are around 15 October. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. No records exist before 10 t1ay and most records are from 14 to 18 May. Maximum. Highest counts are 20 to 25 during the last 10 days of May and the first few days of June. They usually are noted as 5 to 15 birds per day in most sectors, after 18 to 20 May. The peak of migration occurs during the last 10 days of t1ay. Departure. Difficult to determine but some are undoubtedly moving into early June. 185

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186 SUt1MER-They are widely distributed breeders in most areas. Counts are usually 10 to 20 per day. Probably the most common woodland flycatcher in the lowland and they are less abundant in the higher country. Its call can be heard in most woodland areas from late May to well into September. Olive-sided Flycatcher (NuttaZornis boreaZis) FALL-Arrival. Arrival varies considerably from year to year. In some years they arrive between 16 and 22 August. In other years they may not be noted until the first week of September. Maximum. All counts are 3 or less per day and the average count is only 1 per day. Numbers vary from none tos to 10 for an entire season in some years. They are sighted primarily during late August and the first half of September. Departure. September. Individuals are usually present to the third week of None are reported later than this. WHJTE R-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They have been noted as early as 12 to 14 May, but the majority of first s i ghtings occur between 18 and 25 May. Maximum. The majority of sightings are singles, but occasionally 2 are seen per day. No higher counts have been noted in a season. Most sightings are from the last 10 days of May. They are frequent in the Lake Ontario area. Departure. The latest sightings of migrants along Lake Ontario have occurred between 29 May and 2 June. SUt1MER-This species is restricted to the higher country in the Tug Hill area where it breeds. An exception is the one record from the Town of Constantia from 14 to 21 July 1957. In the Tug Hill 1 to 4 birds per season are noted and are primarily from the Towns of Boyleston and Redfield. CDr1MENTS: This species is one of the rarest migrants through this area. I I I I I I I I I

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(EPemophila alpestPis) val. The first flocks are usuallv noted between 10 and 17 frequently along Lake Onta.rio at the Sandy Pond spits and nearby areas. L' futMaximum. Prior to 1970 maxima of 150 to 200 per day common a record high of 900 on 16 November 1957 at Sandy Pond. Since 1970 seasonal maxima have been only 40 to 80 per day with 15 to 20 per day the high counts in recent years. At present daily counts average only 10 to 20 per day. Most frequent from mid-October to mid-November. The largest concentrations occur along Lake Ontario but flocks may occur in suitable habitat, particularly plowed fields and short grass areas. Deaarture. Difficult to determine but numbers decline in mi to late November and some persist into December. INTER-Prior to 1970 small numbers were common through the winter, xe; but since then only a few have persisted. Small flocks are usually present to the third \'Jeek of December except in deP.p snow secti0ns. In some years they are almost absent and in other years counts are 2 to 10 birds per day. Horned Larks are most common in the southern parts in mid-winter. Numbers for winter vary considerably depending on the locations and weather conditions, but 2 to 10 birds are probably the average in recent years. SPRING-Arrival. This species is the earliest landbird to move north in the spring. In some years they arrive between 26 and 31 January. In most years 5 to 15 February is the normal arrival period. Maximum. Prior to 1970 counts of 200 to 500 oer day were not unusual, but since then most high counts are 40 to 100 per day. The recent high count is 375 at Derby Hill on 15 April 1977. Large flocks are present by mid-February and the peak flight has often passed by 10 t1arch. In recent years 20 to 40 per day are the average counts for spring in most areas. Departure. One of the earliest migrants to depart. Numbers decline rapidly during mid-March and some persist into April. After 5 to 10 April almost none are passing over Derby Hill and only local breeders remain. 187

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188 are widely scattered breeders in suitable habitat in most sectors. Most counts are of one to 4 per day including pairs and family groups. They are on their respective breeding territories by March and young are present by late May. CDr1f'1ENTS: There is evidence that Horned Larks have declined as both migrants and breeders in recent years. This decline should be monitaed closely to determine if it is a linear long term decline or a long term cyclic one. Tree Swallow ( Iridoprocme bioo Zor) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but small numbers have been noted at the Sandy Pond spits during the last few days of July and the first few days of August. Maximum. Along the eastern end of Lake Ontario near Sandy Pond, where they are most abundant, counts of 3,000 to 8,000 per day have been sighted in various years. The record high of 11,000 on 11 August 1957 occurred at the Sandy Pond spits. 3,000 to 8,000 per day are the normal maxima. Away from Lake Ontario numbers are much lower but 250 to 750 per day may be noted in most sections with 1,000 to 1,500 per day seen in Oneida Lake vicinity. They are regularly noted between 20 August and 25 September. Departure. Numbers decline very rapidly during late September, but some are regularly present through early October. The last often depart during the middle of October. Very rare in November, with the record late on 7 November in 2 different years. WINTER-See SPRING records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Derby Hill on 28 February 1975. This bird was clearly observed for 2 minutes flying over frozen Sage Creek at less than 100 feet. This is an extremely early date. Earlier, in fact, than any listed in Bull (1974). The next earliest arrivals occurred beb'!een 19 and 21 March at different years. They often arrive between 22 and 27 t1arch, but do not occur unt i 1 the first week of April in some years. Maximum. Counts of 3,000 to 8,000 birds per day have occurred, primarily from Derby Hill. In some years highs only reach 500 to 1,500 per day. Most counts average 150 to 1,000 birds per day along Lake. Ontario. Away from this area counts average only 50 to 250 per day. Numbers are low until about mid-April and the largest flights occur during the first two weeks of t1ay. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Departure. Difficult to determine, but only a few have been noted passing Derby Hill during early June. SUMMER-They are a well-distributed breeder in most areas. Probably most common near the shores of lakes and rivers with scattered numbers in most other sectors. t1os t counts average 15 to 25 per day during June and early ,July. COMMENTS: Tree Swallows commonly nest in Purple houses in some areas. Bank S\'la 11 ow (Riparia riparia) FALL-Arrival. Small groups start moving south as early as 4 July. Larger flocks are moving passed Derby Hill by 10 to 15 July with scattered groups in many areas still moving during the last two weeks of July. Maximum. The record high counts are 15,000 at Sandy Pond on 11 August 1957 and 13,500 at Sandy Pond on 17 August 1977. Many counts of 3,000 to 8,000 occur along Lake Ontario. In other areas counts of 1,000 to 1,500 are not uncommon. Large numbers are moving by late July and the peak often occurs during the first two weeks of August. In some years counts of several thousand per day are noted into September. They are widely distributed as flocks of 100 to 500 in many sections. DeEarture. Occurs as early as the first week of September. Qu1te rare October with record lates from 1 to 4 October. Numbers generally decline rapidly in late August and early September with a few after this time. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. Consistently arrives between 10 and 17 April. although occasionally arrival is nocturnal 20-22 April. The first arrivals are usually along Lake Ontario at Derby Hill. Maximum. Spring counts are lower than those of fall. Totals of 1,000 to 2,000 per day are common along Lake Ontario. The maxima are generally between 5,000 and 7,000 per day, but record highs are usually higher, between 8,000 and 9,000 per day. Inland counts average from 50 to 300 per day. Along Lake Ontario counts average only 250 to 1 ,000 per day. Most high counts are during the first three weeks of May. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers are often noted passing Derby Hill as late as 7 to 15 June. 189

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190 SUMMER-They are very common breeders but they tend to be scattered in in distribution. Colonies exist wherever suitable exposed sand and dirt banks are present. Colonies range from 20 to 1,000 holes per bank depending on the size of the banks. counts during June are 50 to 200 per day. Bank Swallovt colonies are often present in a given area for only a fev1 years due to natural and man-made changes. Along Lake Ontarios dunes exact locations may change but the general location may persist for many years. This species may benefit from man-made quarries or pits but this is usually short lived. Rough-vtinged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. They are very scarce in fall and counts average only 1 to 4 per day. Occasionally counts reach 15 to 20 per day. The record high of 35 in an hour moving a 1 ong the Sandy Pond dunes on 26 July 1959 and 25 at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1964. Higher numbers are restricted to Lake Ontario. Inland counts average 1 to 4 per day. The peak movement is from 20 July to 20 August. Departure. Quite scarce during the last 10 days of August but a few persist into early September. The departure generally occurs between 10 and 15 September. The record late departure is on 30 September and 1 October of different years. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is on 12 April 1971 at Derby Hill. They generally arrive from 15 to 18 April and occasionally not until 20 to 22 April. Maximum. The record high is 1 ,000 at Derby Hi 11 on 1 1957. A few maxima of 200 to 500 per day have been reported from the Derby Hill area. In some years the maximum is only 20 to 50 per day. Away from Lake Ontario counts average 5 to 15 per day. Detarture. Difficult to determine because they breed at Derby Hi 1 where most of the migrants pass and this causes confusion. Groups of 6 or more have been reported passing the Derby Hi 11 lookout into early June. SUMt1ERThey are scattered and infrequent breeders in severa 1 areas. c::>mmon along Lake Ontario where 2 to 6 per day are present in suitable locations. Numbers average 2 to 4 in other areas. The exact breeding status of this species is not known. COMMENTS: Except as a spring migrant along Lake Ontario, the Rough-winged Swallow is quite uncommon locally. At present no population trend is apparent.

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Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but small flocks are present in the concentrations of Bank Lake Ontario in very 1 ate July. Maximum. The largest concentrations occur at Sandy Pond. The highest count is 9,000 at Sandy Pond on 17 August 1957. A few other maxima of 2,000 to 6,000 per day are on record for this area in different years. The normal maxima for the Sandy Pond area is from 1,000 to 5,000 per day. Most counts away from Lake Ontario range between 100 and 500 per day. The peak movement occurs during the last two weeks of August and the first week of September. Large concentrations may occur as late as the last few days of July. Delarture. Numbers decline rapidly from mid to late August in in and areas and by early September along Lake Ontario. Some birds may stay into October. The record late is 2 at Derby Hill on 21 October 1969. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest record occurred at Rainbow Shores, Town of Sandy Creek, on 29 March 1968. The next earliest are from 4 to 8 April in various years. They are first noted between 9 and 15 April. They are often noted along Lake Ontario and in the large wetlands, in the town of Schroeppel, especially Peter Scott S\1/amp. Maximum. The record high is 12,000 near Mexico on 26 April 1960. A number of 5,000 to 8,000 per day counts have been reported along Lake Ontario. During the peak period, 24 April to 10 May, 2,000 to 6,000 birds per day are probably normal. Less common away from Lake Ontario, but counts of 250 to 1 ,000 per day are not infrequent in most areas. Departure. Difficult to determine, but large numbers are passing Derby Hill as late as 20 June in some years .SUMMER-They are most common and widely distributed breeding swallows in the summer. Two major colonies of naturally nesting Barn Swallows are present at the cliff near Nine Mile Point power plant complex and at Noyes Sanctuary. These two natural site colonies along Lake Ontario are the only two sites of that type in New York State (Bull 1974). COMMENTS: One of these two natural nesting colonies is located on Noyes Sanctuary of the Onondaga Audubon Society. This 90 acre sanctuary in the Town of New Haven contains 3/4 of a mile of natural shoreline and it is the gift of Mr. Richard A. Noyes. This is one of the few natural shorelines that is not recreationally developed. It is preserved for the enjoyment and enlightenment of future generations through the foresight and generosity of its donor. 191

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192 Cliff Swallow (PetrocheZidon pyrrhonota) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Very scarce as a fall migrant and most counts are of one to four per day along Lake Ontario. Very scarce elsewhere except in the immediate vicinity of breeding colonies. Most common prior to the last few days of August with few during September. Departure. Rare after late August. Occasionally birds present to mid-September. The last are frequently noted between 15 and 20 September and only a few after. The record lates have occurred between 24 and 26 September. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred between 10 and 12 April at Derby Hill in various years. This species is consistently present between 14 and 22 April and occasionally later. Usually first noted along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The scarcest swallow in spring, with the highest counts around 25 to 75 at Derby Hill. Occasionally higher numbers are sighted. These counts may be artificially low. Concerted efforts to carefully count the large swallow flights of early May at Derby Hill may yieldmuch higher numbers. Most often noted as 10 to 25 per day along Lake Ontario. Peak movements may occur any time during May, but the highest counts and greatest frequency often occur between 10 and 25 May. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers are present along Lake Ontario to 10 to 15 June in some years. SUMMER-This species has apparently declined as a breeder 1 ocally during the last 20 years. At present Cliff Swallows are restricted to areas east of Route 81 primarily along the north shore of Oneida Lake and in the Tug Hill plateau and immediate vicinity. A few small colonies of 5 to 10 nests and a few larger colonies of 10 to 50 nests have been noted in recent years. COMMENTS: The current breeding status of this species should be studied and each colony monitored from year to year. Preservation of nesting areas should be encouraged. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Purple Martin (Progne subis) FALL-Arrival. Their arrival is difficult to detennine, hut a fe\>J are usually present among the swallow flights along the S1ndy Pond spits in late July. Maximum. There are several high counts betvteen 1,000 and 1,400 birds per day from the J.rea from Sandy Pond to Derby Hill. In some years the maxima are 100 to 400 birds per day. Along Lake Ontario the counts are usually be tween 50 and ?.00 per day. In 1 and counts average 20 to 75 per day. t1ost frequently sighted during the 1 ast tv1o \'leeks of /\ugust and the first \'leek of September. 193 De arture. The last are usually sighted between 12 and 19 September. T. e maJority of sightings are singles or small groups along Lake Ontario \'lith the exception of 30 birds on 24 September 1972. The latest record is 2 at Sandy Pond on 29 September 1974. WINTER-No records. f::. SPRING-Arrival. The early record is a male at Derby Hill on 15 March 1977. Surprisingly a fe\11 individuals have been noted during the last 10 days of March in various years. The first birds usually occur bet\-Jeen 10 and 18 April along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The high counts in spring are often between 50 and 100 per day. Occasionally, however, large swallow flights near Derby Hill can contain 500 to 1,000 of these birds per day. The average count is from 15 to 50 per day from all areas. The peak period of movement may occur any time from late April to late May. Departure. Difficult to determine, but some are passing by Derby Hill into early June in most years. SUrt1ER-Most frequent along Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake \'lith smaller numbers along rivers and in other scattered areas. colonies are of 2 to 10 pair, with the exception of large scale 11martin11 houses where larger numbers may occur. C0tf.1ENTS: It has been reported that this species is subject to large scale mortality during cold-\ltet springs.

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194 Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Flights of up to 200 per day have been recorded, but most counts are between 40 tQ 80 per day along the east end of Lake Ontario. In years when heavy flights do not occur the high counts may be 15 to 30 per day or less. This species is an early migrant and the peak movement usually occurs during September and into early October. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers usually decrease afterearly October and probably ceases by late October. species is a fairly common winter resident in all areas. In winter the numbers vary from year to year. In low abundance years 8 to 20 per day is probably normal, and 30 to 60 per day in high abundance years. Counts of 100 to 125 birds per day have been reported during intensive field efforts. SPRING-Arrival. The first birds usually pass Derby Hill between 23 and 30 Apri 1. Maximum. The highest counts are 8,670 at Derby Hill on 14 May 1976 and 3,000 to 5,500 per day have been sighted streaming along Lake Ontario. Counts of 750 to 2,000 per day are common at Derby Hill in May. The total for most seasons is in the lO's of thousands. Away from Lake Ontario numbers are substantially smaller with 25 to 75 per day. Departure. Substantial flights are passing well into June in many years. Small numbers have been noted to 20 June. SUMMER-Blue Jays are widely distributed breeders in all areas. Most common in heavily v1ooded areas where 8 to 20 per day are frequently noted. Common on the Tug Hill plateau with slightly smaller numbers elsewhere. COMMENTS: Intensive coverage would probably produce much larger totals as these counts are often based on a few hours coverage. Common Raven (Corvus corax) FALL-Record: One at Derby Hill on 21 October 19,76 (F. G. Scheider). I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Derby Hill on 17 April 1964. 2. One at Derby Hill on 27 April 1964. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: This species is surprisingly scarce in view of the large crow migrations which pass Derby Hill each spring. It is likely that the recent range expansion by this species in the northeast should lead to more local records in the future. Common Crow (Corous bracyrhynchos) FALL-Arrival. The arrival is difficult to determine, but small flocks present in late September may be migrants. Maximum. The record high counts are between 9,400 to 10,000 and have occurred four times along the east end of Lake Ontario during late October of different years. Counts of 1,500 to 4,000 per day are conmon during the last two \'leeks of October. Away from Lake Ontario counts are between 50 and 400 per day. The peak of the crow migration occurs between 15 October and 4 November. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-Small numbers of crows are present in most areas during winter. The counts average 5 to 15 per day. In areas where snow depth is substantial, very crows are present. Few are present a\'lay from the Lake Ontario shoreline and numbers increase again farther south. Small numbers usually stay through the winter, but they are rare from late January to mid-February. SPRING-Arrival. The first southerly winds and slightest rise in temperature between 12 and 22 June will bring small to moderate flights of crows to Derby Hill. During the exceptionally warm last 10 days of January 1974 small flocks of crows passed Derby Hill at the end of that month. r1aximum. Large flights of crows pass along the south shore of Lake Ontario each spring during late February and the first three weeks of March. Seasonal totals at Derby Hill have varied from 25,000 to 50,000+ per year, including at least one to two days of 7,000 to 10,000 in a season. The largest daily totals are between 13,000 195

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196 and 15,000 per day on 4 or 5 different occasions. The peak movement varies dependent on the weather conditions, but is usually between 5 and 20 March. Away from Lake Ontario numbers are much smaller with 100 to 300 per day common in March. Departure. Numbers passing Derby Hill decline rani dly during late t1arch and early April. By May the maximum number is from 10 to 20 birds per day. Some may still be moving as late as the middle of the month. SUMMER-Breeding territories are established in late February to early March and ends with fledging in late May and early June. counts of territorial breeders in this period are from 10 to 15 per day. By early June family groups are often present and counts average 10 to 25 per day. They are widely distributed in woodlands in most areas. COMMENTS: There is some evidence that the local breeding popula tion is suffering a slow decline. Although the migration counts seem large this is not the case year round. Along the shore of Lake Ontario there exists a nunber of Crow shooting stands. many view this 11Sport11 as senseless destruction of it may also account for the deaths of many hawks and eagles. Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) FALL-Arrival. Their arrival is difficult to determine, but in years of great abundance they are often noted moving along Lake Ontario by mid to late August. t1aximum. Numbers vary greatly. In years of low abundance maxima are bet\'/een 50 and 75 per day. In heavy flight years maxima are between 150 to 300 per day. The highest known counts are 450 at Derby Hill on 13 October 1969 and 598 at Derby Hill on 29 October 1969. The largest flights in recent years occurred during the fall of 1968 and 1969. The majority are restricted to the Lake Ontario shoreline, but 75 to 125 per day may be noted elsewhere. The largest numbers in flight years are usually present between 10 September and 5 Noverrber.

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Departure. Not determined. \rJINTER-Widely distributed and co11111on in most winters in all areas. They are commonly recorded as 35 to 70 per day. In some days only 10 to 25 per day are sighted. One of the most common landbirds in the winter in all areas, even the Tug Hill plateau. SPRING-Arrival. Small numbers may occur as early as late along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Return flights in spring are often smaller than the fall. In heavy flight years 100 to 175 per day are commonly sighted passing Derby Hill. Higher counts are rare but counts of 200 to 300 per day have occurred following massive fall flights. Inland col:lnts average from 50 to 75 per day. They are noted in largest numbers along Lake Ontario. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers have been noted passing Derby Hill to 20 t1ay in heavy flight years. fairly common and \-Jell-distributed breeder in all areas and most counts are 10 to 25 per day. From late t1ay to early July this species is nesting and they are quite secretive so smaller numbers are reported at this time. 13orea 1 Chickadee (Parus hudsonicus) FALL-A very rare and erratic fall migrant in this area. They are most often sighted as singles along Lake Ontario from 27-28 October especially during years of large Black-capped Chickadee flights. All records are singles and almost exclusively from the Lake Ontario shoreline. The peak years were 1967 to 1972. WINTER-All records are of singles and an average of 1 or 2 per winter when they occur at all. Records have been reported from Lake Ontario, inland areas west of Route 81 including parts of the Oswego River. Records are scattered but average 1 for every three years since 1955. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Derby Hi 11 on 17 Apri 1 1966. 2. One at Derby Hill on 17 April 1970. 197 3. 15 individuals along Lake Ontario between 19 April and 5 May 1973. 4. Two at Derby Hi 11 on 15 Apri 1 1976. 5. One at the Noyes Sanctuary on 7 May 1978. SUMMER-No records. COMMENTS: This species is an irregular visitor in this area. They are most common in the flights of Black-capped Chickadees along Lake Ontario.

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198 Tufted Titmouse (Parus bicoZor) FALL-They were virtually unknown in this area until their first major incursion between 6 and 12 November 1960 in the Fulton area. This was soon follm
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f1aximum. During years of small flights, counts along Lake Ontario are usually between 10 and 20 per day from early September to mid-October. This species is a widely distributed resident in most areas and counts average 5 to 10 per day. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-They are widely distributed in most areas in Hinter. t1ore common 199 in lowland areas than in higher areas, however. In most winters 3 to 7 per day are present in all areas, but 10 to 20 per day may be noted occasionally. SPRING-Arrival. A few are often noted passing Derby Hill during the last week of March. In most years very light flights occur along Lake Ontario and 4 to 10 per day are noted passing Derby Hill during April. In some years 20 to 60 per day and or.casionally more than 100 per day are noted there. The record high is 207 at Derby Hill on 27 April 1969. Away from Derby Hill counts average 15 to 25 per day. Away from Lake Ontario counts average only 5 to 12 per day. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers may be passing Derby Hill as late as 20-25 t1ay in heavy flight years. widely distributed breeder in all areas and most counts during the breeding season are 3 to 10 per day. C0t1t1ENTS: This species is a perfect example of the problems of compiling data on common species from publications such as the Kingbird and American Birds Apparently many people feel that because 1t is a common species there is no need to keep records of it. Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) FALL-Arrival. The record early is 3 at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1973. In heavy flight years the first birds usually appear along Lake Ontario between 20 and 25 August. Arrivals may be singles or small groups, but always along the Lake Ontario shore. In some years the first arrivals have not been sighted until mid-September.

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200 vary considerably, but in years of low abundance counts along Lake Ontario average 1 to 5 per day. During years of high abundance counts average 10 to 20 per day. Away from Lake Ontario counts average 2 to 5 per day and occasionally less. During heavy flight years substantial numbers are often present by late August, and occur until early October. Departure. Difficult to determine, but the bulk of the movement is over by 10 October with only a few moving through 1'71i d-November. tJiiITER-During most Hinters 1 to 6 per day are noted in areas \'lhen conifers are present. I-c i:; likely that substantial numbers occur in parts of the Tug Hill plateau. They are most likely to be found in spruce, fir and pine plantations. In these areas small numbers usually stay through the winter. SPRHJG-Arrival. Difficult to determine. In some years a fe\'1 may be passing Derby Hill as early as 10 to 17 April or earlier. In other years they are not sighted until early t1ay. Numbers vary considerably, but they are usually 1 ess numerous in spring than in fall. Counts may be as low as 1 to 3 per day or it can average 5 to 10 per day in heavy flightyears. t1ost of the information available is from the Lake Ontario shore where the peak movements usually occur in the first half of May. Departure. Departures may be noted as early as 20 to 25 April or as late as 15 to 23 May along Lake Ontario. The latest departures are from 28 to 31 f1ay in several years. SUW1ER-They breed in small numbers, averaging 1 to 4 per day, in the Tug Hill plateau. f1ost common near the Towns of Goyleston and Redfield in groves of conifers. Occasionally noted in the conifer plantations at Selkirk Shores State Park. They have been sighted as 1 to 4 per day on the average in this area since the early 19601s. Greeding confirmation is 1 acking here, though. Unknown in other areas except for a possible breeder in a llemlock grove in !3utterfly S\'Jamp, Town of Mexico, during 1976. B rovm Creeper (Certlzia farrriliaris) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred in the first week of September and they are usually present from 8 to 15 September along Lake Ontario. The high counts are 78 at Sandy Pond on 30 September 1976 and 60 at Sandy Pond on 28 September 1970. Counts above 30 are rare and most maxima range between 15 and 25 per day. Counts in most

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areas average 4 to 12 per day. They are most frequent, as a migrant, between 15 September and 24 October. Oeparture. Difficult to determine, but the majority of the flights are over by late October. tHNTER-Small numbers are widely distributed in most 10\'lland areas. Brown Creepers are usually more frequent in Decent>er than in 1 ate \tJinter. Counts average 1 to 4 per day with 3 to 7 per day upon occasion. Christmas counts sometimes yield higher counts. Small numbers occur in woodlands in most areas. SPRING-Arrival. Small numbers of Brm-1n Creepers are usually moving past Derby Hill during the first week of April. Maximum. The highest counts are between 40 and 60 per day. t1ost maxima are 15 to 25 per day. t1ost counts average from 5 to 15 per day along Lake Ontario. Away from Lake Ontario numbers are slightly less, but this species is widely distributed. The highest counts are usually between 7 and 28 April along Lake Ontario. Departure. Numbers decrease rapidly during early t1ay, but they have been noted passing Derby Hill to 20 May. The majority of birds that remain after this period are probably breeding. SUf'lMER-At present counts of 2 to 7 per day are common in all areas during the breeding season. They appear to be slightly more numerous in the Tug Hill areas. They seem to favor wet woodlands, such as those flooded by river banks. COMMENTS: This species has increased in recent years as a breeder. Scheider (1970) suggests that the expansion of breeding range is due primarily to the effects of the Dutch Elm disease resulting in increased availability of food supply in the diseased elms. This srecies distribution should be monitored to see if, as the dead elms disappear there is a substantial reduction in the numbers of locally breeding birds. House (Troglodytes aedon) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. 201

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202 t1aximum. The record high counts are 20 to 30 per day during several years and occurred along Lake Ontario. They are widely distributed throughout the and counts of 8 to 15 per day are common. The largest numbers are usually recorded during the first 10 days of September. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after mid-September. The last birds are usually noted between 10 and 20 October in most years. Several records exist to 25 October. The record late is one at Derby Hill on 29 October 1967. \JINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred on 20 April. The first to arrive are usually present by 24 to 28 April in many years and occasionally not until 1 to 3 i1aximum. The highest counts are between 24 and 32 per day in different years. The high counts for a given season are often 20 to 25 per day. counts are in the 15 to 25 per day range in most areas. The peak movement occurs during t1ay and is usually along Lake Ontario. Departure. Not determined. SUr1t1ERThey are a widespread breeder in a variety of successional habitats and residential areas in all sections. Counts average 15 to 35 per day in suitable habitat. Hren (Troglodytes troglodytes) Fi\LL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred 15 and 20 August, but the arrival varies considerably and they may not be sighted until 10 to 15 September. The normal arrival period is in late August along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The highest counts are 91 from Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 29 September 1968, 62 at Sandy Pond on 28 September 1970, and 56 at Sandy Pond and Hickory Grove on 28 September 1975. All other maxima are less than 50 per day. High counts normally range from 15 to 30 per day. Daily counts along Lake Ontario average 5 to 12 per day and only 5 to 8 per I I I I I I

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day in other areas. They are widely distributed in small numbers in most areas. Their peak movement often occurs between 18 September and 5 October. Departure. They decline in numbers after 10 to 15 October. Some still linger into early November. Small numbers persist into winter, but the migrants have probably left by 15 November in most years. HINTER-Singles usually attempt to winter in sheltered tangles in wet areas into December. The majority of records are from south of a line extending from Hannibal to Central Square. Their presence after December is influenced by the severity of the winter. In most years none are present after December, but occasionally a few persist through January into early February. None have been documented as surviving a complete winter in rigorous Oswego County. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival varies considerably. The earliest have occurred between 5 and 10 April. The first are often noted between 11 and 18 April, but occasionally not until 25 to 30 April. r1aximum. Spring numbers are usually much lov.Jer than those in fall. The highest counts are in the 10 to 15 per day range. The high counts are often only 3 to 6 per day. The average count is 3 to 5 per day. There is no clearly defined peak but they are most frequent during the 1 as t two v1eeks of Apri 1 and first few days of May. 203 Departure. In areas where they do not breed, the last are often noted between 14 and 22 May. uncommon but widely distributed breeder in the Tug Hill plateau, where counts of 5 to 10 per day are fairly common. Most counts in this area are 3 to 6 per day during the breeding season. AvJay from the Tug Hill plateau it is a rare and scattered breeder and counts average 1 to 2 per day. They breed in Gray Town of fi net to, and occasionally other lowland areas. COMMENTS: All breeding locations should be carefully recorded. Winter Wren: Numbers vary greatly from year to year influenced by weather conditions. They winter further south usually.

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204 Carol ina 14ren (ThY'lJOthorus ludovicianus) FALL-This is primarily a southern species and this area is the extreme northern part of its range. Carol ina Wrens are most frequent in the fall. They are very irregular and the majority of records are from tmms along Lake Ontario during October and November. All records involve l to 2 per day per location. This species was most common from 1956 to 1961 and again from 1972 to 1976. Scattered records exist for all areas except the Tug Hill plateau. They are extremely rare avtay from the Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Records exist from mid-August through late November. HINTER-Records include: l. One at Fulton on 26 December 1964. 2. Several along Lake Ontario in the winter of 1966 1967. 3. One at Sandy Pond during January 1978. include: l. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 24 April 1955. 2. One at Selkirk Shores State Park from 6 to 31 May 1956. 3. One at Pulaski on 15 May 1961. SU1111ER-Records include: l. One at Oswego on 6 July 1969. 2. One at Sandy Pond during the summer of 1977. 3. One at Sandy Pond on 13 August 1978. This species is not permanently established locally and remains primarily a fall migrant. Long-billed t1arsh LJren (Telmatodytes palustris) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. All maxima are between 8 and 20 per day and are usually from the marshes at Sandy Pond. 11ost counts average 3 to 9 per day during September and October. Well-distributed in marshes in all sectors. The larger numbers are generally noted in the larger marshes. The highest counts are often recorded during the last 10 days of Septerrber and first l 0 days of October. Deoarture. This secretive species is difficult to detect, but the last are usually noted between 10 and 18 October. The latest record is at Selkirk Shores State Park on ll November 1963. .I I

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mNTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 4 and 7 May. They are common from 8 to 12 1ay frequently in Peter Scott Swamp area. Difficult to detect due to its lack of vocalization at this time. Maximum. The highest counts are 10 to 20 per day primarily from Peter Scott Swamp area. It is likely that these counts include migrants and breeders. f"1ost common from 10 t1ay onward in marshes in a 11 areas Departure. not detemined. fairly common breeder in marshes in lowland areas. Less frequent on the Tug Hill plateau. r1ost high counts are between 15 and 25 per day from Peter Scott and other 1 arge rna rshes. Higher numbers have been estimated for Deer Creek Marsh in 1976 (Smith 1976). t1ost counts are 1 to 3 per day in smaller marshes and 3 to 10 per day in 1 arger marshes prior to the appea ranee of family groups. 205 COf1f1ENTS: There are no winter records, but individuals should be searched for in cattail marshes in December because a number of records have occurred in nearby areas. This species may be declining as a breeder as a result of the continuing degredation of wetland habitat. Short-bi 11 ed t1arsh (Cistothorus pZatensis) FALL-No records. records. SPRING-Prior to 1967 this species occurred at irregular intervals at a variety of sites on Lake Ontario lake plain. They occurred at this time, primarily at Toad Harbor along the north shore of Oneida Lake and in the Port Ontario to Sandy Pond area. Singles were reported occasionally between 15 and 31 May, with 1 to 2 per year the average. They were not present every year. Since that time very few have been reported. A 11 records are of 1 to 2 birds from 1 01-ll and areas.

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r 206 SUt1t1ERThis species has been present and probably breeding in ,June and July of various years. Very few sites have been used for more than one year. long term colonies have been located at Toad Harbor along the north shore of Oneida Lake, mid 1960's and mid 19701s, and at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station from 1969 1976. A number of other sites including Derby Hill, Port Ontario area, Sandy Pond, Vo 1 ney, and Catfish Drive in the Town of Haven have been used for one or two years. Away from these areas the species is absent. t1ost sightings involve singles or pairs during late t1ay to early July. COf1t1EtlTS: They are found most often in wet, short grass fields with patches at sedges scattered over the area. The long term status of this infrequent and erratic breeder is not clear and it is one of the most poorly documented local breeders. t1oc kin gb i rd (Mimus polyglottos) FALL-A few records of singles have occurred during various falls since 1963 along Lake Ontario. Records have been noted from mid-Aurust through tlovember most often in the f-1exi co, Sandy Creek, Pulaski and Oswego areas. Sightings only 1 record per every 4 or 5 years. WINTER-Singles have occasionally been noted in all months of winter since the early 1900's. Occurs with about the same frequency as in the fall and in the same areas. t1ost frequent in December but some have successfully wintered at Fulton and t1exico in different years. SPRINGThere have been a number of records along Lake Ontario in spring since 1961 and the majority have occurred since 1968. They are most often sighted as singles in shoreline areas especially Oswego and Derby Hill when migrants have been seen passing the lookout several times. Spring records are most frequent during the last two v-1eeks of t1ay. Away from the Lake Ontario shoreline very few spring records exist. SUt1MER-Records include: 1. One at Palermo during ,June to 27 July 1962. 2. One at Sandy Pond on 8 June 1968. COt1t1ENTS: No evidence of breeding or of any long-term increase in the numbers colonizing the areas exists. They may, however, be increasing as a visitor to this area.

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Gray Catbird (DumeteZZa caroZinensis) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after early October. A few are usually present into early Noverrber. They are very rare after 10 to 15 November and the latest sightings of migrants probably occurs between 20 and 25 Singles occasionally persist into winter. include: 1. One in the Town of New Haven on 5 December 1964. 207 2. Two near New Haven from 17 December to late December 1963. 3. -One near Oswego on 11 t1arch 1975. This may be a successful. w i n te ring b i rd. 4. One in Oswego from 21 to 22 December 1975. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred between 18 and 23 April in different years. Often the first are noted between 28 April and 3 May and occasionally not until 8 May. Maximum. The highest counts have been noted at the Sandy Pond spits where 50 to 100 per day have occurred. tos t other maxima are between 25 and 40 per day from areas along Lake Ontario. Counts average 10 to 20 per day in most areas from 5 f1ay omard. Departure. Not determined. SUft1ER-The highest counts are 30 to 35 perday in the Tug Hill plateau area. They are a widely distributed breeder in most areas and counts for summer average 10 to 20 per day in all areas. Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) FALL-Arriva 1. tJot determined. Maximum. The majority of fall counts are in the 1 to 5 per day range with 6 to 8 on accasion. They have been noted up to 12 per day along Lake Ontario. The highest numbers usually occur during late August and the first three weeks of September. Departure. In some years the last may be noted as early as 25 to 30 October. Some usually persist into the first ten days of November. Very rare after this time and the record 1 ate occurred near Selkirk Shores State Park on 19 November 1972, but a few winter records exist.

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208 I I I HINTER-Records include: l. Tvto at Lacona, Tmm of Sandy Creek, during the \'linter of 1959-60. J 2. One at during the winter of 1960-61. 3. Tv10 near New Haven from 7 Decer.Der 1964 to 18 January 1965. 4. Tvw singles at different locations in the Town of Sandy Creek during the winter of 1965-66. SPRING-Arrival. They consistently appear between 14 and 22 April, usually at Derby Hill or at other places along Lake Ontario. Maximum. All maxima are less than 9 per day and most counts are l to 5 per day in all areas where suitable habitat exists. They are common from 20 to 25 April onward. The highest counts are often noted during the first \'leek of \Jidely distributed in most brushland areas. Departure. Not determined. SUt1t1ER-They are distributed, but an uncommon breeder in brushlands in most areas. Most counts are 1 to 5 per day. They are more common in the Tug Hill plateau area where counts are usually between 3 to 8 per day. Their distribution is quite spotty in most areas. They are most frequently recorded from t1ay through early June when they are calling. American Robin (Turdus migratorius) FALL-Arrival. rlot determined. taximum. There are several high counts between 900 and 1,500 per day from mid-September to late October in various years. Most maxima are between 400 and 800 per day from all sectors, but most often near Lake Ontario. Counts average 100 to 250 birds per day in many areas from mid-September through November. \Jidely distributed in all areas with flocks occurring in most habitats. High counts occur any time from mid-September and mid-October. Departure. Numbers persist through November in many years. Their migration is usually over by late October, but may persist into December in some years. mNTER-Numbers present in winter vary greatly from year to year. They tend to be localized in winter with substantial numbers in some areas and none in nearby areas. The counts average from 1 to 10 per day in December. They are probably absent by this time in the Tug Hill plateau aren.s. Favored locations such as the Rice Creek Biological Field Station and Fair Haven Beach State Park may have 50 to 200 birds per day at this time. By late December

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and January these counts dwindle to 15 to 50 oer day. In other areas only scattered groups and singles of 1 to 5 per day are present. After mid-January they may be absent in some years or substantial numbers may occur in other years. There are only a fev.J late January sightings. In winter Robins favor tangled areas of vines and brush with an abundance of fruiting shrubs along with some wet areas or open water. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals occur between 20 and 25 February. They usually appear between 26 February and 7 t1arch. t1aximum. The largest counts are of flights passing Derby Hill during t1arch and April. The highest counts are 3,500 and 3,800 per day which occurred tvli ce. A number of counts from 2,000 to 2,500 per day have occurred and counts of 900 and 1,800 per day are not uncommon at Derby Hi 11. Away from Lake Ontario counts average 100 to 300 per day. Peak movements may occur from mid-March through the third week of April. Departure. Difficult to determine but relatively few are passing Derby Hill after 5 t1ay. Definite migrations have been noted as 1 ate as 20-25 tay. SUt1f1ERThey are common and vlidespread from early f1ay onward. Robins are nesting by mid-April and the first juveniles often fledged by 20-25 May in most years. It is a common breeder and daily counts depend on the amount of territory covered. Counts average 20-80 per day with larger counts of 100 to 250 per day on occasion. Thrush (HyZocichZa musteZina) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Quite scarce in fall and most maxima are 5 to 10 per day. There are no counts over 10 per day. Hell-distributed but the higher counts usualiy come from areas along Lake Ontario. Most counts are 2 to 6 per day during August through September. Departure. Small numbers are usually present through the end of September to the first week of October. There are records of singles to 20 October in some years. Only one November record of 209 one on the breakwall at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 23 November 1968. WINTER-No records.

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/ 210 SPRING-Arrival. The record earlv arrivals have occurred on 28 April. Usually the first are not noted until 3 to 9 and occasionally 1 ater. t1aximum. The highest counts are 30 to 35 per day, but most maxima are between 12 and 20 per day. Most counts average 6 to 15 per day in most areas. Widely distributed in most woodlands, but higher numbers are usually from along Lake Ontario during the last two weeks of Hay. Departure. riot determined. They are a widespread and fairly common breeder in most woodland areas. Counts of 10 to 20 per day are common in most sectors during June and July. Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) FALL-Arrival. Arrival varies considerably and the earliest arrivals occurred betvteen 19 and 23 August during different years. In many years the first are not noted until 10 to 17 September or even later. Usually first sighted as singles along Lake Ontario and may be expected from late August onward. Haximum. The record high is 66 at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 September 1976. In some years the high counts are only 3 to 10 per day and sometimes 30 to 35 per day are sighted. Counts average 3 to 10 per day during the last half of September and the first 3 weeks of October. The peak movements usually occur 1 ater than other Thrushes and usually peaks between 1 and 18 October. Departure. Departure usually occurs between 9 and 15 ttovember. Occasionally singles may occur after 20 Hovember and there are a few winter records also. WINTER-Records include: 1. One in the County Christmas count on 19 December 1971. 2. One along the Lake Ontario shore on 2 December 1973. SPRING-Arrival. The first birds consistently appear between 7 and 14 April at var1ous locations. I I I I I I I I I I

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Maximum. The highest counts are 20 to 25 per day but most maxima are 8 to 13 per day and are usually from Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Counts average 3 to 7 birds per day from mid-April to 10 May, but numbers vary greatly from year to year. Peak movements occur bet\lleen 20 and 30 April and occasionally to mid-t1ay. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after early t1ay. The last to leave, away from breeding areas, are usually noted bet\11een 10 and 17 t1ay. SUt1MER-A fairly common breeder in the Tug Hi 11 plateau, but virtually unknown elsewhere in the summer. Counts of 3 to 10 per day are common in the higher towns in the Tug Hill area. Counts of 15 to 20 per day have been noted there upon occasion. In other areas only one record of two birds near Pulaski during the summer of 1972 has been reported, but breeding in that area is not confirmed. Swainsons Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals are one at Colosse on 29 July 1978 and one at Sandy Pond on 31 July 1977. They are not usually noted until 22 August to the first week of September along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high is 70 at Fair Haven Beach State Park and Hannibal on 19 September 1973 and the next highest is 35 at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 14 September 1970. Most other maxima are 10 to 20 per day and in some years only 3 to 5 per day 211 are the high counts. They are most frequent along Lake Ontario 5 to 12 per day are often present. Away from Lake Ontario numbers decrease. The peak period varies, but the highest counts between 5 and 25 September. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly during the last third of September. Small numbers persist through 10 October. The last depart between 10 and 17 October usually. The record late was at Great Bear Farm, Tovm of Schroeppel on 27 October 1963. HINTER-No records.

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; 212 SPRING-Arrival. The first birds are often present between 8 and 13 May and occasionally not until 16 May. t1aximum. The record high is 40 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 25 t1ay 1963. Several counts are reported in the 25 to 35 per day range primarily along Lake Ontario. They are, generally, widely distributed in spring and 10 to 15 per day along Lake Ontario is the average count. In some years very few are present and 4 to 8 per day may be the high counts. Peak counts usually occur between 20 and 28 May. Departure. The last are almost always noted between 26 and 30 t1ay in areas a1;1ay from their breeding grounds in the Tug Hill plateau. SUMMER-They breed in small numbers in the higher areas of the Tug Hill plateau. During June counts of 2 to 9 per day have been recorded, primarily in the Towns of Redfield and Boyleston. The area from Otto Mills Road north though the Little John Game Management Area is particularly favored by this species. They are unknown away from the Tug Hi 11 plateau area in summer. COMMENTS: A more intensive study of the Tug Hill plateau should be done to determine the number and kind of birds breeding in this area. Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus) FALL-Arrival. The first are usually present between 8 and 13 September and occasionally later. Maximum. The record high is 14 at Fair Haven Beach State Park and Hannibal on 10 October 1976. Many maxima are in the 4 to 6 per day range and in many years the counts are only 2 to 3 per day. Most counts are 1 to 3 per day and most observers only see 1 to 4 per season. They are most common during the last two t'leeks of September. Departure. The last are usually recorded between 4 and 9 October. Very rare after 10 to 15 October. The latest is at Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 October 1967.

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213 WINTER-No records. SPRHlG-Arrival. They have occurred as early a; 8 to 12 t1ay, but the first are not usually noted until 15 to 20 r1ay and often along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The maxima are only 2 to 3 per day. Most sightings involve singles. They are most common along Lake Ontario from 18 to 27 They are an irregular and scattered migrant over much of the area. Departure. Not determined. SUt-tlER-No records. This species is the least common Thrush due to its secretive habits, relatively rare occurrence, and difficulty Veery of identification. It may be that they are more common than counts suggest and intensive mist netting activities along Lake Ontario would probably produce higher counts. (Catharus fuscescens) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. t1ost fall maxima are 4 to 8 per day and no counts are more than 10 per day. They are widely distributed in most areas and 2 to 5 per day is the average. The high counts usually occur during the last week of August often along Lake Ontario. Field work in the Tug Hill plateau probably produce higher counts. Departure. The last are often noted between 8 and 15 September. Occasionally singles linger after 15 to 20 September, but these are very rare. The record late of one at Lakeview on 26 October 1975 (F. G. Scheider). HINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early occurred at Derby Hill on 15 April 1967. The first occurred between 1 and 5 r1ay in mast years. Maximum. The highest counts are between 25 and 42 per day and have occurred along Lake Ontario in several different years. Counts of 15 to 25 per day are infrequent in that area. Counts average 8 to 15 per day. The peak movement usually often occurs beb1een 15 and 20

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214 Departure. Difficult to determine, but some have been noted nn the b 1 uff at Derby Hi 11 where they do not breed, as 1 ate as 1 to 4 June. SUMMER-A fairly common and widespread breeder in woodlands in all areas. They are most frequent in the Tug Hill plateau where counts of 40 to 55 per day have been recorded. Counts average 15 to 30 per day. They are present in smaller numbers in other areas, pa rti cul a rly in wet woodlands, where 4 to 12 per day are common. In upland woodlots they are less frequent and only isolated pairs are present. Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialisJ FALL-Arriva 1. tlot determined. Maximum. Prior to the 1960's counts of 10 to 20 per day were not infrequent.Since that time this species has become more scarce and recent maxima are 8 to 10 per day. counts average 1 to 6 per day, but these sightings are scattered and infrequent. They are most frequent from late September through October. Sightings occur in all areas but are slightly more frequent in the Lake Ontario shore areas. Departure. Often present to 1 to 4 November. Very rare after this in recent years. but in earlier years they were often present to 1015 November. None are present after 15 November. WINTER-Record: One near Phoenix, Town of Schroeppel, on 20 February 1955 SPRING-Arrival. The record early occurred at Constantia on 12 March 1966 They usually occur between 18 and 26 and frequently at Derby Hill or other places along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high is 38 at Derby Hill on 15 April 1972. Counts of 10 to 20 are not uncommon at Derby Hill. In other areas they are much less common and counts are only 2 to 5 per day along Lake Ontario and at inland areas. f11ost common at Derby Hill from 25 March to 20 April. Departure. Difficult to determine, but a fev1 have been sighted passing Derby Hill as late as 20 May. The record late occurred at Derby Hill on 29 May 1970.

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215 SUMMER-Prior to the mid-l9601s small numbers, 2 to 6 per day, were present in several areas. Since that time the local breeding population has been greatly reduced and most sightings are only 1 to 2 per day. t1ost common in the Tug Hill plateau and just south and east of Lake Ontario, vlith scattered pairs in other areas. COMMENTS: Intensive efforts should be made to monitor their status as a breeder and to institute management programs including houses in some areas. If the current rate continues the 11State bird11 be only a spring migrant through the area. Blue Gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but singles present along Lake Ontario betv1een 12 and 20 August are probably migrants. Maximum. All counts are of 1 to 2 per day, primarily from Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Very fevl are sighted in other lowland areas and none elsewhere. t1ost sightings occur between 15 and 29 August. Departure. Most are gone by the end of August and the species is very rare in September. The latest sightings include 2 at Oswego on 1 October 1972 a:1d 1 at Sandy Pond on 1 October 1971. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early occurred at Derby Hill on 9 April 1969. The first often occur along Lake Ontario between 15 and 22 April. This species has increased noticeably as a spring migrant since 1964. At present it is common in small numbers along Lake Ontario and occasionally other lowland areas. It is unknown in the Tug Hill plateau. Away from Lake Ontario they .are most common from Oneida Lake v/estwa rd to the OS\'iego River and south to Central Square. Most counts are 1 to 3 per day along Lake Ontario and maxima are between 5 and 7 per day. The record high is 14 on 30 April 1972 bet\'1een Derby Hill and Nine Point. Away from Lake Ontario counts average l to 2 per day. Departure. Few are present after 10 to 15 t1ay, but singles have been noted at Derby Hill as late as 22 May. Individuals present after 20 May may be breeders.

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216 SUt1t1ER-A very rare and uncommon breeder at scattered locations in lowland sectors. During the mid-1960's breeding was confirmed in the Peter Scott Swamp area and during the summer of 1978 breeding v1as confirmed at Rice Creek Bio logical Field Station. Intensive investigation in the summer of 1976 found this bird present in scattered locations between Derby Hill and Oswego. It appears that this species breeds in very small numbers along Lake Ontario and in southern sections along rivers. The record of one on 14 June 1973 near Otto t1ills, Town of Redfield, in the Tug Hill plateau is interesting although no proof of breeding exists. Most summer sightings are singles or pairs on an infrequent basis. The Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher is another 11Southern11 species which has been expanding north in recent years and is now a fairly regular spring migrant in the area. Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satPapa) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 10 and 12 September. They are usually present between 14 and 17 September and usually noted along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The record high counts are 450 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 October 1967 and 410 at Sandy Pond to Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 Seotember 1976. No other counts of more than 250 are recorded and most maxima are from 100 to 200 per day along Lake Ontario and 50 to 100 per day at other areas. The largest movement occurs between 25 September and 20 October. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers decline rapidly during 1 ate October and early Novenber. The majority of migrants have probably left by 15 to 20 November. WINTER-t1ost often noted as one to five per day in areas of intensive conifer growth. Occasionally counts of 10 to 15 per day are reported. The record high is 30 near Pleasant Lake, Town of Schroeppel, on 11 February 1962. They are usually more frequent in December but some persist through the \'linter. Less frequent inland than alon9 Lake Ontario. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine due to \tlintering birds, but small numbers are usually moving along Lake Ontario between 29 March and 4 April.

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Maximum. The record high is 200 between Derby Hill and Nine f1ile Point on 30 April 1972. t1ost maxima are 50 to 75 per day at scattered locations in most areas. Counts average 20 to 40 per day. The greatest numbers occur during the 1 as t two v1eeks of /.\pri 1. Departure. In some years the last are seen beb1een 7 and 13 May. The last leave between 19 and 22 The record late is at Sandy Pond on l June 1975. breed in small numbers in scattered locations on the Tug Hill plateau exclusively. The high count for the Tug Hill is 6 per day. Counts usually average l to 4 per day. They appear to be restricted to the Towns of Boyleston and Redfield. Most often sighted in large conifer plantations. Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at the Tug Hill plateau on 12 August 1971 and may be a summering bird. The next earliest sightings are between 2 and 4 September. Often the first are noted between 8 and 13 September and occasionally later. The record high counts are 530 at Selkirk Shores State Park to Sandy Pond area on 30 September 1976 and 505 on 28 September 1970 at Sandy Pond. Most maxima are from 80 to 150 per day. Counts average 20 to 65 per day. Numbers ar.e usually less at inland areas. The peak movement occurs from 25 September to 15 October in most years. 217 Departure. Small flocks are present through 14 November in most years. The last are often noted bet\'1een 15 and 20 November. They are very rare after 25 November. HINTER-Records include (after mid-December): l. One at Selkirk Shores.State Park on 16 December 1967. 2. One along Lake Ontario on 14 January 1973. SPRING-Arrival. The first are usually present between 17 and 18 April in most years.

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218 Maximum. Spring maxima are usually between 75 and 100 per day and most high counts are only 35 to 60 per day. Counts average 20 to 40 per day from all areas. r1ost frequent from 25 April to 15 May. Departure. Departure usually occurs between 15 and 20 in most years. Occasionally sighted between 25 and 31 Very rare in June, with the latest sightings at t1ile Point on 4 June 1972, at Derby Hill on 5 June 1971, and at Selkirk Shores State Park on 26 June 1977. SUMMER-Record: One in dense spruce forest at the Little John Game t,1anagement Area, Town of Redfield on 27 June 1977. Hater Pi pit (Anthus spinoletta) FALL-Arrival. The record early is 100 at Sandy Pond on 31 August 1957. The arrival occasionally occurs beb1een 3 and 5 September, but usually occurs bet'.'Jeen 9 and 13 September. They are first noted along Lake Ontario at the Sandy Pond spits. The record hi]hs are 600 at Sandy Pond on 2 October 1976 and 500 from Sandy Pond to Derby Hill on .25 October 1970. All other maxima are less than 200 per day. The high counts usually range between 60 to 100 per day. Counts average 10 to 25 per day along Lake Ontario and in suitable habitat in inland areas. Most often seen between mid-September and the end of October. Departure. Numbers decline during the first week of Noventer. The last are often noted between 12 and 18 December in many years. They are very rareafter this time. FALL records. SPRING-Arrival. The first usually arrive between 30 March and 5 April and sometimes not until 8 to 10 April. Maximum. The highest count is 150 at Derby Hill on 6 May 1961. All other counts are less than 100 per day and most maxim are only 30 to 50 per day. Counts average 10 to 15 per day from along Lake Ontario and other suitable habitats. They may be sighted in suitable habitat any time from early April to early May.

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Departure. The departure usually occurs between 15 and 22 May in most years. Occasionally a few linger on to 26 May but they are very rare after this. The record lates are on 4 June 1972 at Nine f1ile Point and on 5 June 1971 at Derby Hill. SUt1t1ER-tlo records. Bohemian Waxwing (BombyciZZa garruZus) FALL-Recent records include: 1. One at Derby Hill on 10 November 1965. 2. One at Noyes Sanctuary, Town of Haven, on 23 Noverrber 1969. 3. One at Noyes Sanctuary on 13 November 1971. 4. Five at Derby Hi 11 on 13 November 1975. WINTER-Recent records include: 1. Eleven at Sandy Pond on 8 December 1968. 2. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 9 December 1972. 3. Two west of Oswego on 21 Decenber 1972., 4. 115 birds near Port Ontario on 14 December 1975. 5. One at Pleasant Point on 3 December 1977. SPRING-Record: Singles near Peter Scott Swamp from 7 to 19 April 1973. SUMMER-No records. Cedar Waxwing (BombyciZZa cedrorum) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest count is 440 on 6 October 1972 in Oswego County. t1ost other maximaare 200 to 250 per day. In some years maxima only reach 50 to 100 per day. They are widely distributed, but abundance at a certain location varies greatly from year to year. They are most abundant during September and October. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers decline after early tloverrber. Large flocks often persist into winter. 219

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220 vJINTER-The high counts range from 150 to 200 per day. counts average 2J t0 30 per day in most years and 5 to 10 rer day in low abundance years. This species distribution is spotty and large flocks may be present in certain areas with none for mi 1 es around. F1 ocks are most common in areas vlith numerous fruit trees. The local weather conditions does not seem to affect Cedar lJaxwings. SPRING-Arrival. Sometimes difficult to determine, but movements can be detected at Derby IIi 11 between 27 April and 7 May. They may be noted as early as mi d-t1arch. Very common after 10 t1ay. Maximum. The highest counts are of flights passing Derby Hill and the record high is 2,100 there on 2 June 1971. A number of 800 to 1 ,200 per day counts have been noted at Derby Hill during late May and early June in various years. Counts of 250 to 550 are frequent at Derby Hill at this time. Away from Derby Hill most maxima are less than 200 per day and counts average 50 to 125 per day in all areas. The peak flights occur very late, between 20 May and 15 June along Lake Ontario. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small flocks have been seen passing Derby Hill as late as 25 June. SUMMER-A fairly common breeder in all areas. Counts of 10 to 30 per day are normal from late June through early August. This species is a very late breeder and nesting often starts in July and many pairs may still be nesting by mid-August. North em Shrike (La:nius excvhitm>) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 21 and 24 October. They are usually seen between 27 October and 4 rJovember along Lake Ontario. In some years they may not arrive until 10 to 15 November or even later. t1aximum. All fall counts are 1 to 3 per day and the majority involve singles. Most frequent along Lake Ontario and only scattered singles in other areas. Departure. Not determined.

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WINTER-Numbers vary greatly from year to year. In some years only scattered singles are reported while in other years l to 3 per day are common. The highest counts are 5 to 6 per day. Counts average 1 to 2 per day. They are most common in open areas with brush or trees scattered about or along wood edges and in orchards. They are usually very solitary and most common in December and January. Fe\'Jer, l or less per day, are present in February. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but a noticeable increase occurs in the first thtrd of March. Maximum. Most counts during March are l to 3 per day in good years and only singles in low years. Small numbers of migrants are usually scattered along Lake Ontario and l to 2 per day are present at Derby Hill at this time. In other areas only singles are reported usually. Counts of more than 3 are rare and 6 occurred at Derby Hill on l April 1970. Only scattered singles are present after 22 to 25 t1arch. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after 20 March and the last may benoted between 20 and 31 t1arch in some years. Usually a few persist to early April. The departure occurs between 3 and 9 April with only a few records to 13 April and none after this time. SUt1MER-No records. COMMENTS: Shrikes often appear at bird feeders to prey on the many other birds concentrated there. Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius Zudovicianus) FALL-Arrival. Their arrival is difficult to determine, but the fe1 which have appeared beb1een 17 and 20 August are probably migrants. 221 Maximum. All records are of singles and are primarily from sites near Lake Ontario with very few in other areas. In fall, 1 to 3 per season is not uncommon and they may not be seen at all in some falls. Sightings are most frequent during the last two weeks of August. Fall numbers have been decreasing since 1970.

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Departure. A few records have occurred from late September throu.gh early October. Very rare after this the record late near Sandy Pond on 12 November 1955. \HNTER-rJo records. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival dates vary greatly from year to year. The record early occurred at Derby Hill on 26 February 1971 and a few other sightings have been reported between 28 February and 7 in various years. In many years the first occur between 18 rarch and 30 t1arch and occasionally as late as 4 April. Maximum. The highest counts occur along Lake Ontario, usually at Derby Hi 11, where 3 to 5 per day have been reported. In other areas most sightings involve singles in all sectors but these counts are rare. During large flights l to 3 per day may be noted especially during the last week of and the first two weeks of April. Spring counts appear to be declining in recent years. Departure. In some years the 1 ast are seen betv1een 10 and 17 May but in most years a few are still passing along Lake Ontario to 25 to 30 April. The latest have been sighted as late as 10 May. Individuals present after 5 May along Lake Ontario and after early April in inland areas may be breeders. SUt1MER-Prior to 1966 this species bred regularly in small numbers of 2 to 5 pair per season, along Lake Ontario. After the mid 1960's a decline began which has resulted in the total disappearance of this species from t1exico northward. Since about 1973 summer sightings have usually involved singles and no breeding was observed. The only recent record is a nest with 4 eggs near New Haven on l 1975. Away from Lake Ontario very few breeding records exist in the last quarter century. Occasionally singles and pairs are reported in the Tug Hill plateau and in southern parts of the county. Sightings should be carefully documented and an effort made to determine their breeding status in this area. COMMENTS: The Loggerhead Shrike should be considered a threatened species in New York State and intensive study and management efforts should be conducted to prevent its disappearance. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Starling (Sturnus vuZgaris) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high counts are the 5,000 to 15,000 per day which have been noted along Lake Ontario in various years. They are abundant and widely distributed and counts of 2,000 to 5,000 per day are not uncommon. Counts of 1,000 to 2,000 per day are common in agricultural lands, cities, and other areas. Roost surveys would probably yield 20,000 to 40,000 per day counts in some areas. Departure. Not determined. 223 WINTER-Less common in winter and counts of 2,000 to 4,000 per day are often noted in urban areas and 250 to 1,000 in other areas such as agricultural lands. Probably less frequent in traditional "snowbelt" areas. Limited data are available but they appear to be scarce in the higher country east of Lake Ontario. Numbers may be reduced slightly in severe winters. SPRING-Arrival. Small numbers are usually noted passing Derby Hill between 15 and 26 February in some years. Maximum. The highest counts are 10,000 to 20,000 per day which have been sighted passing Derby Hill and are probably deceptively low. Counts of 2,000 to 8,000 per day occur regularly at Derby Hill during March. Counts of 2,000 to 4,000 per day are normal for areas away from Derby Hi 11. Counts average 1 ,000 to 3,000 per day from all areas. The largest counts occur along Lake Ontario in March and the first two weeks of April. Departure. Difficult to determine, but nunt>ers passing Derby Hill usually dec 1 i ne rapidly during 1 ate Apri 1 and the first week of May. Small flocks are noted at Derby Hill regularly through t1ay to 10 June and occasionally later. SW.fv1ER-A common breeder in all areas but least abundant in the more isolated sections of the Tug Hill plateau. The number of this species seen during the summer depends on the type and amount of territory covered, but counts of 1 ,000 to 3,000 per day are common.

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224 White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) FALL-No records. \JINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One at Sandy Pond on 22 t1ay 1977. SUHt1ER-No records. Yellow-throated Vireo {Vireoflavifrons) FALL-Arri va 1. Not detenni ned. Maximum. The highest counts of 3 to 5 per day have occurred along Lake Ontario and in the Tovm of P-edfield in the Tug plateau. maximas are 3 to 4 per day and counts average only 1 to 2 per day. !1ost frequent along Lake Ontario but occur a 11 over. !1os t common during the 1 as t 1 0 days of August and first 10 da,ls of September. Departure. usually decline rapidly betHeen 10 and 17 September and the dera rture usually occurs betvJeen 20 and 30 September. Quite rare in October but the record lates occur between 6 and 8 October. \HtiTER-ilo records. SPRING-Arrival. Data are limited, but it appears that the first usually appear during the first week of The record early arrivals have occurred from 28 to 30 April. t1aximum. All counts are 1 to 5 per day with 1 to 3 per day the average counts. Small numbers are scattered in all areas after 7 to 10 !1ay. are not con1non in the Tug Hill plateau until the last 10 days of appear to be most frequent during the mid-two v1eeks of 11ay. Departure. Not determined. Sllt111ER-A vlidely distributed but rare breeder in all areas. In most lowland areas counts are 1 to 4 per day at scattered breeding sites, especially in vwt vmodlands and along wooded streams. t1ore common as a breeder in the Tug Hill plateau area \-.Jhere 4 to 8 per day are common in June and July and counts of 10 to 12 per day have been recorded. Favored locales are the Otto area of the Town of Redfield. Summer records should be carefully recorded and their status determined for future use. I I I I I

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Solitary Vireo (Vireo Ft\LL-Arrival. The record early VJas at Sandy Pond on 17 /\ugust 1975. Thev have been noted several tiMes between 22 and 28 August in different vears. The first arrivals usuallv occur between 28 August and 2 Ser>tenher. r1aximurn. The record hiqh is 14 along Lake Ontario on 26 Sertember 1976 with the next highest 11 per dav on two occasions along Lake Ontario. f'1ost maxima are 5 to 8 per dav and counts average 1 to 4 per day in most areas. The highest numbers are often noted along Lake Ontario during the last two weeks of the month. Departure. Numbers decline during early October and departure occurs betvJeen 10 and 15 October. Some may persist to 25 October in some years. The latest record is at Selkirk Shores State Park on 8 ilovember 1970. \JINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. Thev are often the first vireo to appear in spring. They have been between 24 and 28 April. Often the first ilre not noted 1mtil 31J Arril to 4 ray. t1aximum. Counts average 1 to 4 rer day with no counts higher than 4 per day. The largest numbers are from along Lake Ontario. r1ost frequent bet\Jeen 5 and 20 t1av in most areas. Departure. The last are noted between 21 and 27 May, usually. Occasionally a few rersist to 30-31 :ay but no ,June records have been reported. breed regularly in the Tug Hill plateau. They are extremely rare away from the immediate Tug Hill area. Counts average 1 to 4 per day, but 5 to 8 per day have been noted on occasion. Red-eyed Vi reo (Vireo ol ivoc:ezm) FALL-Arrival. Hot determined. 225

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226 t1aximum. The record high is 98 along Lake Ontario on 19 August 1972. A nurmer of maxima from 55 to 76 per day have been noted. Counts of 15 to 30 per day are usually noted along Lake Ontario. In most other areas 10 to 20 per day are often noted. The high counts may occur from 18 August to mid-September. They are usually the most numerous migrant vireo in the fall. Departure. The departure usually occurs during the first week of October. A few may linger to 15 October occasionally. Very rare after, \'lith the record late along Lake Ontario on 2 November 1972. HlilTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. No Apri 1 records have been reported and they are usually first sighted bet\'leen 4 and 8 t1ay and occasionally later. Maximum. The record high is 300+ on the Sandy Pond spits on 27 May 1961. All other counts are less than 80 per day and the high counts are usually 50 to 65 per day. High counts are restricted to Lake Ontario shoreline areas and counts in this area average 25 to 40 per day. In other areas counts average 10 to 20 per day. They are most numerous during the last two \'leeks of May. Oeparture. Difficult to determine, but small numbers have been noted regularly at Derby Hill during the first tvm days of June. \'lidespread breeder in most woodland habitats. They are most numerous in the Tug Hi 11 plateau where counts reach 60 to 98 per day and average 25 to 45 per day. In other areas counts average 10 to 30 per day. They are common in the larger woodlands and are probably the most common breeding Vireo. Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philade lphicus) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at Little Sandy Creek on 30 July 1978. The next earliest are at Sandy Pond on 5 August 1973 and one at Sandy Pond on 10 August 1975. The first are usually noted betv1een 21 and 31 August along Lake Ontari n. f1aximum. The record high is 16 along Lake Ontario at Sandv Pond on 1 September 1975. Counts of 7 to 9 per day are very rare and 2 to 4 per date are noted only occasionally. The vast majority of counts are singles or 1 to 2 per day. Counts of more than 3 per day are restricted to the Lake Ontario area. They are most numerous between

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the last few days of August and 20 September. These birds are very secretive and higher counts are possible. Departure. of October. rare after. 1972. The departure usually occurs during tile first week Singles may linger to 15 October but are extremely The record late is along Lake Ontario on 2 November WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive beti'Jeen 10 and 17 and sometimes a few days later. Maximum. Most sightings involve singles and occasionally 2 per day. Counts of 3 to 5 per day are noted infrequently along Lake Ontario. The greater numbers are present during the last 10 days of May. Departure. The last are usually noted betv.Jeen 28 and 31 r1ay. The record late occurred on 3 June. SUt1tER-Record: One at Otto t1ills on 23 June 1977. 11ay be a very late migrant. vJarbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) FALL-Arrival. Not Maximum. The record high is 40 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 28 August 1968. t1ost high counts are 12 to 20 per day and counts average only 4 to 10 per day in all areas. The highest numbers present from 18 August to 10 September. Departure. The last are often noted betv1een 19 and 25 September and occasionally to 30 September. The latest records have been noted to 3 October. records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 15 April 1967. The normal arrival period is from 27 April to 3 f1ay,. usually along Lake Ontario. 227

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228 r1aximum. The highest counts are 15 to 20 per day from Selkirk Shores State Park to Sandy Pond and are usually recorded betv1een 15 and 22 i-1ay. t1os t other high counts are 8 to 14 per day and the average is only 4 to 8 ner day in most sections. Peak mover.1ents usually occur betv1een 15 and 25 t1ay. Deoarture. Not determined. SUW1ER-A widely distributed breeder in all areas, but least abundant in the Tug Hill. t1ost counts are 5 to 12 per day in lowland areas and 1 to 4 per day in the Tug Hill plateau area. Present along wooded edges, especially large shade trees, and in rural areas. It is often the only Vireo present in residential areas on a regular basis. Black-and-white Warbler (UniotiUa var>ia) FALL-Arrival. The first birds are often noted at the Sandy Pond dunes as early as 5 to 17 August. They may not arrive until 25 to 29 August in sone years. The arrival counts are only considered from non-nesting areas along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high counts are 15 per day and have been noted a few times along Lake Ontario. t1axima are usually only 5 to 8 per day and counts from all areas average 3 to 5 per day. The high counts are often from the period 16 to 26 August. Seasonal high counts are rarely recorded later than this with the exception of 13 at Sandy Pond on 2 October. Departure. Departure frequently occurs betvJeen 27 September and 20 October. Rare after this, but singles persist to 12 October occasionally. The record 1 ate is at Sandy Pond on 15 October 1966. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first appear consistently between 27 April and 3 r1ay usually at Derby Hill or at other rlaces along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The highest counts are 8 to ll per day often from the Noyes Sanctuary and elsev1here along Lake Ontario. Counts average 2 to 6 per day during the first three weeks of t1ay. Departure. The last are often noted beb1een 21 and 27 May vlith a few records later than this. The record late is at Derby Hill on 1 and 2 June. SUt1r1ERThey are an uncommon but widely distributed breeder in the Tug Hill plateau and surrounding areas and 2 to 7 per day are average counts. Scattered singles occur in lm'lland sectors in the breeding season

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onotary Harbler FALL-Record: One immature male at Sandy Pond on 14 August 1969. (D. H. Crumb). UINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 13 t1ay 1962. SUrt1ER-No records. This species is only an extremely rare migrant locally and it is unlikely to ever occur in larger numbers in the future. FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 22 May 1954. 2. TVIo at Selkirk Shores Si:ate Park on 13 r1ay 1959. 3. at Selkirk Shores State Park on 25 t1ay 1960. 4. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 29 April 1962. 5. One at Selkirk Shores State Park during May 1964. 6. One in the area during t1ay 1964. SUMt1ER-No records. FALL-Arrival. Their arrival is difficult to determine, but individuals have been reported in non-breeding areas, betv.Jeen 16 and 21 in several years. 229 t1aximum. The record high is 13 along Lake Ontario on 19 August 1972. Other counts of 8 to 9 per day have been reported. This species has increased as a fall migrant sincethemid-1960's. Counts used to total 3 for an entire season and now 1 to 3 per day are common. Counts average 1 to 3 per day along Lake Ontario and at other scattered

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230 locations. FevJ are noted in highland n.rens. The peak occurs betv1een 16 and 25 /\ugust along LakeOntario. Oeparture. The lnst are often noted bet\leen 22 and 29 1\ugust. They may linger to 7 to 9 Septemher. The record late occurred on 12 September in 1964 at Selkirk Shores State Park and in 1971 at Stone Road. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 1 May 1970. In recent years this species has increased as a migrant locally. The normal arrival period is from 6 to 10 f1ay and frequently occurs along Lake Ontario. Maximum. Most counts are only 1 to 4 per day and ore frequently noted from breeding areas along Lake Ontario. It is rrobable that most spring counts are of breeders rather than migrants. Oenarture. !lot determined. SUt1;1ER-A sparse and scattered breeder in most lm1land sections of the county. Most counts average 1 to 3 per day at scattered locations along Lake Ontario. Usually rare in the heavily wooded sections of the Tug Hill plateau, but present in nearby areas such as the Happy Valley Game r1anagement Area. They prefer mid-height brushlands. The status of this species should be carefully \'latched in the future. Hybrids-The "Brev1sters" type hybrid is noted as 1 to 3 per day in migration and at breeding sites occasionally. \Jsua lly noted a 1 ong Lake Ontario. The "Lav1rences" type hybrid has one record: One adult feeding tvJO young Uarblers in central Osvego County on 14 and 15 July 1971. Blue-vdnged \Jarbler (Vermivora pinus) FALL-1\rrival. Not determined. Maximum. All records involve singles and are mainly from Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Very fev1 are reported in other areas. Very rare north and east of Mexico excent along Lake Ontario. Oeparture. Rare after August and very rare after 7 September. The record late is one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 September 1971. I I I I I I

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231 WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest records have occurred between 5 and 8 but often none are noted until or later in some years. Maximum. All records are of singles primarily from Lake Ontario shoreline areas during the last t\'IO \'Jeeks of The majority of spring counts may involve birds from breeding locations and not necessarily migrants. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-A very rare and occasional breeder. They breed primarily in areas west of Interstate 81 along Lake Ontario. They are unknown elsewhere and even in breeding areas counts are only 1 to 2 per summer. It was not until the early 19701s that summer sightings were noted with any regularity. It appears that the no rttn-1a rd expansion of their range, Hhich has reached Onondaga County, may be reaching our area. All summer sighting should be carefully recorded and checked for breeding so any expansion can be monitored. ee (Vermivora peregrina) FALL-Arrival. The record earl i es are 5 at Sandy Pond on 31 ,July 1977 and one at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1975. The first often occur between 17 and 22 August at Sandy Pond or at other places along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The highest counts are 30 to 37 per day and most maxima are 15 to 20 per day usually from the Lake Ontario shoreline. Counts average 5 to 10 per day in most sectors with slightly higher counts along Lake Ontario. Substantial numbers are often present by the first few days of August in many years. Departure. Varies consi
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232 \HNTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first often occur between 5 and 12 Maximum. The highest counts are tvw betv1een 50 and 60 per day, with most higher counts of 25 to 35 per They are often noted along Lake Ontario shorelines. They are v1idely distributed and counts average 5 to 10 per day. They are sighted from 12 to 25 t1ay in mast years. Departure. The last are usually noted between 27 and 31 11ay as they leave rapidly and in lnrge numbers. The late records are of singles between 1 and 4 June. Sllt1t1E R-Records : 1. One male at Little John Game t1anagement Area, Tovm of Redfield on 24 July 1966. 2. Tvw rna 1 es at Little John Game t1anagement Area on 31 July 1966. f) rangecrovmed Ha rb 1 er (Vemivora ceZata) FALL-Arrival. The first may he noted anytime from early September to early October, but usually rare before 10 September. t1aximum. The numbers vary greatly fron year to year. Sometimes 1 to 2 or less are noted for a season and 10 to 15 or more per season are noted in other yenrs. The vast majority of sightings are of singles, but 2 to 4 per day are noted occasionally. They occur in the largest numbers along Lake Ontario, but scattered sightings have occurred in other areas. The greatest numbers are often noted during the last v1eek of September and the first half of October. Departure. The last are noted from 15 to 21 October usually, but they may leave as early as 6 October. The record late is at Mexico Point on 29 October 1964. WINTER-No records. SPRitlG-Arrival. In some years none are present, but VJhen present they have been noted as early as 6 11ay. From 10 11ay to 15 t1ay is the normal arrival period. Often first noted at sites along the south shore of Lake Ontario. I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1

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f1aximum. t1ost records are of singles from Lake Ontario shoreline areas. A-v1ay from Lake Ontario records are scarce with only a fe\'1 singles noted. Along Lake Ontario counts are most frequent during the middle third of f1ay. Departure. The latest records have occurred bet-v1een 21 and 23 May. records. Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at Sandy Pond on 29 July 1978 and the next earliest is one at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1975. Singles usually are noted betv1een 14 and 20 August in most years. 233 Maximum. The highest counts are 25 to 35 per day and most maxima are from 15 to 20 per day. of these high counts are from areas along Lake Ontario. Counts average 5 to 10 per day from all areas. The highest numbers commonly occur along Lake Ontario and in the Tug Hill plateau area and are usually sighted from 20 August to 20 September. Departure. They are present through the first of October in most years. The last usually occur bet-v1een 8 and 15 October and there are none sighted after this time. \liNTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred on 29 and 30 April. They usually an pear on a regular basis betVJeen 1 and 6 May. f1aximum. The highest counts are 15 to 25 per day and most maxima are lO to 20 birds per day. Counts average at only 5 to 10 per day in most sections. The highest counts are from along Lake Ontario, during the first three weeks of May. Departure. The last migrants are consistently noted between 21 and 26 t1ay. Only a fev1 scattered sightings are reported from the rest of May. SUt1t1ER-A v1idely distributed and fairly common breeder in the Tug Hill plateau where 10 to 15 per day not uncommon. Less common in areas near the Tug Hill plateau and very rare else-v1here. Occasionally

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234 sightings are reported Pulaski and other areas but there is no proof of breeding. Summer sightings av1ay from the Tug Hill area should be carefully i n ves t i gated for b reed i n g. )lorthem Parul a k/arbler (ParuZ.a americana) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals are one at Sandy Pond on 31 July 1977 and one at Sandy Pond on 6 August 1978. The first often appear between 28 August and 5 September and occasionally not until 9 September. Usually first noted along Lake Ontario often at Selkirk Shores State r1aximum. The highest counts are 6 to 10 per day and most counts are only 1 to 4 per day. The peak movement appears to occur during the 1 ast week of September and frequently in the Sandy Pond to Selkirk Shores State Park area. Departure. The l."'st are often noted between 5 and 10 October with very few thereafter. The record lnte sightings have occurred on 13 and 14 October. records. SPRING-Arrival. Very consistent in the spring as the first usually appear between 2 and 6 May. Maximum. The highest counts are 6 to 10 per day, often from Lake Ontario shoreline areas. Thev are usually noted as 2 to 5 per day in many areas. often sighted during the mid-weeks of Departure. The 1 ast are often noted between 23 and 27 t1ay and the latest on 28 to 29 i1ay. SUfmER-No records. Ye 11 ow \/arb 1 er (Dendroica petechia) FALL-Arrival. Their arrival is difficult to determine due to the presence of local breeders, but numbers of these birds appear to be migrating by the end of the first Heek of July. Between 7 and 15 July numbers of Yellov1 v/arblers are noted on the Sn.ndy Pond dunes and a few other areas. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Maximum. The highest counts of true migrants occur along the Sandy Pond spits where 100 to 135 per day have been noted. t1ost maxima are 35 to 50 per day. Widely distributed as 10 to 25 per day in all areas. The peak movement occurs during August with the highest counts during the period from 19 to 29 August. Departure. By 5 September they are very infrequent in inland areas. Small numbers persist along Lake Ontario to 15 to 20 September. Very rare after 20 September but record lates of singles on 1 and 2 October occurred in t\'IO different years. 235 WINTER-rio records. V.6'' RING-Arrival. The record early is 2 at Oswego on 20 April 1971. Usually one of the first warblers to arrive and are often noted between 20 and 30 April at Derby Hi 11. Maximum. The highest count is 182 at Derby Hi 11 on 14 1976 and lOO to 125 per day are not unconmon. The largest numbers usually occur along Lake Ontario but counts of 50 to 100 per day are reported from many sections. Counts average 15 to.50 per day during Hay. Departure. Not detennined. LSUtKR-They are a widespread and common Harbler in lowland sections and are least frequent in the high and heavily wooded Tug Hill plateau. Counts of 1 00+ have been reported in one day, but counts depend on the amount of suitable habitat covered. Most counts average 15 to 50 per day from all areas and the highest counts in brushy lowland areas. They nest in significant nunbers in rural and suburban areas and are less fre(]uent in urban areas. (Dendroica magnolia) L-Arrival. The record early is of one bird at Sandy Pond on 5 August 1972. The next earliest sightings have occurred bet\'leen 17 and 18 August. The first are often noted between 20 and 24 August, usually along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high counts are 60 at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 1 October 1975 and 54 at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 18 September 1965. t maxima are 20 to 35 per day from along Lake Ontario, with lesser numbers inland. distributed in all areas and counts average 10 to 20 per day. The peak movement is bet\'Jeen 5 and 20 September.

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236 Departure. Some persist to 7 October in most years. The last are often noted between 8 and 12 October. The record late is one along Lake Ontario on 22 October 1972. records. SPRING-Arrival. They consistently arrive during the first week of May. r4aximum. The record high count is 65 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 25 May 1960. Other counts of 30 to 40 occur on occasion. Most maxima are 20 to 30 per day along Lake Ontario and occasionally elsewhere. Counts average 10 to 20 per day from all areas. Most frequent between 8 and 25 May. Dearture. The last are u9.Jally noted between 23 and 28 r4ay with a ew to 31 May. Occasional singles have been noted at Derby Hill between 1 and 3 June of various years. SUMMER-A fairly common and well distributed breeder in the Tug Hill plateau but unknown, as a breeder, in other areas. Counts of 35 to 45 per day have been noted in the Tug Hi 11. Counts average 5 to 15 per day in all sections of the Tug Hill plateau. Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one along Lake Ontario on 30 July 1972. The first usually arrive from 14 to 27 August. r1aximum. The record high is 34 at Sandy Pond and along Lake Ontario on 1 September 1975. The next highest counts are 10 to 15 per day and most maxima are 8 to 15 per day along Lake Ontario. Counts average 3 to 8 per day from all areas of the county. Considerable numbers are present during the last week of August to 15 September. Departure. The last may be noted as early as 18 to 20 September, but small numbers usually persist to the end of September. The last are often noted during the period from 29 September to 4 October. The record late is at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 October 1970. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at the Noyes Sanctuary, Town of New Haven, on 30 April 1972. The first consistently arrive between 2 and 7 r4axi mum. The record highs are 50 at Derby Hi 11 and Hickory Grove on 15 May 1975 and 32 at Mexico Point on 22 May 1973. Counts of 20+ have been recorded but most high counts are 10 to 15 per day. Hidely distributed with counts averaging 2 to 8 per day from all a;eas. The peak movements occur during the middle weeks of May.

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237 Departure. Numbers usually decline rapidly during 20 to 25 May and the last are consistently noted between 27 and 30 May with none after this time. SUMf1ER-See FALL records. qlack-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caeruZescens) FALL-Arrival. The record early is 5 along Lake Ontario on 17 August 1972 and one at Sandy Pond and on 17 August 1975. Usually quite scarce until the last week of August. The first usually appear between 27 August and 2 September. Maximum. The highest counts are usually 8 to 15 per day. They are usually noted as 3 to 9 per day during the fall migration in all areas. distributed in most areas during Septermer migration. Departure. Oeparture often occurs between 8 and 15 October. They are very rare after that time and the latest sighting occurred along Lake Ontatio on 22 October 1972. \.-JINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Derby Hill on 27 April 1969. but they are extremely rare in April. The first consistently appear beb1een 2 and 6 11ay. The record high is 45 at Sandy Pond on 27 ray 1961. high counts are from 12 to 17 per day, often noted along Lake Ontario. Counts average 5 to 10 per day from all sectors. Common, as a migrant, during the mid-three \'leeks of Deaarture. The last are usually noted between 24 and 29 May and in ividuals occasionally linger to the first 3 days of June. The record late is exceptional, one at Derby Hill on 20 June 1971. SUI't1ER-They are widely distributed and fairly common breeders in the Tug Hill plateau but in other areas during summer. Counts of 20 to 25 per day are common in that area during the breeding season. Counts of 3 to 10 per day are noted there regularly. Myrtle Warbler or Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals are 1 at Sandy Pond on 3 August 1975 and 3 at Sandy Pond on 5 August 1973. The next earliest arrivals have occurred from 17 and 19 August. The first are often noted between 17 and 24 August, usually along Lake Ontario. This species is the most abundant migrant warbler and severa 1 counts of 150 to 200 per day have occurred. .1\t 1 east a

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238 couple of 80 to 150 per day counts are usually noted. Counts of 50 to 150 per day are corrrnon the highest counts from along Lake Ontario. In brushy woodland habitats 10 to 30 per day are usually sighted from early September to mid-October. Departure. The last may leave as early as the last week of October. but small nurmers usually linger into Noverrber. The 1 ast birds usually depart between 10 and 18 November and any remaining after this time are probably attempting to winter. rare to non-existent in winter but occasionally counts of 1 to 5 per day are reported during December. No January or 1 ater records exist for this area. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrival is one at Derby Hill on 7 April 1968. The first often appear betvJeen 14 and 21 April, especially at Derby Hill and at other places along Lake Ontario. t'1aximum. The highest counts are of migrants moving past Derby Hill during 1 arge flights in 1 ate Apri 1 and early May. Under such conditions counts of 2,000 to 5,500+per day have occasionally been recorded in recent years. This species appears to migrate diurnally in large flocks along Lake Ontario in spring. Counts may reach 150 to 300 per day with 75 to 175 noted regularly from other areas. Widely distributed from 20 April to mid-t1ay in most years. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after Often the last are noted between 24 and 28 t1ay and none are reported after 30 May. SUMt1ER-A very unconmon breeder in small numbers in the Tug Hi 11 plateau and unknown elsewhere. Most sightings in the Tug Hill are of singles and occasionally 1 to 3 per day, primarily from the Town of Redfield. This species is much rarer in December than in nearby Onondaga County and it appears that very fev1 attempt to winter in this area. Of those probably none survive. Efforts should be made to monitor birds attempting to winter to determine how long they remain. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1

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Townsends Warbler ( Dendroica toumsendi) FALL-No records. records. SPRING-Record: One at Hickory Grove on 11 t1ay 1978 (D. W. Crumb and F. G. Scheider). SUt'MER-No records. Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at Sandy Pond on 29 July 1978 and the next earliest is one at Sandy Pond on 10 August 1975. Often first noted between 19 and 25 August usually along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The record high counts both occurred in the fall of 1965 with 83 on 18 September at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park and 75 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 19 Septeni>er. All other counts are less than 60 per day. Most maxima are from 30 to 60 per day. Counts average 10 to 20 per day from all areas. The peak movement usually occursbetween 12 and 29 September in most seasons. Departure. The last are often notedbeb1een 10 and 18 OctobP.r. The record late is one at Oswego on 26 October 1975. WINTER-No records. 239 SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive between 30 April and 3 May. Departure. numbers decline rapidly during late t1ay and the last are usually noted betHeen 27 and 30 t1ay. A few may linger to 1 or 2 June along Lake Ontario. distributed and fairly common breeder in the Tug Hill plateau and occasionally scattered singles breeding in other areas. In the Tug Hill counts of 20 to 25 per day have been recorded. Counts average 10 to 15 per day during the breeding season. Away from the Tug Hill plateau most sightings are of singles and isolated pairs in large hemlock groves along Lake Ontario and other sites. All sightings av1ay from Tug Hill should be carefully recorded.

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240 Cerulean vJarbler (Dendroica cerulea) FALL-Records include: 1. One immature at Selkirk Shores State Park on 15 August 1964. 2. One adult male in the Town of Pulaski on 3 September 1969. \HNTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 18 1959. 2. One at Toad Harbor, Town of West Monroe from 28 r1ay to 1 June 1962. 3. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 May 1968. 4. One at Sandy Pond on 27 t1ay 1969. 5. One in the Oswego area on 18 1972. 6. One at [)erby Hill on 19 t1ay 1975. SUMMER-Records include: 1. One in the Toad Harbor area on 1 June 1972. 2. One in the Lycoming area, Tovm of Scriba, during the summer of 1971. 3. One at Snake Swamp, Town of Oswego, on 29 June 1975. 4. One to two in the west Nine Mile Point woods, Town of Scriba, through most of June 1976. 5. One at Lacona on 20 June 1976. This species is remarkably scarce in Oswego County considering its abundance in areas only 40 miles south. No proof of breeding exists but summer record number 4 probably involved a breeding pair. Blackburnian Warbler (Dendroica fusca) FALL-Arrival. The record early sightings at Sandy Pond are one on 18 July 1976 and one on 20 July 1978. The next arrivals were sighted between 1 and 5 August of various years at either Selkirk Shores State Park or Sandy Pond. They usually arrive between 6 and 10 August along Lake Ontario, but occasionally not until 15 to 20 August. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1

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t,1aximum. The record high is 25 at Sandy Pond and other places along Lake Ontario on 1 September 1973. The other maxima range from 10 to 20 per day. in most areas and counts average 3 to 10 per day. They are common from 20 August through September. Departure. The last are often noted from 4 to 10 October. Very rare after 10 to 12 October and the record 1 ate departure occurred at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 October 1963. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive between 2 and 7 t1ay, often along Lake Ontario. 241 The record high is 41 at Sandy Pond on 21 1972 with a few counts of 25 to 35 per day from Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park area. fost higher counts are 15 to 25 birds per day. Counts average 6 to 14 per day. The 1 arges t counts have been noted from 14 to 24 May and usually from Lake Ontario. Departure. The 1 ast are often noted betv1een 25 and 29 t1ay with very few lingering to 2 June. The record late is one at Derby Hill on 20 June 1971. SUMMER-An uncommon to fairly common breeder in the Tug Hill plateau. Counts of 15 to 25 per day have been recorded in that area and counts there average 6 to 12 per day. Most common in the towns of Redfield and Boyleston. Away from the Tug Hill area only scattered breeding records exist, some of are not proven. Males were singing during the summer of 1976 at the Noyes Sanctuary, for example. Birds in areas a\
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242 Chestnut-sided IJarbler (Dendroica pensyZvanica) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred in the Sandy Pond-Selkirk Shores State Park area between 3 and 5 August. The first migrants usually appear from 15 to 20 August along Lake Ontario. f1aximum. The highest counts are 15 to 20 per day. These counts are rare and occur along Lake Ontario. t1axima usually range from 5 to 15 per day with higher counts from the Tug Hill plateau and along Lake Ontario. Counts average 3 to 6 per day from all areas. High counts often occur between 24 August and 7 September. Departure. Some usually persist through September and the last are often noted during the first five days of October. None are known 10 October. HINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first usually appear between 3 and 9 May, often along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The highest counts are 20 to 26 per day from the Lake Ontario shoreline. Maxima are frequently only 10 to 15 per day. Counts average 3 to 9 per day from all areas. Most frequently sighted during the mid-t\tm weeks of t1ay. [)eparture. away from breeding areas, decline rapidly after 20 to 24 May. A few may linger into the first two days of June. The record 1 ate is 2 birds at Derby Hi 11 on 3 June 1971. A widespread and common breeder in the Tug Hill area with only a few at other sites. In the Tug Hill area counts of 40 to 60 per day have been noted. t1ost counts are closer to 15 to 30 per day in that area. AHay from the Tug Hill plateau they are present as 1 to 3 oer day at scattered locations. COt1t1ENTS: Efforts should be made to more accurately count the number of birds migrating as well as those breeding. Bay-breasted \Jarbler (Dendroica castanea) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at Colosse on 29 July 1973. The next earliest are 1 to 6 August. They are often noted until 20 to 25 August, but the first can be expected between 10 and 15 August in most years. I I 1

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Maximum. The record high counts are 68 along Lake Ontario on 4 Septent>er 1976 and 53 at Sandy Pond and other Lake Ontario areas on 1 Septenber 1975. rost maxima are 20 to 35 per day usually along Lake Ontario. Widely distributed and counts average 10 to 15 per day from all areas. The highest counts occur during the last week of August and the first few days of September. Degarture. The last are often noted between 29 September and 5 ctober. The late record is of 2 birds at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 October 1970. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest sighting is on 9 May and the first often appear between ll and 16 Maximum. Nunt>ers vary from year to year and the highest counts are 50 to 65 per day on -the shores of Lake Ontario. In some years the maxima are only 15 to 30 per day. Counts average 10 to 20 birds per day from most sections of the county. common during the mixed warbler flights of the last two \'leeks of t1ay. 243 Departure. The last are usually noted between 26 and 31 May and there are no June records. SUMMER-Record: One or two at Otto on 26 June 1977. Blackpoll vlarbler (Dendroica striata) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred 19 and 21 August, but they are usually infrequent until 25 to 29 August when the first usually appear. Maximum. The highest count is 47 at Selkirk Shores State Park and Sandy Pond on 18 September 1965. Most higher counts are 23 to 32 per day from Lake Ontario and occasionally other areas. Counts average 8 to 15 per day in most areas. The highest counts are usually from the middle of September. Departure. Numbers decline after 20 September but a fe\'1 persist into the first week of October. Occasionally singles linger to 10 October, but none are reported after this date.

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244 mrJTE R-rlo records. SPRING-Arrival. Usually the last Warbler to arrive and none are noted before 11 May. The first often dont appear until 14 to 18 t1ay in most years. The highest counts are 45 to 55 per day. These counts are from areas along Lake Ontario but are rare. High counts are usually 15 to 30 per day. Counts average 5 to 12 per day from all areas. The peak movements occur after 19 to 20 May and usually during the last week of Departure. Present in small numbers to 20 June, usually. Two singing rna l es were present at Sandy Pond on 30 ,June 1971 and although there are no records it is probable that they are present in July, particularly in the Tug Hill plateau. records. C0Mt1ENTS: The Blackpoll and the Bay-breasted lJarbler are easily confused with one another and inexperienced observers should be careful when identifying them. P i n e a rb l e r (Dendroica pinus) FALL-Arrival. Singles have apreared, away from breeding areas, regularly between 10 and 15 September. One near Colosse, Tmm of Hastings, on ll August 1971 may be the record early. I I I I I I I I I I I Maximum. The highest count is 3 along Lake Ontario on 17 August 1972, I but most counts are singles. Most sightings occur near their local breeding colony at Selkirk Shores State Park and only a few scattered singles av1ay from this area. neparture. Difficult to determine, but none are noted after mid-September. It is likely that a few persist to October and the record late is one along Lake Ontario on 21 October 1972. \JHlTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Shore Oaks, Town of New Haven, on 2 April 1971. They often first appear between 15 and 20 April, usually at the only local breeding colony at Selkirk Shores State Park. t1aximum. The record high is 15 from Derby Hill to Nine t1ile Point on 22 April 1973. Very few counts of more than 5 per day are reported and l to 3 per day are the average counts. They are most common during the last ten days of April and the first week of I I I I I 1 1

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Departure. A few migrants may be noted during the first few days of No migrants are reported after 5 to 7 t1ay and any present after 10 May are probably breeding. SUMMER-This species breeds exclusively in a large mature white pine grove at Selkirk Shores State Park. This area has had 1 or 2 pairs for the last two decades. This limited area is potentially threatened by plans to place a harbor at the mouth of the Salmon River. A parking lot has been placed in the pine grove by park personnel. The park management is aware of the status of these birds and states that the grove \'lill be protected against future destruction. Prairie Harbler (Dendroica discolor) FALL-Records include: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 27 September 1958. 2. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 9 September 1959. 3. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 31 August 1966. records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 25 May 1960. 2. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 21 t1ay 1967. 3. One male at Derby Hill on 6 May 1972. 4. One male at Hickory Grove, of New Haven, on 10 May 1973. SUMt1ER-No records. Palm Warbler (Dendroica paZmarum) FALL-Arrival. The first are often noted between 10 and 15 September and there are no records before 8 September. Maximum. The highest count is 9 in the Fair Haven Beach State Park area on 7 October 1973. Higher counts are usually from 4 to 5 per day and counts average 1 to 2 per day from all areas. They are frequently noted along Lake Ontario from mid-September to mid-October. Departure. The departure often occurs between 15 and 22 October. A few may linger late and the record late occurred between 28 and 30 October. It is possible that a may stay to 5 November undetected. 245

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246 WINTER-No records. They are one of the earliest migrant \Jarblers in the spring with the earliest records between 20 and 22 Anril. The first are often noted bet\'/een 24 April and 30 Apri 1 and often appear in the at Derby Hi 11. Maximum. The highest counts are 8 per day and most maxima are 5 to 7 per day. Counts from all areas average 1 to 4 per day. They appear to favor Derby Hi 11 as do most of the observers. They are most frequent during the last few days of Ar>ril and the first 10 days of t1ay. Departure. The last are usually noted between 13 and 20 t1ay. Very rare after 20 May. The record late is one at Sandy Pond on 25 May 1967. SUMt1ER-No records. t1ost birds seen in this area are of the \'lhite 11Western11 race but some yellow 11eastern11 birds are seen. The ratio of white to yellow birds decreases in mid-October and the last to leave are often yellow birds. Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapiZZus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. The highest counts are 10 to 15 per day and 5 to 8 per day are the average maxima. Total counts average 2 to 6 per day from all areas. The seasonal maxima usually occur at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park areas beb1een 25 August and mid-September. Denarture. Numbers linger to the first to 8 to 13 October. 17 October 1971. records. decline rapidly after 15 to 22 September. A few week of October. Very rarely singles may persist The record late is one at Sandy Pond on SPRHJG-Arrival. The first consistently arrive beb1een 2 and 6 in most years. t1aximum. The highest counts are 25 to 30 per day fromthe Lake Ontario shoreline. t1ost maxima are from 15 to 20 per dav from the same area. They are \'lidely distributed and counts from all areas range from 4 to 12 per day. They are most common from the first week of tay om-1ard. Departure. Not determined. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Stnt1ER-Widely distributed in most \'loodlands in all areas. Most frequent in the heavily wooded Tug Hill plateau where 30 to 40 per day have been recorded. Counts of 15 to 20 per day have been reported and counts average 8 to 15 per day in that area. A\'1ay from this area counts are 3 to 7 per day from large wooded areas. Northern Waterthrush {Seiurus noveboracensis) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals are one along Lake Ontario on 30 July 1972, four at Sandy Pond on 31 July 1977, and one at Sandy Pond on 16 July 1978. They arrive from late July to early August. Maximum. High counts are 5 to 8 per day and are often noted along Lake Ontario. In some years 3 per day is the high for the season. The counts average 1 to 3 per day from most areas, especially along Lake Ontario. Present from early August to mid-September. Departure. The last are usually noted 17 and 24 September, but a few persist to 28-30 September in some years. Very rare in October and the record late occurred at Sandy Pond on 9 October 1955. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early occurred at Oswego on 18 April 1973, but they are rare before 29 April to 3 t1ay when the first usually arrive. Maximum. The highest counts are 6 to 10 per day. Most maxima range from s to 7 per day. \Ji dely scattered in most areas and counts for all areas average 2 to 4 per day during the first three weeks of Departure. Away from breeding areas, the last are often noted between 19 and 24 May. The record late is from Sandy Pond on 25 t1ay 1967. SUMMER-They are a widely distributed breed in the Tug Hill plateau, but spotty in other areas. In the Tug Hill counts of 10 to 20 per day are often noted. Av1ay from the Tug Hi 11 are they occur primarily as scattered singles. Occasionally 1 to 4 per day are reported in scattered lowland areas. Louisiana Waterthrush {Seiurus motaciZZaJ FALL-No records. 247

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248 records. SPRING-Occasionally scattered singles are reported along Lake Ontario and in the Tug Hill plateau from early May onward. only records are occasional singles from the Tug Hill plateau. Their status here is not clear. COMMENTS: This species is very rare and infrequent in this nrea and considerable field work is needed to clarify their status. Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis) FALL-Records include: 1. Two, including an adult male and an immature at Sandy Pond on 12 September 1954. 2. Seven at Selkirk Shores State Park on 10 October 1955. 3. One adult at Sandy Pond on 8 September 1957. 4. An immature at Sandy Pond on 22 September 1957. 5. Four n.t Sandy Pond bet\leen 7 and 19 September 1965. 6. One at Sandy Pond on 19 September 1966. 7. One along Lake Ontario on 23 August 1972. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One male along the Salmon River near Pulaski on 16 May 1954. 2. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 r1ay 1964. 3. One male at Sandy Pond on 20 t1ay 1968. SUMMER-No records. Mourning Warbler (Oporornis philadelphia) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is at Selkirk Shores State Park on 14 August 1971. They are usually rare prior to 20 August and the first are often noted between 20 and 27 August at the end of Lake Ontario. All counts are 4 or less per day \'lith 1 to 2 per day the average. Present in most sectirns but usually most frequent along Lake Ontario and in the Tug Hill plateau. They occur in small numbers during August and Sertember. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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neparture. They usually depart during the first three days of October. Very rare after this and none are reported after 6 October. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first are consistently noted between 13 and 18 May at scattered locations. Maximum. All counts are less than 6 per day with most sightings involving 1 to 3 birds per day. They are most frequent during the last 10 days of May. Departure. In areas where they do not breed they are often noted between 25 and 28 May with very fe\'1 after this. SUMMERThey are a \'lidespread breeder in the Tug Hill where counts of 20 to 40 per day have been infrequently noted. t1ost counts are 2 to 8 per day in tlune and early July. r1uch less common in other areas and most sightings are 1 to 2 per day from scattered locations. Any breeding records observed a'11ay from the Tug Hi 11 region should be carefully recorded. Common Yell Olvthroat (GeothZypis trichas) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. The highest counts are usually 20 to 25 per day and often noted along Lake Ontario. t1ost counts are 8 to 15 per day from all areas during August and SeJiember. Departure. The last are often noted between 20 and 27 October. A few may persist to 1 or 2 rlovember, but they are quite rare after this time. The record late is at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 15 November 1973. records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive betv1een 1 and 5 May in most years. 249

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250 The record high is 60 at Sandy Pond on 20 t1ay 1969. Counts of more than 30 per day are rare and most higher counts are 20 to 25 per day. Counts average 10 to 15 per day. A widely distributed migrant after 5 May. Deoarture. Not determined. are a \'iidely distributed and a fairly common breeder in most brushy habitat. Numbers depend on the amount of area covered and counts of 25 to 35 per day are common but counts of 60 to 100 per day have occasionally been recorded. Counts average only 10 to 20 per day from all areas. Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) records. R-No records. SPRHIG-Records include: 1. One at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 12 1963. 2. One at Pleasant Lake, Town of Schroeppel, on 11 May 1965. 3. One at Sandy Pond on 20 t1ay 1975. records. Hooded Harbler (Wilsonia citrina) FALL-Arrival. tlot determined. I I I I I I I I I I I I Maximum. This species is mainly restricted to the Lake Ontario shore II \'/here scattered sightings of 1 to 2 per day are occasionally noted. t1ost sightings are in the area5' between Osv1ego and Derby Hill. Very rare at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park. Hov1ever, 5 v1ere sighted I at Selkirk Shores State Park on 19 September 1964. Departure. The limited data available suggests that they usually depart I between 10 and 15 September. The latest departure occurred at Selkirk Shores State Park on 19 September 1964. \JEITER.-rlo records. I SPRING-Arrival. Again limited data is available but the first usually appear during the second week of May. I I I

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Maximum. No counts exceed 4 per day and the vast majority of sightings are from the breeding areas along Lake Ontario and may be locally breeding birds. Small numbers are present in breeding areas from mid-t1ay on. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-This species is an uncommon and localized breeder in the Tug Hill plateau and along the south shore of Lake Ontario from Oswego to Derby Hill. In the Tug Hill 1 to 2 per day are occasionally sighted at scattered sites in the Town of Redfield. This species is very rare in that area and does not occur there every year. Along Lake Ontario they are established in very localized spots such as in the northern areas of the Towns of Scriba and NB"I Haven. Counts of 2 to 5 per day may occasionally be noted from these areas. COt1rtHJTS: Every effort should be made to monitor this species in its limited breeding areas on an annual basis. Wilsons Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) FALL-Arrival. The record early is of 2 at Sandy Pond on 5 August 1973. Usually very rare before 17 to 20 August when the first may appear. The first are usually noted along Lake Ontario between 20 and 26 August. r1aximul!l. The higher maxima are 18 to 26 per day with most maxima in the 10 to 18 per day range. lJidely distributed, as a migrant, in most areas and 5 to 10 per day are the average counts. The highest counts are from along Lake Ontario and usually occur between 8 and 20 September. Departure. The departure usually occurs during the first few days of October VJith very fev1 after 7 October. The record 1 ate is one at Noyes Sanctuary, Town of New Haven, on 10 October 1970. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first usually appear between 13 and 17 Maximum. The highest count is 35 at Sandy Pond on 20 1969. Counts of 20 to 27 per day have been reported a 1 ong Lake Ontario but most maxima are from 10 to 16 per day. Counts from all areas average 2 to 6 per day during the last two weeks of May. 251

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252 1 I Departure. The last are usually noted along Lake Ontario between I 28 r1ay and 3 June. Singles have been noted at Derby Hill to mid-June but these are rare. records. I Canada Harbler (Wilson ia canadensis) F/\LL-1\rrival. The record early arrivals are t\'IO at Sandy Pond on 31 July 1977 and 3 at Sandy Pond on 3 /\ugust 1975. A feH are usually noted away from breeding areas, between 10 and 17 1\ugust. Maximum. The highest counts are 8 to 10 per day usually from the eastern end of Lake Ontario. They occur in most areas and sightings average 2 to 5 per day during late to 10 September. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly and few are rresent after 15 to 18 September. The departure occurs between 19 and 25 September in most years. The record late is at Selkirk Shores State Park on 3 October 1956. \liNTER-No recorcis. SPRING-Arrival. The first ah.Jays appear between 6 and 12 and none are reported any earlier than this. r1aximum. The record highs at Selkirk Shores State Park are 46 on 20 r1ay 1969 and 75 on 25 11ay 1960. Counts of r.l!Jre than 8 to 12 per day are rare. Counts, from all areas, average 3 to 6 per day. Denarture. Present in small numbers to 26-30 11ay. 1\ persist to 3 June in areas where no breeding occurs. They are a scattered breeder in mast sections. Counts average l to 3 per day and occasionally reach 4 to 8 per day. Much more frequent in the Tug Hill plateau where counts of 30 to 35 per day have been noted. t1ost maxima are 15 to 20 per day and counts there average 4 to 10 per day. American Redstart (Setophaga PUticilla) FALL-1\rrival. Difficult to determine, but birds present at Sandy Pond on 17 July 1975 were probably migrants. Seventeen at Sandy Pond on 31 July 1977 were almost certainly migrants. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Maximum. The highest counts are 30 to 40 per day and most maxima are 15 to 25 per day. The higher counts usually occur along Lake Ontario. Counts average 10 to 20 per day. They are present in substantial numbers from late August through September. Departure. The last are usually noted during the last few days of October. A few may remain to 7 October. The record late is one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 11 October 1970. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is one at Derby Hill on 30 April 1972. They consistently arrive between 2 and 6 May in many years. 253 Maximum. The highest counts are 110 at Derby Hill and other area? along Lake Ontario on 14 May 1976 and 100 at Sandy Pond on 27 May 1961. A few 50 to 75 per day counts are on record, but most maxima are 20 to 30 per day. The highest numbers are present along Lake Ontario but they are widely distributed as 10 to 20 per day from all areas. Large flights often occur during the middle two weeks of May. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-A widely distributed and common breeder in all areas and 30 to 35 per day are often recorded. The most common warbler in woodlands in all sections. House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) All Seasons-Resident This species occurs in flocks of 25 to 100 around farmlands and urban and residential areas in all areas. Counts of 250+ per day are not uncommon in many areas and 1 ,000+ per day have been noted upon occasion. They are rarely seen at considerable-distances from human habitation. Bobolink (DoZichonyx oryzivorus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maxfmum. The highest counts are 115 at Mexico on 6 August 1978 and 75 on l8 August 1968 at Tinker Tavern Road. Counts of 30 to 50 per day are often noted in many areas. Flocks of 10 to 20 per day are present in some agricultural areas, in many areas, prior to mid-September. Counts average 10 to 20 per day. Departure. Their departure often occurs during the fourth week of September. Very rare after September with the record lates at Niagara Mohawk power plants at Nine Mile Point on 10 October 1971 and one in the Snipe Meadows area, Town of Schroeppel on 13 October 1968.

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254 WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They usually arrive between 20 April and 3 May and occasionally not noted until 6 or 7 They are usually first noted at Derby Hill. Maximum. The record high is 1,160 at Derby Hill on 14 May 1976. The next highest counts are also from Derby Hill in mid-May and are 200 to 250 per day. Along Lake Ontario counts of 50 to 100 per day are not uncommon, with slightly smaller numbers inland. Substantial numbers are passing through from 10 May to the end of May. Departure. Difficult to determine, but flocks are often noted passing Derby Hill well into June and occasionally to mid-,June. SUHMER-Bobolinks are fairly common breeders in fields in all areas. Counts of 30 to 50 per day have been noted and 7 to 15 per day are common in most areas. They are one of the most common species in fields during ,June and July. Eastern f1eadowl ark (Sturnella magna) F.ALL-Arri va 1. Not determined. Maximum. Concentrations of 50 to 100 per day may occasionally develop, but generally counts average 8 to 20 per day in most open country. Small flocks are present from August through early to mid-November in all areas. Departure. Small numbers often persist to the early part of December. The last may be noted during the last few days of November in most years. WINTER-Singles and groups of 2 to 10 may stay to usually rare after the middle of the month. after December although it is possible that January. 10 December, but are There are no records some may stay into SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred at the end of the first week of March. They usually arrive between 8 and 15 March, frequently at Derby Hill. The highest counts are of flights passing Derby Hill during late March and early April. Counts of 200 to 500 per day are not uncommon at Derby Hill and 75 to 150 per day are common there. Counts as high as 900 per day have been noted at Derby Hill on 2 May 1971. Away from Derby Hill of more than 35 to 50 per day are rare, and 10 to 25 per day are average counts. The largest movements occur between 20 March and 20 April. Departure. Not determined. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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.. 255 r1eadowlark (SturneZZa negZecta) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One near Pond's Pond, Town of Mexico, from 12 f1ay to 3 June 1956. 2. One in the Stevens Pond area from 26 April to 14 June 1961. 3. One at Lacona, Town of Sandy Creek, from 16 to 19 May 1968. 4. One near Brewerton from 16 May to 14 June 1969. 5. One at Nine Mile Point power complex from 16 to 28 May 1973. SUMMER-Records include: 1. 2. 3. 4. COMMENTS: One One One One This near Pond's Pond, Town of Mexico, during the summer of 1955. in the Brewerton area present to June 1969. on the S.U.N.Y. Oswego campus from late May through June 1970. at the S.U.N.Y. Oswego campus during June and July 1971. species seems to be increasing in recent years. Yellow-headed Blackbird (XanthocephaZus xanthocephaZus) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-No records. SUMMER-Record: One adult male near Lacona, Town of Sandy Creek, from 6 to 13 July 1969. Red-winged Blackbird (AgeZaius phoeniceus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 15,000 to 20,000 birds per day but roost census efforts would probably produce 50,000+ in some areas. Flocks of 1,000 to 2,000 per day are regularly noted after mid-August. Counts average 200 to 500 birds per day. The peak numbers occur from late September through mid-October. Departure. Small flocks usually linger to the last week of November but rarely later. They probably leave the Tug Hill area by mid-November in mast years

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256 WINTER-Singles and small flocks are often present through mid-Cecember. After-mid December they are most likely to occur at feeders. Very few are present after early ,January. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred around 18 to 20 February. of males usually occur during the last week in February if a warming trend occurs. In co 1 d years the first may not appear until the first week of and occasionally as late as 15 March. Maximum. They are widely distributed as 1,000 to 5,000 per day in many sections from early farch to late April. Counts of 10,000 to 25,000 are not uncommon along Lake Ontario and in other areas. The 1 arges t numbers occur at Derby Hi 11 in and Apri 1. Counts of 100,000 to 250,000 per day have occasionally been noted and estimates of 500,000 to 1 ,000,000 have been made upon occasion but serious efforts to count them are rarely made as thev occur in such large numbers. Departure. Difficult to determine, but numbers passing Derby Hill decrease rapidly during late April and early fay. Small flocks may often be passing in early lJune. SLJMfER-An extremely common breeder in virtually every habitat except deep woods. Counts of 50 to 150 during June are common and counts increase after breeding in all areas. It is advised for observers to remember that abundant species can be greatly reduced and the now extinct Passenger Pigeon is a good example. Orchard Orriole (Icterus spurius) FALL-No records. \HNTER-no records. SPRINGRecords: 1. One adult rna 1 e at Derby Hill on 18 May 1975 (D. G. l1uir and G. A. Smith) 2. One immature male in the northern part of the Town of Sterling on 23 May 1978. records. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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Baltimore Oriole or Northern Oriole (Icterus galbula) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. The highest counts are 40 to 45 per day and are from the Sandy Pond-Selkirk Shores State Park area. Most maxima are 15 to 20 per day and counts average 5 to 10 per day. Most frequent during the 1 a:.t 10 days of August and the first Heeks September a 1 ong Lake Ontario. Departure. The last are Very few during.the last non-existent in October. 21 October 1969. usually noted between 15 and 20 September. 10 days of September and virtually The record late is one at Derby Hill on 257 HINTER-Record: One adult in breeding plumage at Sandy Pond on 7 Oecember 1975. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive bet\'1een 29 April and 3 May. Maximum. The highest counts are of migrants passing Derby Hill. Numbers vary and in some years maxima are 80 to 100 per day and 100 to 250 per day in other years. On four occasions, counts of 550 to 650 per day have been noted. The record high is 860 at Derby Hill on 14 May 1976. In other areas counts are 10 to 25 per day. They are widely distributed in many areas by the end of the first week of May. Departure. Not detennined. SUHMER-They are a Hidely distributed and fairly common bl'eeder in most areas and counts average 8 to 20 birds per day. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus car-olinus) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrival is one at Mexico Point on 5 September 1971. They usually arrive between 10 and.20 September, often along Lake Ontario. Maximum. The record high counts are 680 along Lake Ontario on 29 October 1972 and 290 along Lake Ontario on 26 October l9Z5. Counts of 150 to 200 per day have been reported several times. t1ost maxima are 50 to 150 per day. Counts average 10 to 30 per day. They are scattered throughout the county from late September to early November.

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258 Departure. most years. Small numbers usually persist to 15 to 25 November in A few may persist into December. I I I HINTER-In some years none are present and in other years a feH are present I to early December. Occasionally singles are reported to 20 to 25 December v.Ji th none after. SPRING-Arrival. The arrival varies considerably, but the record early is one at I Constantia on 3 March 1969. A few sightings have occurred during the first two of 11arch, but often none are noted until the 1 ast week 1 of March. The arrival is greatly influenced by weather conditions. t1aximum. The record high is 2,800 at Derby Hill on 2 r1ay 1971. Counts of 300 per day are common at Derby Hill and occasionally elseI \'Jhere. Counts average 15 to 50 per day from all areas during late March and April. Most frequent along Lake Ontario. Departure. The last are occasionally noted betv1een 8 and 15 May and I the latest departures are noted between 15 and 20 t1ay. sur1r1ER-A few scattered sightings have occurred in bogs in the Tug Hill I plateau during the breeding season, but proof of breeding is lacking. They are unknovm in other areas in summer. I Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) FALL-A rri va 1. I lot determined. I Maximum. The highest counts are from roosting areas and Lake Ontario I shoreline migrations. The record high is 50,000 at Derby Hill on 28 October 1967. Counts of 10,000 to 20,000 per day have been reported along Lake Ontario and at roosts. This species is so numerous that it I is often ignored by most observers. Counts average 500 to 2,000 per day from all areas. t1ost abundant from mid-September to early November. Departure. have left by the last week of November, but occasionally I some persist later. HirlTER-A few, mostly singles, are present into early December. In southern I sections a few may stay to the third week of December. Very rare after this time and sightings at this time are usually from feeders. Most winter sightings are singles along the Oswego River and the extreme I southern part of the county. I I I

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259 SPRING-Arrival. The first birds are usually noted at Derby Hill and the earliest have occurred betvteen 20 and 25 February. The first are are usually noted between 27 February and 7 March in most years. In some years the arrival may not occur until the second week of March. Maximum. Counts of 50,000 to 100,000 per day have been noted during large flights at Derby Hill during several years. Counts of 15,000 to 30,000 are fairly frequent at Derby Hill. Av1ay from Derby Hill 4,000 to 10,000 are not uncommon along Lake Ontario from March through mid-April. Counts average 500 to 2,000 per day from all areas. Departure. Difficult to determine but small numbers have been noted passing Derby Hill to at least the middle of June. SUI"'MER-A vtidely distributed and common breeder in all areas. Counts of 30 to 75 per day are noted regularly during the breeding season. Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high counts are 8,000 per day. Hidely distributed in all areas and counts average 100 to 500 per day. Counts of 1,000 to 5,000 per day are not uncommon. Common from early Septenber to early November. No serious attempts are usually made to count this species. Dearture. Small flocks and singles are present after 15 to 20 November an a few often persist into winter. \tJINTER-Small numbers are often present into early December with only a few present after mid-December. A few may be present in the vicinity of farm lands on bird feeders into early January in southern sections. Most sightings are 1 to 3 per day. SPRING-Arrival. The first usually appear during the last few days of February and the first week of March. The record early arrivals have occurred from 20 to 23 February. Maximum. The highest count is 60,000 per day at Derby Hi 11 on 21 April 1970. Most maxima are 5,000 to 15,000 per day during large flights along Lake Ontario. Counts average 100 to 250 per day from all areas. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small numbers are still passing Derby Hill into early June. SUMt1ER-A common and widespread breeder in most areas, with counts of 25 to 75 per day common. This species is the most common blackbird in the Tug Hill plateau.

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260 Scarlet Tanager (Pira:nga o livacea) I I I FALL-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but the small flocks present along the end of Lake Ontario between 18 and 26 August probably include migrants. Maximum. The record high is 28 at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park II on 4 September 1976. Several counts of 20 to 23 per day have been reported, but most maxima are 10 to 15 per day. Counts average 2 to 6 per day from all areas. Most are sighted along Lake Ontario, but they are I distributed over most of the county. Highest counts are from 20 August to 15 September. Departure. The last birds may be noted during the very end of September, I but usually a few remain to 1 to 5 October. The record lates have occurred between 7 and 10 October in several different years from areas 1 along Lake Ontario. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive between 1 and 6 May and occasionally I the first are not noted until 7 to 10 May. Maximum. The highest counts are 50 at Derby Hill on 14 t1ay 1976 and 43 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 May 1969. A number of 20 to 30 per day counts have occurred along Lake Ontario. Most maxima are 15 to 20 per day and counts average only 5 to 12 birds per day from all areas. The highest counts are usually noted between 10 and 24 May. Most often noted along Lake Ontario with fewer elsewhere. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly by late May and most June birds are probably breeders. A feN birds may still be passing Derby Hill 11ell into June and migrants have been noted as late as the middle of the month. SUMt1ERThey are 11i dely distributed and fairly coi11Tlon breeders in mast areas. They are most abundant in the heavily wooded areas such as the Tug Hill plateau where 10 to 15 per day are sometimes noted. Counts average 2 to 6 per day from all areas. Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) All Seasons-Resident Few were present prior to the late 1950's and at that time scattered singles were reported from southern and western areas. By the middle of the 1960's Cardinals were not uncommon in these areas and were beginning to occupy the Lake Ontario shoreline as far north as Selkirk Shores State Park. Today this species is widely distributed in most sections south of Pulaski and west of Route 81. In these areas counts of 2 to 6 per day are the average and 10 to 15 per day have been noted in some areas. Cardinals are still fairly uncommon in the Town of Sandy Creek and east of Route 81. One exception to this is the north shore of Oneida Lake. They are still rare in the Tug Hill plateau also and sightings in this area should be carefully documented. It is likely that the local population will continue to grow. I I I I I I I I I I I I

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261 Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high is 41 along Lake Ontario between Fair Haven Beach State Park and south to Hannibal on 19 September 1975. All other counts are less than 30 per day with most maxima in the 15 to 20 per day range. Counts average 5 to 12 per day from all areas. The highest counts usually occur between 10 and 25 September along Lake Ontario. Departure. Some birds are usually present during the first week of October. A few may remain to the second week of October in some years. Sightings after 15 to 20 October are very rare and the record late is one at Rice Creek Biological Field Station on 30 October 1969. WINTER-No record. SPRING-Arrival. The record early is an adult male at a feeder near Oswego on 22 April 1976. The first are consistently noted between 2 and 6 May in most years. Maximum. The highest counts are both from Derby Hill with 61 on 18 May 1971 and 50 on 19 May 1978. Counts of 30 to 40 per day are not uncommon at Derby Hill, but counts of more than 25 to 30 per day are rare in other areas. Maxima usually average 15 to 25 per day and total counts from all areas average 5 to 12 per day. The peak of migration is during the mid-two weeks of May. Departure. Difficult to determine, but birds are regularly passing Derby Hill to 10 June and some as late as 15 June. Away from Lake Ontario those present in early June are probably breeders. SUMMER-They are widely distributed and fairly common breeders in woodlands in all areas. Counts of 8 to 15 per day are common in all areas, with slightly higher counts from extensive woodlands. Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Quite scarce in fall with all counts from 1 to 5 per day. Most often noted as 1 to 2 per day from scattered locations all over. Frequent during late August and the first week of September.

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262 Departure. Very scarce after 7 to 10 September and the last are often noted during the last weeks of Septermer. A fe\'ol singles have been sighted during the first wgek of October. The record late was one found dead on the Lake Ontario shore on 31 October 1971. It was estimated to have died between 15 and 20 October. mNTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The record early sightings have occurred during the first week of May. The first dSllillly arrivebetween 7 and 12 fay often at Derby Hill on r:t other places along Lake Ontario. t1aximum. The highest counts are 5 to 10 per day and most counts are only 2 to 5 per day from all The highest counts come from the last to 10 days of f1ay. t1any birds may not arrive until June. Departure. Large numbers are still migrating during early June and some have been noted passing Derby Hill to the 21st of the month. SUMMER-A widely distributed but intermittent breeder in most brushy areas. Counts average 3 to 10 per day but higher counts of up to 20 per day have been noted. Substantial numbers may not even reach their breeding areas until into June, therefore, some breeding counts taken in early June may be inaccurate. Painted Bunting FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRitlG-No records. (Passerina ciris) SUM!"'ER-Record: One adult female caught in a mist net aiong West Road, Town of West Monroe, on 7 June 1978 (D. Emord). The bird was held overnight for identification and photographing. It was banced and released in the same area on 8 June 1978. Dickcissel (Spiza americana) FALL-Records include: 1. One at Sandy Pond on 7 September 1964. 2. One m11E: near Haven from 1 7 to 18 August 1966. 3. One near Oswego from 14 to 21 Noverrber 1969. \liNTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One male near Oswego on 24 May 1972. SUMMER-No records. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I

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Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred during the last few days of September in 3 different years. The first usually appear during the first ten days of October. In some years, hawever. the first are not noted until 12 to 25 October. t1aximum. Numbers vary greatly from year to year. In years of light flights counts of 15 to 25 per day are normal from late October onward. In years of heavy flights counts of 50 to 100 per day are not uncommon from mid-October onward. Counts of 300 per day are rare and the record high count is 1,375 at Derby Hill on 7 November 1971. Departure. tlot determined. WINTER-Numbers vary, but flocks have been present in scattered areas during all winters since the 19501s. Counts range from 15 to 30 per day in light years to 50 to 125 birds per day in heavy flight years. They are widely distributed in all areas but are usually seen in the vicinity of bird feeders and at conifer plantations in all areas. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but small flocks are often passing Derby Hill as early as mid-March. Maximum. There are several record high counts in the 2,000 to 3,600 per day range from Derby Hill during early to mid-May. Large flocks totaling 800 to 1,500 per day are common at Derby Hill during May and late April. Flocks of 20 to 60 per day are common in all areas from March to early t1ay. In some years counts average only 10 to 25 per day during the same period. The peak of migration usually occur during the first two weeks of Departure. The last are usually noted between 20 and 27 May. The last birds may occasionally remain to 28-31 t1ay and usually are from areas along Lake Ontario. The record late departures have occurred during the first 3 days of June in different years. 263 SUMMER-A few scattered records, primarily from the Tug Hill plateau, have been reported in various years. There is no proof of breeding for any of these records but it is possible. July records are virtually non-existent.

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264 Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. The highest counts are 25 to 35 per day. Counts average 5 to 10 per day from all areas. In some years flocks with larger numbers are sighted. colllnon in areas with large conifer plantations, but they are present in most areas. Departure. Not determined. vary from year to year and in some \'linters none are present. In other years 10 to 25 per day may be noted at bird feeders and in extensive conifer groves. Counts average 1 to 5 per day from scattered locations throughout the county. Counts of 10 to 15 per day are relatively rare in \'Jinter. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine but numbers usually increase during the last two \'Jeeks of t1arch. The record high count is 500 at Derby Hill on 8 t1ay 1973. Counts of 30 to 100 per day the average maxima reported from Derby Hi 11. /\\'Jay from Lake Ontario counts of 20 to 30 per day are usually the maxima and 5 to 15 per day the average. They are widely distributed and the peak of migration occurs during he first three weeks of April. Departure. Not determined. SUt1t1ER-A widely distributed breeder in the Tug Hill region, \'/here counts of 5 to 20 per day are common. Counts from all areas average l to 4 per day and are usually from conifer plantations. They will nest even in areas with only a few pine or spruce trees. For example, one pair has nested in a small isolated group of four pines atop Derby Hi 11 for many years. House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) FALL-No records. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Derby Hill on 25 March 1973. 2. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 16 April 1978. SUt1rE R-No records.

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COtmENTS: This species has colonized the Syracuse, New York area and it is probable that they may soon expand into this area. Pine Grosbeak (PinicoZa enucZeator) FALL-Arrival. Numbers vary greatly and in some years none may occur until December if at all. In other years the first may appear as early as mid-October or as 1 ate as mi d-tlovember. Maximum. Only small flocks are present in October. After lO November counts of 15 to 25 per day may occur. The highest counts for fall are 45 to 50 per day. They are common along Lake Ontario and in the higher areas east of Route 81. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-In some years none may be present and large flocks :in other years. Often only 1 to 2 per season are noted. In other years counts of 8 to 15 are average and 80 to 100 have been noted. They are most common in northern sections but are scattered throughout the county. They are frequently noted in apple orchards, deciduous woods, and conifer plantations. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but during years \'/hen large counts occur, small groups of migrants are passing Derby Hill during the first 10 days of March. Maximum. The highest counts are 20 to 40 per day along Lake Ontatio during the first three weeks of March. Much scarcer in other areas during March and 5 to 12 may be present at scattered locations. The peak often occurs during the first three weeks of March. Derarture. In many years none are noted after 20 t1arch and a ew are present through the last few days of March in some years. The latest records have occurred in very early April at Derby Hi 11. SUMMER-No records. Hoary Redpoll (CardueZis hornemanni) FALL-Record: One near Phoenix on 27 November 1959. 265

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266 HitHER-Record: One male at on 23 February 1958. SPRING-No records. SUMMER-No records. Common Redpo 11 (Carduelis f1ammea) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 25 and 30 October. The first usually appear between 1 and 10 November. In some years none may be present until winter. Maximum. The record high count is 283 at Derby Hill on 17 November 1971. In some years counts of 20 to 65 per day are the seasonal highs and are usually from along Lake Ontario. Counts average 10 to 20 per day, from most areas, After 10 November. Most frequent along Lake Ontario with feH in other areas. Departure. Not detennined. HINTER-Numbers vary greatly from year to ymr. In some years they are totally absent, but in other years large flocks are present. The highest winter counts are from 500 to 700 birds per day. Counts of 300 to 400 birds per day have occurred but only infrequently. Counts, in heavy flight years, of 60 to 125 per day are common. Common Redpolls are widely distributed in fields ancl other open areas over much of the county. In severe winters they are a common sight at bird feeders. In years when they are relatively scarce counts average 10 to 20 per day. Largest counts are usually from mid-December and January. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but flocks passing Derby Hill in early March are probably migrants. v Maximum. Counts of 1,000 to 1,500 per day have been noted passing Derby Hi 11. Counts of 500 to 800 per day are not uncommon at Hill during late March and the first two weeks of April in heavy flight years. Away from Lake Ontario the highest counts are usually 100 per day or less. Counts from all areas average 10 to 25 birds per day during heavy flight years. In some years the numbers are much less. The peak movement usually occurs prior to mi d-Apri 1

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Departure. In years when they are scarce none may be present after mi During years when 1 arge numbers are present the last are usually noted between 10 and 20 April. The record late sighting is one at Hickory Grove on 11 1978. and in much later than any other records. records. Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus) FALL-Arrival. The record early arri va 1 s have occurred between 17 and 19 September at Selkirk Shores State Park on 21 August 1969. They are usually noted from 30 September to 6 October and occasionally not until 10 to 15 October. Maximum. Counts vary greatly and maxima in some years are only 45 to 50 per day. Most maxima are 100 to 200 per day. Higher counts are rare but 300 to 400 per day are noted occasionally. They are common along Lake Ontario with few in other areas. Counts from all areas average 10 to 40 birds per day. The peak is usually during the last three weeks of October. November counts are usually much less. Departure. Not determined. 267 WINTER-A few Pine Sis kins are usually present in most winters at scattered locations. Counts may be only 1 to 3 per day in some years. During winters when large numbers are present 5 to 15 per day are often noted and up to 50 to 100 per day have been reported. They are present at scattered locations such as bird feeders and conifer plantations. SPRING-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Counts of 100 to 150 per day have been recorded at Derby Hill in a number of years. Counts of up to 400 per day are reported there upon occasion. The record high is 685 at Derby Hill on 14 1976. Away from Derby Hill counts of 25 to 50 per day are the maxima and average counts are 10 to 20 per day. They are most common from mid-April to in most years. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after 15 to 20 The last are usually noted during the last week of May and are often sighted along Lake Ontario. Some may remain into 10 June along Lake Ontario and in the Tug Hill plateau. SUt1MER-No records.

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268 American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high is 1,740 at Derby Hill on 27 October 1971. Counts of 400 to 800 per day have been noted along Lake Onta.rio and occasionally counts of 1 ,000+ per day are noted. Counts average 50 to 250 per day in all areas during August through early November. The peak movement occurs during the last two weeks of October. Departure. Humbers decline rapidly after early November, but some are present into winter. WINTER-Goldfinches are present in most areas in most \'linters. Rarest in the Tug Hill region and most common in the vicinity of bird feeders in lowland areas. Counts average 3 to 10 per day at scattered locations throughout most of the county. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to departure, but small flocks are usually noted pass1ng Derby Hill during the last 10 days of April. Maximum. The largest counts occur at Derby Hill during May where 1,000 to 2,500 per day are noted every year. The record highs are 3,575 there on 14 May 1976 and 6,000 on 19 May 1978. After mid-April 40 to 100 per day are common from all areas, but higher counts are from along Lake Ontario, usually. Departure. Difficult to determine, but small flocks are regularly passing Derby Hill to 10 to 15 June. Some have been noted as late as 20 June. SUMMER-A very common breeder in all areas of suitable habitat. The daily count is dependent upon the amount of suitable habitat covered. Counts of 20 to 40 per day are common and up to 100+ have been noted. They breed, primarily, in July and August. Red Crossbi 11 (Loxia curvirostra) FALL-Arrival. The juvenile at Sandy Pond on 28 August 1978. The next earl1est 1s 1n m1d-September. Numbers are very erratic and they may not appear until late October if at all.

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269 Maximum. In many years only scatterP.d small groups of 2-5 per day. Flocks of 10 to 20 per day may be noted in some years and occasionally 30 to 70 per day. Larger numbers are rare and the record high count is 127 at Derby Hill in 29 October 1969. Common at scattered loca tions from late-October onward. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-Their numbers are highly variable and they are most often noted as 4 to 12 per day at conifer plantations and other suitable habitats in most areas. Occasionally counts of 30 to 60 per day are noted but are infrequent. Very little information is available for the Tug Hill region, but it is likely that they are common there in some years. SPRING-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Limited data are available and numbers are variable. Counts of more than 15 to 20 per day are rare. They are most often noted as 5 to 10 per day from late t1arch to late April and early May. Departure. The departures vary from late March to early May depending upon the season. The latest sightings of migrants have occurred between 15 and 20 May and usually from along Lake Ontario. sightings are reported for all summer months, but no proof of breeding exists. White-winged Crossbill (Loxia FALL-Arrival. fhe earliest sightings have occurred during late September, but in some years are noted until winter. Maximum. The record high is 140 at Derby Hill on 17 November 1971. Flocks of 30 to 70 per day have been noted but counts average only 5 to 12 per day from all areas. Small flocks are usually scattered over most of the county by mid-November. They are most numerous in large conifer plantations and along Lake Ontario. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-Numbers vary greatly from season to season, but counts average 3 to 7 per day from scattered locations in all areas. Up to 50 per day have been noted, but these counts are very rare. common in 1 arge conifer plantations.

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270 SPRING-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Quite scarce in spring and counts average only 2 to 5 per day. Counts of 15 to 20 per day are sometimes reported, but higher counts are very rare. Most frequent during March. They are most numerous along Lake Ontario and quite scarce at inland locations. Data from the Tug Hill region is almost non-existent. Departure. The departure may occur as early as 8 March or as late as the end of April. However, the last may remain to mid-May in some years. SUMMER-They are occasionally sighted in the Tug Hill plateau, but no evidence of breeding exists. They are non-existent away from the Tug Hill area. Rufous-sided Towhee (PipiZo FALL-Arrival. Not determined. t1aximum. The highest are 10 to 15 per day. They are usually sighted as 2 to 6 per day in suitable habitat through mid-October. In some years they are more numerous and counts average 6 to 12 per day during these years. Departure. The last are often noted during the last week of October. A few remain to 5 to 10 November in some years. It is probable that birds present after mid-November are attempting to winter. HINTER-A few singles are often present in early usually at bird feeders. A few have remained into early January. There are no records after 3 January. The majority of winter records are of singles at feeders and along the Oswego River. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred from 8 to 13 April in var1ous years. The first are usually noted between 15 and 20 April. Maximum. The highest counts are 10 to 17 per day and counts average 5 to lO per day from all areas from late April onward. The peak occurs between 25 April and 15 May in this area. Departure. Not determined. are widely distributed brreders in suitable habitat in all areas of the county. Counts average 5 to 10 per day, but counts of 15 to 25 per day are common when large areas are covered. The largest numbers are from the Tug Hi 11 region where up to 40 per day have been recorded.

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Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) FALL-Arrival. rJot determined. Maximum. Several record high counts of 50 to 55 per day have occurred during the 1 as t two weeks of September and early October in various years. Maxima of 30 to 40 per day are common in most years. Counts average 10 to 20 per day from all sections. They are most numerous from mid-September to early October and usually occur atong Lake Ontario and in the Town of Schroeppel. Departure. In some years the last depart between 15 and 20 October, but the departureusually occurs between 20 and 31 October. Some may persist to early November upon occasion. The record late sightings are one at Selkirk Shores State Park on 13 November 1966 and one along Lake Ontario on 19 November 1972. WINTER Record: One which wintered in a grain elevator building at Oswego Harbor from 4 February to 15 March 1971. SPRING-Arrival. The record early arrivals have occurred on 1 April t-n three different years. The first usually appear between 7 and 13 April. Maximum. The highest count is 200 at Derby Hill on 1 April 1969. All other counts are less than 60 per day and most maxima are 25 to 40 per day. Counts, from suitable habitat in all areas, average 10 to 20 per day from 10 April onward. The heaviest movements occur during April. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-A fairly common and widespread breeder in most farmlands. Counts average 5 to 15 per day in suitable habitat and the maxima are 15 to 30 per day in the summer. Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarwn) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. 271 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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272 Maximum. The record high is 3 near Hannibal on 13 October 1975. All other counts are 1 to 2 per day and they are very infrequently noted. Limited data are available but most records are from areas along Lake Ontario. Departure. Very little information is available, but birds are rarely noted after September. The record late is one at Mapleview, Town of Mexico, on 15 October 1960. It is possib.le that a few may regularly remain to mid-October in most years. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first may appear anytime after 20 April and by 15 May. Maximum. All counts are 1 to 4 per day at scattered locations throughout the county from late April through t4ay. In some years the counts are only 1 to 2 per day. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-A scattered and uncommon breeder in this area. They do breed at a variety of sites throughout the county. Counts average 1 to 3 per day but may reach 8 to 12 per day. They appear to be more common in eastern sections and along Lake Ontario. Henslows Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowiil FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. Very little data is available on this species. Only a few scattered sightings of 1 to 2 per day are on record for August and September. A fe\v records also exist for October. Sightings in fall are usually of birds near local breeding sites and may not be migrants. Departure. The latest sightings have occurred during 15 to 20 October, but insufficient data are available to confirm a particular departure date. WINTER-No records.

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SPRING-Arrival. The first are usually noted between 22 April and 3 May and often occur at local breeding sites. Maximum. All counts are 1 to 4 per day. primarily from local breeding colonies and along Lake Ontario. Migrants are rarely sighted in other areas. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-They are a widely scattered and uncommon breeder. They are often noted as 1 to 4 per colony and counts have reached 10 per day. They are usually noted near Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake. Some colonies last for several years and others last only one season. They should be carefully monitored in the future. Sharp-tailed Sparrow CArrmospiza caudacuta) FALL-Record: One in a marsh near Texas, Town of Mexico, on 29 August 1960. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Record: One at Sandy Pond on 26 May 1959. SUMMER-No records. Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high is 60 near Panther Lake on 19 September 1964. Prior to the early 1970's seasonal highs of 20 to 40 per day were not unusual. In this decade there has been a great decline and present maxima are only 3 to 6 per day. Counts, in recent years, average 2 to 4 per day from suitable habitat. Most numerous during late September and the first half of October in many years. Departure. They usually leave from 20 to 27 October. A few may stay into early November with the record late sightings occurring between 6 and 7 November. I I I I I I I t I

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274 WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently appear between 1 and 7 April and occasionally a few days later. Maximum. The record high is 200 near Sandy Creek on 15 April 1965. Other high counts are all from prior to 1972 and are mainly 20 to 40 per day. Recent maxima are 10 to 15 per day. Counts average only 4 to 8 in suitable habitat. They are most numerous during April. Departure, Not determined. species has declined as a breeder in recent years. Counts average 1 to 5 per day and recent maxima are less than 10 per day. They occur at scattered locations, usually farmlands, in all areas of the county. Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemaZis) FALL-Arrival. The record early arrivals occurred along Lake Ontario on 24 August 1972. The first are usually noted between 10 and 17 September in most years. Maximum. The record high counts were 300 to 400 per day and they have occurred several times during the first two weeks of October. Maxima are generally from 150 to 200 per day. Counts from all areas average 30 to 100 per day. The highest counts are from areas along Lake Ontario during late September and the first two weeks of October. Departure. Numbers decline rapidly after late October and by mid-November most birds remaining are probably wintering. WINTER-They are present in small numbers at scattered locations in all areas of the county. Counts average 5 to 10 per day from areas such as bird feeders and conifer plantations. The numbers vary from year to year and are probably directly related to the severity of the winter. They do not appear to be very common in the higher country such as the Tug Hill area. SPRING-Arrival. The first arrivals usually occur between 15 and 25 March in most years. Maximum. The largest counts usually occur along Lake Ontario where the record maxima of 200 to 350 per day have occurred. Counts of 75 to 175 per day are common along Lake Ontario during late March and most of April. Counts average 30 to 100 per day from all areas. The peak movement occurs during the first three weeks of April. Departure. The last migrants are usually noted between 13 and 23 May. The record late departures have occurred from 23 to 26 May in several years.

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275 1 SUMMER-Widely distributed and counts of 4 to 10 per day are common in the Tug Hill plateau. They breed mainly in the Tug Hill region and counts may reach 15 per day. They are very rare in other areas, but they are occasionally reported in lowland areas. No proof of breeding exists for areas away from the Tug Hill plateau. Dark-eyed Junco (Oregon Race) FALL-No records. WINTER-Records include: 1. Two along the Oswego River north of Fulton from 14 February to 14 March 1959. 2. One at Minetto during the winter of 1972. 3. One near Pennelville at a feeder during February 1978. SPRING-Records include: 1. One adult at Selkirk Shores State Park on 20 April 1958. 2. One at Constantia on 11 March 1961. 3. One at Selkirk Shores State Park on 17 April 1967. 4. One male at Fair Haven Beach State Park on 8 April 1972. SUMMER-No records. Tree Sparrow (SpizeZZa arborea) FALL-Arrival. The record early is 6 at Sandy Pond on 3 October 1969. They arrive consistently between 13 and 20 October in most years. Maximum. The record high is 400 at Selkirk Shores State Park on 1 November 1959. Most maxima are 50 to 100 per day and counts of more than 150 per day are rare. Counts average 20 to 50 per day from all areas in late October. The highest counts occur during November and are usually from along Lake Ontario. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-They are one of the most common and widespread winter birds. Counts average 40 to 125 per day in all areas. They are least common in the Tug Hill plateau. Winter counts from a single observer have reached 400 per day. Common in brushlands and old fields throughout the county. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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276 SPRING-Arrival. Migrants return by the last week of February and the the first week of March in most years. Maximum. The highest counts are 150 to 250 per day. Counts average 40 to 125 per day from all areas during March. Numbers decline rapidly during early April. Departure. The last are usually noted between 13 and 20 April. Quite rare after and the record late sightings have occurred between 1 and 3 May. SUMMER-No records. Chipping Sparrow (SpizelZa passerina) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The highest counts are 75 to 85 per day. are usually 40 to 65 per day. Counts average 10 to 25 per day from all areas. The highest 0ccur during the first two weeks of September along Lake Ontario. Derarture. The departure occurs during the first third of November. A ew have occasionally stayed to 16-17 November and none are reported after that time. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. They consistently appear between 10 and 15 April. Maximum. The record high counts are 130 to 160 birds per day along Lake Ontario. Most maxima are 40 to 70 per day and counts average 10 to 30 per day from all sections of the county. Higher numbers occur along Lake Ontario during mid-April. Departure. Not determined. widespread breeder in most sections of the county. They are least common in the heavily wooded Tug Hill plateau. Most counts average 10 to 30 per day, but counts occasionally reach 50 per day. Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida) FALL-Record: One adult at Sandy Pond on 19 September 1966. WINTER-No records.

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277 1 SPRING-Records include: 1. One at Derby Hill on 10 t1ay 1972. 2. One at f,1exico Point on 15 May 1977. 3. One at Sandy Pond on 21 11ay 1978. SUMMER-Record: One singing male near Sandy Creek on 29 June 1963. Field Sparrow (SpizeZZa pusiZZaJ FALL-Arrival. tlot determined. Maximum. Three high counts between 60 and 75 per day have occurred. Most maxima are only 20 to 35 per day and counts average 10 to 20 per day from all areas. Common from early September through mid-October in suitable habitat in all areas. Departure. The last are often noted during the first week of November. Very rare after that time and the 1 a test are present to 10 November. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first consistently arrive between 1 and 8 April in most years. Maximum. The maxima are 20 to 40 per day and counts average 8 to 20 per day from all sections of the county \'/here suitable habitat exists. The highest counts are usually from the last two weeks of April. Departure. Not determined. fairly common and widespread breeder in suitable habitat in all sections. Counts in summer average 10 to 20 per day. Harris' Sparrow (Zonotrichia queruZa) I I I I I I I I I I I I I FALL-No records. I WINTER-Record: One immature bird at a feeder just east of Oswego, in the Town of Scriba, from 15 January to 26 March 1968. I SPRING-No records. SUMf'1ER-No records. I I I

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278 Hhite-crowned Sparrovt (Zonotrichia leucophrys) FALL-Arrival. The first consistently appear between 13 and 20 September, usually along Lake Ontario. Several high maxima of 70 to 95 per day have occurred in early October, primarily from along Lake Ontario. Haxima average 30 to 50 per day. They are widely distributed and fairly common from late September to late October. Departure. A few usually persist to the end of October and early November. The latest departures have occurred between 10 and 15 November. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. A few early arrivals have occurred between 4 and 10 April, but the first usually dont occur until 18 to 23 April in most years. Maximum. The highest counts are 85 to 105 per day on several occasions. Maxima are usually from 20 to 50 per day and counts from all areas average 10 to 30 per day. Common during the first three weeks of May. Departure. The last are often noted between 15 and 20 May in most years. The latest departures have occurred from 24 to 29 May. records. White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) FALL-Arrival. The earliestarrivals at Sandy Pond are on 29 July 1978 and one on 10 August 1975. The normal arrival period is 16 to 25 August in recent years. This period is much earlier than in previous years when most occurred between 1 and 11 September. Maximum. The record high counts both include 650 birds at Sandy Pond and Selkirk Shores State Park on 30 September 1976 and at Sterling on 1 October 1976. There are several counts of 200 to 300 per day, but most maxima are 120 to 220 per day. Very common from mid-September

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279 through early November. Counts average 30 to 75 from most areas. The peak movement occurs during the last week of September and the first three weeks of October. De/T6rture. Numbers decline rapidly during late October, but small nu ers persist well into late October. A few often persist into winter. WINTER-They are very unco11111on and scattered in \'linter. They are very rare in the Tug Hill plateau. Numbers vary greatly and in some years none are present while in other years small groups of 4 to 6 are present. They are most common in Decerrber primarily in sheltered areas. After early January birds that are not present at bird feeders are quite rare. In severe winters there may be considerable mortality. SPRING-Arrival. The first migrants arrive between 10 and 15 April. March reports are probably birds that have spent the winter rather than migrants. Maximum. The high counts are from 75 to 150 per day and larger counts are rare, although counts of 225 to 300 per day have occurred. They are widely distributed in most areas from mid-Apdl onward, but are probably rare in the snow-covered Tug Hill plateau until ear 1 y May. Departure. The last are usually noted between 23 and 28 May and a few may persist to the last three days of May. widely distributed and common breeder in the Tug Hill region. Counts there average 10 to 20 per day, but counts up to 50 per day have been recorded there on occasion. Since the late 1960's scattered breeding pairs have been noted along Lake Ontario and at other lowland areas. All breeding reports away from the Tug Hill area should be carefully monitored. Fox Sparrow (PassereZZa iliaca) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 26 and 28 September. They normally arrive between 29 September and 5 October. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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280 Maximum. The record high is 30+ north of New Haven on 27 October 1963. Most counts are 2 to 4 per day and counts occasionally reach 5 to 10 per day, but rarely higher. Their distribution is spotty and they are an uncommon migrant. They occur from October to early November. Departure. A few are usually present into early November. A few records have been reported to 17 November. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The first usually appear between 23 and 30 March and occasionally a few days earlier. Maximum. Counts average 1 to 4 per day, but 5 to 8 are recorded occas1onally. The highest counts are 10 to 14 per day. Most common along Lake Ontario but they are present in small numbers at scattered locations throughout most of the county. They are most common during the last week of March and the first two weeks of Apri 1. Departure. Scarce after 20 April and the last are usually noted between 20 and 25 April. They are very rare in May but a few records exist. SUMMER-No records. Lincoln s Sparrow (MeZospiza ZincoZnii) FALL-Arrival. The record early is one at Sandy Pond on 1 September 1975. The next records are 15 to 20 September. The first usually appear between 20 and 30 September and usually are from areas along Lake Ontario. Maximum. All counts are 6 or less and they average only 1 to 2 per day. They are most often seen along Lake Ontario but are not restricted to that area. They are most often sighted during the last week of September and the first two weeks of October. Departure. The last are usually sighted between 10 and 20 October, with a few scattered sightings to 25 October. WINTER-No records. SPRING-Arrival. The earliest arrive from 6 to 8 May and they usually arrive between 10 and 15 May. Maximum. All counts are less than 6 per day and average 1 to 2 per day. The numbers vary from year to year. They are most often noted along Lake Ontario but are present in small numbers in other areas. Most common from 10 to 25 May. Departure. The latest are usually noted between 20 and 27 May depending on the year. SUMMER-No records.

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l .\ Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) FALL-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. The record high is 90 in the Town of Richland, on 8 October 1974. Most high counts are 25 to 30 per day. They are present in suitable habitat in most sections. They are most frequent during the last week of September and the first half of October when daily counts are 2 to 8 per day. Departure. Numbers decline during the last half of October, but some are usually present to mid-November. A few persist into winter in most years. WINTER-A few, usually l to 2 per day, are often present into December in scattered locations, primarily in southern sections. In severe winters none may be noted after the third week of December. In mild winters a few usually persist into January. Very rare after mid-January and virtually non-existent in February. SPRING-Arrival. The first appear between 10 and 17 April. Maximum. The highest counts are from the Peter Scott Swamp area. per day from areas with suitable and early May. Departure. Not determined. 20 to 35 per day and often Counts average 5 to 12 habitat. Common during April SUMMER-A fairly common breeder in suitable habitat in all sections of the county. The highest counts are 20+ per day and these occurred in the large marshes. Counts of 2 to 8 per day occurred in other areas. Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) FALL-Arri va 1. Not determined. Maximum. There are several high counts in the 150 to 200 per day range in varous years. Most maxima are 75 to 125 per day. Counts of 25 to 70 per day are not uncommon. They are very common during the last week of September and the first half of October. Deaarture. Most migrants have probably left by mid-November. In ividuals present after 15 to 20 November are probablyattempting to winter. 281 J t

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282 WINTER-Present into December and counts at this time are 1 to 3 per day. Occasionally 6 to 10 per day are noted at scattered locations. Small numbers persist to early January, but rare after this. A few persist at feeders through the winter. SPRING-Arrival. There is a noticeable increase between 15 and 25 March. Maximum. The highest counts are 550 each at Derby Hill, Selkirk Shores State Park, and Scott Swamp on 15 April 1965 and at Selkirk Shores State Park to NineMile Point on 13 April 1971. Several counts of 175 to 250 have been noted in different years. Most high counts are 100 to 150 per day. Counts average 20 to 70 per day. Most common during the last week of March and the first week of Apri 1. Departure. Not determined. SUMMER-A common breeder in wide range of habitats in all areas. The counts are directly related to the amount of suitable habitat covered. Counts of 10 to 20 per day are the average but higher numbers are not uncommon. Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) FALL-Arrival. The earliest arrivals have occurred between 15 and 20 September. The arrival usually occurs in the first third of October or later. Maximum. The record high counts are 15 to 20 per day on several occas1ons. Counts are 6 per day or less and 1 to 2 per day the average. Most frequent along Lake Ontario with occasional flocks in fields and other lowland areas. Virtually non-existent in the Tug Hill area probably due to the lack of coverage. Most frequent during October and November. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-They are present at irregular intervals at scattered locations. Counts average 1 to 3 per day. Present in all winter months, and most often noted with flocks of Snow Buntings. Most frequent along Lake Ontario and at other scattered locales. In some winters none are present. SPRING-Arrival. Not determined. Maximum. During the first two weeks of March counts of 1 to 6 per day are noted on occasion. Common along Lake Ontario and in other lowland sections.

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Departure. They are rare after 15 March with the last often noted between 15 and 25 March and occasionally a few are present to the last few days of March. April records are mostly singles and the latest have occurred between 8 and 10 April. Snow Bunting nivalis) FALL-Arrival. The first appear between 13 and 20 October in most years and are often sighted at Sandy Pond. Maximum. There are several high counts of 400 to 600 per day. Counts average 15 to 40 per day in suitable habitat during late October and November. Most common along Lake Ontario prior to 10 November. Departure. Not determined. WINTER-They are widely distributed in fields in most sections and counts range from 20 to 150 per day. Flocks may reach 1 ,500+ but these are very infrequent. They are present throughout the winter with the largest concentrations occurring in fields of grain and manure spreads. SPRING-Arrival. Difficult to determine, but small flocks are often noted passing Derby Hill in late February in most years. Maximum. The largest flocks are 1,000 to 2,000 per day at infrequent intervals. Most maxima are 200 to 500 per day. Large flocks are common in early spring. They are widely distributed at 50 to 150 per day during the first three weeks of March. Departure. The last are usually noted from 4 to 9 April. A few are present to 12 to 15 April, but they are very rare after that date. The record late is one at the Nine Mile Point power plant complex on 29 April 1973. SUMMER-No records. 283 I I i i I 1

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284 Summary of Banding Data The following is all complete data available for selected species banded or recovered within the 10' blocks of latitude and longitude which are at least partially included in Oswego County. Black-crowned Night Heron #000335761 Banded: near Trois Rivieres, Quebec (96N 76W) on 17 June 1925. Recovered: Locally shot on 27 September 1925. #041673415 Banded: near Hyannis, Massachusetts (Cape Cod) on 10 June 1946. Recovered: Locally trapped on 13 November 1946. Sharp-shinned Hawk #038415566 Banded: as a nestling near Oneida, New York on 11 July 1939. Recovered: Locally shot on 1 October 1939. Red-tailed Hawk #059735880 Banded: as a nestling near Syracuse, New York on 27 May 1961. Recovered: Locally in southwestern sections on 24 March 1963. Trapped or snared. Red-shouldered Hawk #038644918 Banded: Recovered: Broad-winged Hawk #051567845 Banded: Recovered: locally as a nestling male on 30 May 1939. Shot on the east shore of Lake Huron west of London, Ontario (43N 82W) on 30 November 1942. locally as a nestling on 17 June 1965. Found dead southeast of San Jose, Costa Rica (090N 83'W) on 28 February 1972.

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Arne ri can Kes t re 1 #115321341 Banded: locally as a hatchling male on 14 November 1970. Recovered: Found dead near National Monument, Florida (25 301N 801W) on 17 April 1971. #063397669 Banded: locally as a one year old male on 1 April 1967. Recovered: Found dead southwest of Roanoke, Virginia {37N 801W) on 9 January 1968. American Coot #000326280 Banded: as a flightless juvenile near Killdeer Sault St. Marie, Michigan (east end of Lake Superior) on 10 August 1929. Recovered: Illegally shot locally on 24 September 1929. #07229 Sl83 Banded: Recovered: locally on 21 August 1971. Found dead near Berwick, Pennsylvania (411N 76low) on 9 April 1972. Piping Plover #041107222 Banded: as a hatching year juvenile locally on 13 July 1941. Recovered: Trapped and released alive at Long Point, Ontario (Lake Erie North Shore) on 7 July 1943. Chimney Swift #002040600 Banded: at Thomasville, Georgia on 3 October 1925 by being caught at roost. Recovered: Locally on 1 August 1927-Found dead in building. I I I I 1

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286 Chimney Swift #043102962 Banded: Recovered: #047158083 Banded: Recovered: #141006168 Banded: Recovered: Tree Swa 11 rJN #058042547 Banded: Recovered: #064050736 Banded: Recovered: #064050743 Banded: Recovered: #066015554 Banded: Recovered: #066015656 Banded: Recovered: at Macon, Georgia on 13 October 1945. Found dead locally on 10 July 1948. at Macon, Georgia on 19 October 1946. Starvation (?) caught locally on 21 June 1949. at Gatlinburg, Tennessee on 2 September 1941. Caught due to exhaustion locally on 2 June 1942. as a flightless juvenile locally on 28 June 1956. Killed by cat near Miami, Florida on 9 March 1957. as a flightless juvenile locally on 22 June 1960. southeast of Rochester, New York on 24 June 1961. as a flightless juvenile locally on 22 June 1960. nedr Newark, Delaware on 25 August 1960, found dead. as an adult locally on 21 1961. near New York (extreme NE corner of the state) on 28 April 1970. Trapped and released alive. as an adult locally on 25 June dead just west of Utica, New York on 20 April 1964.

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Tree Swa 11 ow #067092037 Blue Jay Banded: as a flightless juvenile locally on 18 June 1962. Recovered: Found dead in building or enclosure near Utica, New York on 18 August 1964. #067092332 Banded: as a flightless juvenile locally on 20 June 1962. Recovered: Killed by a cat in the same area on 12 May 1963. #082074237 Banded: as a flightless juvenile locally on 14 July 1973. Recovered: Trapped and released alive near Utica, New York on 20 May 1975. #096326671 Banded: as a flightless juvenile south of Rochester, New York on 15 July 1967. Recovered: as a banding casualty locally on 27 August 1968. Black-capped Chickadee #105043541 Banded: near Rochester, New York on 25 Noverrbe r 1965. Recovered: Trapped and released alive locally on 14 April 1966. #132024074 Banded: as an adult near Texas in Oswego County on 28 April 1974. Recovered: by mist net at Noyes Sanctuary and released on 14 May 1978. #133003543 Banded: at Noyes Sanctuary, Texas, New York on 31 August 1974. Recovered: by mist net at Noyes Sanctuary and released on 13 May 1978. 287 I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1

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288 House Wren #047064301 Banded: as a female near Madison, Wisconsin on 16 July 1947. Recovered: locally on 19 October 1953. Band only found. (A questionable record.) American Robin #055219327 Banded: Recovered: #063229939 Banded: Recovered: #066235712 Banded: Recovered: as an adult male near Oneida, New York on 16 April 1953. Found dead in a building locally on 23 June 1958. 1 oca lly on 19 Apri 1 1966. near Bradenton, Florida (south of Tampa Bay). Found dead on 2 February 1968. as an adult male locally on 15 July 1973. found injured near EuFaula, Alabama (320N 850W) on 28 January 1974. Wood Thrush Starling #072175914 Banded: locally on 28 July 1971. Recovered: Dead in the same area on 26 June 1972. #000632602 Banded: Recovered: #036203899 Banded: Recovered: near Washington, D. c. on 23 March 1928. locally on 11 April 1929. near Washington, D. C. on 20 January 1936. Killed by cat locally on 13 August 1937.

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Starling #000263456 Banded: near Oswego, N.Y. on 13 March 1929 as an adult. Recovered: Shot locally on 8 December 1929. #003201740 Banded: as an adult male locally on 9 February 1934. Recovered: Found dead near Auburn, N.Y. on 11 February 1934. #047208498 Banded: as an adult male near Oswego, N.Y. on 13 January 1950. Recovered: Found dead locally on 26 March 1950. #047215393 Banded: as an adult male near Oswego, N.Y. on 26 February 1950. Recovered: Found dead locally on 26 April 1952. #064297800 Banded: as a nestling at Ithaca, N.Y. on 24 May 1964. Recovered: locally shot on 16 May 1966. #041357324 Banded: as an adult near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 22 January 1947. Recovered: Killed by cat locally on 16 April 1947. #047301814 Banded: as an adult near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 29 March 1947. Recovered: found dead locally on 21 February 1949. #053291486 Banded: as an adult near York, Pennsylvania on 24 January 1957. Recovered: shot locally on 12 May 1957. #066299392 Banded: as an adult male north of Lewiston, Pennsylvania on 6 February 1967. Recovered: locally shot on 4 February 1968. 289 1 I I I

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290 Starling #966299477 Banded: as an adult male north of Lewiston, Pennsylvania on 7 March 1967. Recovered: Found dead locally on 29 March 1969. #066203247 Banded: east of Tuskegee, Alabama on 27 February 1965. Recovered: Found shot locally on 1 May 1965. #001246539 Banded: as an adult male east of Madison, Indiana on 12 February 1930. Recovered: Found dead locally on 6 March 1930. #001213376 Banaed: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 16 February 1929. Recovered: Killed by a cat locally on 20 January 1930. #002213714 Banded: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 16 February 1929. Recovered: Found dead locally on 12 February 1932. #003228974 Banded: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 3 March 1933. Recovered: Found dead in building locally on 16 January 1935. #003229828 Banded: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 16 January 1933. Recovered: Found injured locally on 27 January 1935. #003235617 Banded: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 3 March 1933. Recovered: locally on 13 March 1933. #003235943 Banded: as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 3 March 1933. Recovered: Shot locally on April 1934.

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Starling #034202074 Banded: Recovered: #034203275 Banded: Recovered: #034207506 Banded: Recovered: #034217465 Banded: Recovered: #034255344 Banded: Recovered: #037207356 Banded: Recovered: #06527 2918 Banded: Recovered: #065261208 Banded: Recovered: #068291324 Banded: Recovered: #075260444 Banded: Recovered: as an adult at Cincinnati, Ohio on 29 December 1933. Shot locally on 16 March 1935. at Cincinnati, Ohio on 1 February 1934. Found dead locally on 11 January 1935. as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 15 January 1934. Shot locally on 8 May 1935. as an adult at Columbus, Ohio on 17 March 1934. Shot locally on 12 April 1935. at Columbus, Ohio on 4 January 1935. Shot locally on 17 April 1935. at Cincinnati, Ohio on 2 February 1937. Found dead locally on 31 May 1937. north of Columbus, Ohio on 1 November 1963. Shot locally on 20 March 1968. as an adult north of Columbus, Ohio on 6 March 1964. Shot locally on 2 June 1964. as a juvenile at Sandusky, Ohio on 4 July 1966. Shot locally on 18 May 1971. as an adult north of Columbus, Ohio on 12 February 1971. Found dead in a building locally on 12 March 1971 291

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292 Starling #040212253 Banded: at Nashville, Tennessee on 17 February 1940. Recovered: Found dead locally on 4 April 1940. #051231207 Banded: as an adult male at Memphis, Tennessee on 29 December 1953. Recovered: Shot locally on 20 March 1954. #057262338 Banded: as an adult male at Memphis, Tennessee on 21 January 1960. Recovered: Found dead locally on 30 May 1961. Eastern Meadowlark #000000958 Banded: near Baltimore, Maryland on 17 January 1957. Found injured locally on 18 July 1961. Recovered: Rusty Blackbird #039269684 Common Grackle Banded: as a male near Ithaca, New York on 4 October 1941. Recovered: Trapped locally in April 1947. #060354158 Banded: as an adult male near Wantaugh, Long Island, New York on 24 May 1958. Recovered: Found dead locally on 15 July 1959. #068349806 Banded: as an immature in southern Jefferson County, N.Y. on 4 July 1961. Recovered: Killed by a cat locally on 29 October 1963. #068395740 Banded: as an immature in southern Jefferson County, N.Y. on 24 July 1961. Recovered: Shot locally on 31 August 1962.

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Co11111on Grackle #065341906 Banded: Recovered: #076328110 Banded: Recovered: #054394144 Banded: Recovered: #000106198 Banded: Recovered: Brown-headed Cowbird #066145231 Banded: Recovered: #066169106 Banded: Recovered: #065166475 Banded: Recovered: #066123252 Banded: Recovered: #065132767 Banded: Recovered: locally on 13 April 1966. south of Senneterre, Quebec (48'N 77'W) Killed by a cat on 11 July 1966. as an adult male just south of Baltimore, Maryland on 22 December 1944. locally on 2 May 1946. as an i11111ature near o-neida, New York on 16 June 1955. Found dead locally on 26 April 1959. at Ottawa, Ontario on 29 July 1925. Found dead in a building locally on 10 November 1925. as an adult male near Wilmington, Delaware on 20 March 1964. Killed by cat locally on 30 April 1964. as an adult male locally on 2 May 1971. Retrapped and released alive near Port Stanley, Ontario (North shore of Lake Erie) on 2 April 1975. as an adult near Mt. Union, Pennsylvania (South Central Pa.) on 19 February 1964. Found dead locally on 5 September 1964. as an adult female near Chamberg, Pennsylvania (Far south central Pa.) on 19 January 1965. Shot locally on 20 April 1965. as an adult male at Columbus, Ohio on 19 November 1963. Found dead locally during 1964. 1 I t

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294 Evening Grosbeak #048228809 Banded: as an adult female near Caribou, Maine (461N 6aow) on 13 April 1949. Recovered: Found dead locally on 26 February 1950. #057177259 Banded: as an adult male near Laconia, New Hampshire on 7 April 1960. Recovered: Trapped locally on 7 February 1964. #050113166 Banded: as an adult female in extreme north eastern New Jersey (41N 74W) on 20 February 1955. Recovered: Trapped and released locally on 5 May 1955. #075197617 Banded: as a female near Lewiston, Pennsylvania on 15 November 1972. Recovered: Trapped and released locally on 9 May 1973. #078160341 Banded: as a female in western Pennsylvania (4lol01N 791W) on 30 December 1973. Recovered: Trapped and released locally on 13Mayl974. #054148784 Banded: as an adult male near Newport, Rhode Island on 16 April 1955. Recovered: Trapped and released locally on 9 May 1955. #060107830 Banded: as a female south of St. Johnsbury, Vermont (441N 72ow) on 31 January. Recovered: Trapped and released locally on 23 January 1966. #074283857 Banded: as an adult female near Park Rapids, Minnesota (47N 94o3ow) on 13 April 1971. Recovered: Found dead locally on 6 May 1973. #058125463 Banded: as an adult female near Durham, Ontario (44N 81W) on 10 February 1964. Recovered: Found dead locally on 23 March 1966.

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Evening Grosbeak #050175038 Banded: Recovered: #023136381 Banded: Recovered: #057123537 Banded: Recovered: #058107580 Banded: Recovered: #059127485 Banded: Recovered: #059136705 Banded: Recovered: #059190587 Banded: Recovered: #069197920 Banded: Recovered: #084177525 Banded: Recovered: Purple Finch #0770391 08 as a male near Schnectady, N.Y. on 9 January 1952. Found dead locally on 18 March 1955. as an adult female near Lewiston, Pennsylvania on 15 March 1959. Trapped and released locally on 23 March 1960. as an adult female in southern Jefferson County, N.Y. on 8 February 1959. Found dead locally during February 1960. as a male in southern Jefferson Co., N.Y. on 26 November 1959. Found dead locally during December 1963. as an adult male in southern Jefferson Co., N.Y. on 4 May 1960. Found dead locally on 2 April 1962. as an adult male west of Schnectady, N.Y. on 4 March 1960. Found dead locally during 1961. as a female near Oswego, N.Y. on 17 November 1961. Trapped and released locally on 16 February 1964. as an adult female in southern Jefferson County, N.Y. on 28 March 1966. Killed by cat locally on 11 April 1966. south of Syracuse, N.Y. on 16 February 1975. Found dead locally on 20 February 1975. Banded: near Greensboro, North Carolina on 9 February 1969. Recovered: Sight record of Band # read locally 3 times on 27 May 1969, 26 April 1970, 1 May 1972. 295

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296 Purple Finch #054054379 Banded: Recovered: Pine Sis kin #122057643 Banded: Recovered: American Goldfinch #128020027 Banded: Recovered: #129050293 Banded: Recovered: #129050371 Banded: Recovered: #1 07098417 Banded: Recovered: #108081091 Banded: Recovered: #121069943 Banded: Recovered: #121029925 Banded: Recovered: near Knoxville, Tennessee on 24 March 1966. Road killed locally on 11 July 1967. near Lewiston, Pennsylvania on 16 March 1970. Sight record of Band # read locally on 6 May 1972. as an adult male near Hancock, N.Y. on 26 March 1972. Trapped and released locally on 17 April 1974. as an adult male locally on 6 January 1974. near Albany, N.Y. on 6 May 1975. Trapped and released. as an adult locally on 25 January 1974. Trapped and released near Auburn, N.Y. on 28 April 1975. as an adult near Trenton, New Jersey just inside Pennsylvania on 1 February 1964. Road killed locally on 10 August 1964. as a male near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 13 April 1966. Found injured locally on 8 June 1967. as an immature male near Scranton, Pennsylvania on 5 October 1971. Road killed locally on 28 July 1972. as an adult male near Norfolk, Virginia on 2 March 1970. Sight record, band read locally on 28 May 1973.

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Dark-eyedJunco #113006998 Banded: Recovered: #063098699 Banded: Recovered: Tree Sparrow #049016177 Banded: Recovered: #061004109 Banded: Recovered: White-throated Sparrow as an adult locally on 20 April 1969. Found dead near Georgetovm, South Carol ina (coastal) on 25 October 1969. as an adult male near Philadephia, Pennsylvania on 31 March 1961. Found dead locally on 24 April 1962. near Endicott, N.Y. on 24 February 1950. locally. Killed by cat on 8 February 1951. south of Lock Haven, Pennsylvania on 5 February 1968. Found dead locally on 18 April 1970. #02019815T Banded: near Peterborough, Ontario (N. shore Lake Ontario) on l September 1955. Recovered: Killed by cat locally on 30 November 1955. Song Sparrow #033161954 Banded: Recovered: #070084589 Banded: Recovered: #079095979 Banded: Recovered: near Point Pleasant, New Jersey (central coast) on 16 October 1963. Found dead locally in March 1964. locally on 24 September 1973. Tragped and released in central Maryland (39 N 77W) on 9 February 1974. as an immature near Johnsburg, Vermont (northeast quarter) on 8 August 1971. Killed by cat locally on 1 June 1972. 297

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298 Red List Species which have been eliminated or are in immediate danger of disappearing from the area. Black-crowned Night Heron Black Duck Coopers Hawk Red-shouldered Hawk Bald Eagle Harrier Osprey Peregrine Turkey Piping Plover Black Tern Barn Owl Eastern Bluebird Loggerhead Shrike Pine Warbler B = Breeder M = Migrant W = Winters R = Resident B B B B B M w B M M R B M B B B B M B

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Common Loon Red-throated Loon Red-necked Grebe Horned Grebe Pied-billed Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Great Blue Heron Black-crowned Night Heron Least Bittern American Bittern Black Duck Redhead Ring-necked Duck Canvasback King Eider Ruddy Duck Hooded Merganser Common Merganser Cooper s Hawk Goshawk Red-shouldered Hawk Golden Eagle Harrier Merlin Virginia Rai 1 Sora Whimberal Upland Sandpiper Buff-breasted Sandpiper Herring Gull Ring-billed Gull Blue List B M W Common Tem M Co.spi an Tern t1 Black Tern M Yellow-billed Cuckoo B M Black-billed Cuckoo M Screech Owl B Barred Owl M Long-eared Owl B Short-eared Owl B M Saw Whet Owl M Whi p-poor-wi 11 M W Common Nighthawk M Ruby-throated Hurnningbi rd M Red-bellied Woodpecker w Red-headed Woodpecker M Eastern Phoebe B Horned Lark M W Rough-winged Swallow M Cliff Swallow B Carol ina Wren M Short-billed Marsh Wren M Long-billed Marsh Wren M Eastern Bluebird M Blue-gray Gnatcatcher B Golden-winged Warbler B Blue-winged Warbler M Louisiana Waterthrush B M Hooded Warbler B B M Grasshopper Sparrow Henslows Sparrow Vesper Sparrow B = Breeder M = Migrant W = Winters R = Resident 299 I 1 I B M I M I B M B M R I R M W M W B M W B M B B R B M B M B M W B B R B B M B B B B B B B B

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.. 300 Bibliography of Publications of Interest Arbib, Roberts. Jr. 1963. The Common Loon in New York State. Kingbird 13:1-8. Axtell, Harold H. 1965. Authorities make too many mistakes. Kingbird 15:37-39. Baillie, James L. Jr. 1947. The Double-crested Cormorant nesting in Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 61:119-126. Belknap, John. 1950. Bird colonies in eastern Lake Ontario. Kin gb i rd 1 : 3-6. 1955. The expanding range of the Ring-billed Gull. Kingbird 5:63-64 1961. The Cattle Egret in New York State. rd 11 :26-2 7. ---....,.....,,__....., 1966. The Rough-legged Hawk in New York State. Kingbird 16:133-136. ---...,..,.....--1968. Little Galloo Island: 2.. twenty year summary. Kingbird 18:10-18 1971. The Turkey Vulture in New York State. ---=Ki.-n....,gbird 21:58-59. Benton, Allen H. 1951. Bird population changes in a central New York county since 1870. Kingbird 1:2-11. Benton, Allen H. 1960. Southern warblers in central New York: historical review. Kingbird 10:137-141. Bourne, Thomas L. 1921. An Egret record from Oswego County, New York. Auk 38:273. Brown, Woodard H. 1971. Winter population trends in the Red-shouldered Hawk. American Birds 25:813-817. ---....,.....1973. Winter population trends in the Marsh, Coopers and Sharp-shinned Hawks. American Birds 27:6-7. ---....,...,,--yo 1975. Winter population trends in the Bald Eagle. American Birds 29:12-14. Bulgur, W. John and Walter R. Spofford. 1963. An occurrence of the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) in central New York. Kingbird 13

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Bull, John L. 1964. What constitutes breeding. Kingbird 14:131-132. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday Natural ---...,.R"i_s..,..tory Press. 65Spp:-- 1976. Supplement to Birds of New York State. Speci a 1 ----.P.-uT'"b-li.cation, Federation of Yorl
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302 Emlen, John T. 1938. Mid-winter distribution of the American Crow in New York State. Ecology 19:264-2750 Federation of New Ycrk State Bird Clubs, Inc. (various years). Region 5 reports. Kingbird (various volumes). Foley, D. 1960. Recent changes in water fowl populations in New York. _!
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Lincoln, Frederick C. 1928. The migrations of young North American Herring Gulls. Auk 45:49-59. Ludwig, F. E. 1942. Migration of Caspian Terns banded in the Great Lakes area. Bird Banding 13:1-9. Ludwig, J. P. 1974. Recent changes in the Ring-billed Gull populations and biology in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Auk 91:575-594. MacClintock, L. 1977. Evidence for the value of corridors and minimiza tion of isolation in preservation of biotic diversity. American Birds 31:6-16. Maxwell, George R. II. 1974. Lowland Oak, Beech-Maple forest breeding bird census. American Birds 28:991. 1976. The Little Blue Heron in upstate New York. Kingbird 26:194-197. 1978. Lowland Oak, Beech-Maple forest breeding bird census. American Birds. 32:53-54. May, Franklin H. 1923. Piping Plover and Black Tern nesting at North Pond, Lake Ontario. Auk 40:690-691. Meade, Gordon M. 1948. The 1945-46 Snowy Owl incursion in New York State. Bird Banding 19:51-59. Moore, Frank R. 1976. The dynamics of seasonal distribution of Great Lakes Herring Gulls. Bird Banding 47:141. Parkes, Kenneth C. 1950. The Barrows Goldeneye in New York-addenda. Kingbird 1:88. Peakall, David B. 1961. Snowy Owls in New York State in the winter of 1960-61. Kingbird 11:184-186. Pernie, Miles D. 1921. Jaeger at Sandy Pond, Oswego County, York. Auk 38:597. 1921. Brown Pelican in Oswego County New York. Auk 38:597. Richardson, W. John. 1966. Weather and late spring migration of birds into southern Ontario. Wilson Bulletin 78:400-414. ----------1971. Spring migration and weather in eastern Canada: a radar study. American Birds 25:684-690. 1972. Autumn migration in eastern Canada: a radar American Birds 26:10-17. 303 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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304 Rusk, Margaret S. 1962. Boreal Owl in Oswego County. Kingbird 12:25-26. ........... 16:91. 1966. Kingbird Another Oswego County Boreal Owl. ---_,.,..,___, 1967. Gull with dark slate-colored mantle at Oswego. Kingbird 17:85-86. 1974. Great Connorant at Oswego Harbor, New York. Kingbird 24:12-13. Rusk, Margaret S. and Christian G. Spies. 1967. Inmature Black-headed Gull at Sandy Pond Outlet, Oswego County, New York. Kingbird 17:214-215. Rusk, Margaret S. and Francis G. Scheider. Bonapartes Gull records Region 5. 1968. Additions to Kingbird 18:84. Scheider, Francis G. 1958. Hawk flights along southeastern Lake Ontario. Kingbird 8:74-75 1959. Some brief Tug Hill Plateau observations. .. bird 8:110. ---..,.,....___, 1960. The 1960 fall shorebird migration in central New York. Kingbird 10:159-163. ---.....,..,...___, 1965. The 1964 fall shorebird migration in central New York. Kingbird 15:15-19. 1965. Sandhill crane in southern Oswego County. ----.k ..... i'"'"n.....,gbird 15:157-158. Scheider, Francis G. and E. Evans. 1956. The Sandy Pond-Selkirk Shores sector. Kingbird 6:81-85. Seaman, Roberta W. 1959. A Franklins Gull in spring plumage at Oswego. Kingbird 9:23. Smith, Gerald A. 1973. The 1972 spring migration at Derby Hill with remarks on the period 1963-1971. Kingbird 23:13-27. Smith, Gerald A. et al. 1977. Habitat and wildlife inventory: guide to coastal zone lands, Oswego County, New York. Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin volume 4. SUNY College at Oswego. 1 98pp.

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Smith, Gerald A. and David G. Muir. 1978. Derby Hill spring Hawk migration update. Kingbird 28:5-25. Southern, William E. 1967. Dispersal and migration of Ring-billed Gulls from a Michigan population. Jack Pine Warbler 45:102-111. ---.....,G::-u-:1.,...1 s 1974. Seasonal distribution of Great Lakes Ring-billed Jack Pine Warbler 52:154-179. Spofford, Walter R. 1960. The White-headed Eagle in New York State. Kingbird 10:148-152. Stoner, Dayton. 1932. Ornithology of the Oneida Lake region: with reference to the late spring and suiTITier seasons. Roosevelt Wildlife Animals 2:271-764. 1938. Great Gray Owl in New York State. Auk 55:279-280. ---.....,.....1941" Historical data on a specimen of Sooty Tern from Oswego, New York. Auk 58:258-259. ---..._..,...__,. 1943. The 1941-42 Snowy Owl invasion of New York State. Bird Banding 14:116-127. 1945. Further New York State records for Great Gray ----a-n_,.d-;Richardsons Owls. Auk 62:629-631. Sutliff, Richard J. and Ferdinand LaFrance. 1970. Western Kingbird in Oswego County, New York. Kingbird 20:14. Weir, Ronald. 1972. Spring migration at Prince Edward Point. Canadian Field Naturalist. 86:3-16. Weir, Ronald and Fred Cooke. 1976. Autumn Migration of Shorebirds in the Kingston Area Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist 90:103-113. Whitcombe, R. E. 1977. Island biogeography and habitat islands of eastern forests. American Birds 31:3-5. ____ ---:""\. 1977. Long-term turnover and effects of selective logging on the avifauna of forest fragments. American Birds 31:17-23. Yunick, Robert P. 1972. Photos of New York State rarities: Great Gray Owl. Kingbird 22:5-7. 305 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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306 Literature Cited Bulgur, W. J. and Walter R. Spofford. 1963. An occurrence of the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) in central New York. Kingbird 13: Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday Natural History Press. 655pp. Eaton, Elan H. 1909 and 1914. Birds of New York. University of the State of New York, Memoir #12, volumes 1 and 2. Hochbaum, Hans A. 1955. Travels and Traditions of Waterfowl. University of Press. 30lpp. Hyde, A. Sydney. 1939. The ecology and economics of the birds along the northern boundary of New York State. Roosevelt Wi 1 dl i fe Bulletin 7:61-215. Rusk, Margaret S. 1964. An Oneida Lake Purple Martin census. Kingbird 14:81-83. Scheider, Francis G. (various years). Region 5 Reports. Kingbird (various volumes). Smith, Gerald A. 1977. Long-tailed Jaeger at Derby Hill, Oswego Kingbird 27:206-207. Smith, County. Gerald A. et al. 1977. Habitat and wildlife coastal zone lands, Oswego County, New York. Biological Field Station Bulletin volume 4. Oswego. 19 Bpp. inventory guide to Rice Creek SUNY College at Stoner, Dayton. 1941. Historical data on a specimen of a Sooty Tern from Oswego, New York. Auk 58:258-259.

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Acknowledgements In any publication of this type the efforts of the many people who collected the data is indispensable. Without the data base this publication would not exist. We gratefully acknowledge the field efforts of many persons whose records in the Kingbird were utilized. One person in is deserving of special thanks for his tireless field efforts over the last quarter century, and as the Region 5 editor during most of that period. Without the efforts of Fritz Scheider of North Syracuse, there would be much less data available with which to assess the status of the birds of Oswego County. We wish to thank all who contributed to this publication. Special thanks are due Rich Henry of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station for his efforts in digesting the computerized banding data provided by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and compiling it into a form which could be used in preparing the 11Sumrnary of Banding Data11 Without the efforts of the persons who typed this volume it would not have appeared: to Carol Wernick, Brenda Noyes, and in particular, Vivian Golding goes our gratitude for their supreme efforts in deciphering the manuscript. We are also grateful to Robert I. Shearer, Elizabeth Jones, and Gary W. Thorburn of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station for their many efforts in attending to the details of publication and other assistance during the preparation of the report. Last, but definitely not least, thanks are due George R. Maxwell, director of the field station. During our association with the field station as students and associates, George Maxwell has always been willing to give freely of his time and efforts to aid and advise. In the course of this and other projects he has always been willing to provide aid in any way possible, exhibiting great patience under conditions that were undoubtedly rather trying at times. In the course of our association with the Rice Creek Biological Field Station we have come to consider George Maxwell a close personal friend. Without his many kindnesses this publication would not have been possible, and the past four years of our lives would have been much less enjoyable and productive. ------307

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308 Index to Species (species, summary checklist, species account) Bittern, American Least Blackbird, Red-winged Rusty Yellow-headed Bluebird, Eastern Bobolink Bobwhite Brant Bufflehead Bunting, Indigo Painted Snow Canvasback Cardinal Catbird, Grey Chat, Yellow-breasted Chickadee, Black-capped Boreal Coot, American Cormorant, Double-crested Great Cowbird, Brown-headed Crane, Sandhi 11 Creeper, Brown Crossbill Red White-winged Crow, CoiTillon Cuckoo, Black-billed Yellow-billed Curlew, Eskimo Dickcissel Dove, Mourning Rock Dovekie Dowitcher, Long-billed Short-bi 11 ed Duck, Black Canvasback Fulvous Whistling Greater Scaup Harlequin Lesser Scaup ard Pintail Redhead Ring-necked Ruddy Tufted Wood 12 50 12 50 33 255 33 257 33 255 29 214 33 253 18 105 13 54 15 72 34 261 34 262 37 283 14 67 34 260 28 207 32 250 27 196 27 197 18 110 11 44 11 43 34 259 18 106 28 200 35 268 35 269 27 195 23 159 23 158 19 118 34 262 23 156 23 156 23 156 21 130 21 129 13 57 14 67 13 56 14 68 15 74 14 69 13 56 14 59 14 66 14 67 15 78 15 70 14 65 Dun lin Eagle, Bald Golden Egret, Cattle Great Snowy Eider, Common King Falcon, Peregrine Finch, House Purple Flicker, CoiTillon Flycatcher, Acadian Alder Great Crested Least Olive-sided Wi 11 ow Yell ow-be 11 ied Fulmar, Northern Gadwall Gallinule, Common Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray Godwit, Hudsonian Marbled Goldeneye, Barrow's Common Goldfinch, American Goose, Canada Snow Goshawk Grackle, Common Grebe, Eared Horned Pi ed-bi 11 ed Red-necked Grosbeak, Evening Pine Rose-breasted Grouse, Ruffed Gull, Black-headed Bonaparte's Franklin's Glaucous Great Black-backed Herring Iceland Laughing Lesser Black-backed Little 20 128 17 99 17 98 12 47 12 48 12 48 15 74 15 75 18 102 34 264 34 264 24 172 26 183 26 183 25 179 26 184 26 186 26 183 25 181 11 43 13 58 18 109 29 215 21 133 21 132 15 72 15 71 35 268 13 52 13 55 16 91 34 258 11 41 11 41 11 42 11 40 34 263 34 265 34 261 18 105 22 146 22 148 22 147 21 139 22 140 22 142 22 140 22 147 22 142 22 149

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309 I I Ring-bi 11 ed 22 144 Oriole, Northern (Baltimore) 33 257 I Thayers 22 144 Orchard 33 256 Gyrfalcon 18 102 Osprey 17 101 Harrier 17 100 Ovenbird 32 246 Hawk, Broad-winged 17 96 Owl, Barn 23 160 I Coopers 17 94 Barred 24 162 Red-shouldered 17 95 Boreal 24 165 Red-tailed 17 94 Great Gray 24 163 I Rough-legged 17 97 Great Horned 23 161 Sharp-shinned 17 92 Long-eared 24 164 Swainsons 17 97 Saw-whet 24 166 Heron, Black-crowned Night 12 49 Screech 23 160 I Green 12 46 Short-eared 24 164 Great Blue 11 45 Snowy 23 161 Little Blue 12 47 Parakeet, Monk 23 158 Louisiana 12 49 Pelican, Brown 11 43 Hummingbird, Ruby-throated 24 169 Pewee, Eastern Wood 26 185 Ibis, Glossy 12 51 Phalarope, Northern 21 136 Jaeger, Long-tailed 21 138 Red 21 134 Parasitic 21 137 Wi 1 son s 21 135 Pomarine 21 137 Pheasant, Ring-necked 18 106 Jay, Blue 27 194 Pheobe, Eastern 25 180 Junco, Dark-eyed 36 274 Pigeon, Common 23 156 Oregon Race 36 275 Passenger 158 Kestrel, American 18 104 Pintail 14 59 Killdeer 19 112 Pipit, Water 29 218 Kingbird, Eastern 25 178 Plover, American Golden 19 113 Western 25 179 Black-bellied 19 114 Kingfisher, Belted 24 171 Piping 19 112 Kinglet, Golden-crowned 29 216 Semipalmated 18 111 Ruby-crowned 29 217 Rai 1, King 18 107 Kite, Swallow-tailed 16 91 Sora 18 108 Kittiwake, Black-legged 22 150 Virginia 18 107 Knot, Red 20 123 Raven, Common 27 194 Lark, Horned 26 187 Redhead 14 66 Longspur, Lapland 37 282 Redpoll, Common 35 266 Loon, Comnon 11 38 Hoary 35 265 Red-throated 11 39 Redstart, American 33 252 Mallard 13 56 Robin, American 28 208 Martin, Purple 27 193 Ruff 133 Meadowlark, Eastern 33 254 Sanderling 21 133 Western 33 255 Sandpiper, Bairds 20 126 Merganser, Common 16 79 Buff-breasted 21 132 Hooded 16 79 Least 20 127 Red-breasted 16 80 Pectoral 20 124 Merlin 18 103 Purple 20 123 Mockingbird 28 206 Semipalmated 20 131 Murre, Thick-billed 23 156 Solitary 19 120 Nighthawk, Common 24 167 Spotted 19 119 Nuthatch, Red-breasted 27 199 Stilt 21 130 11hi te-breasted 27 198 Upland 19 118 01 dsquaw 15 73 20 131

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310 te-rumped 20 125 Swainson's 29 211 Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied 25 176 Wood 28 209 Scaup, Greater 14 68 Titmouse, Tufted 27 198 Lesser 15 69 Towhee, Rufous-sided 35 270 Scoter, Black 15 77 Turkey 106 Surf 15 77 Turnstone, Ruddy 19 115 White-winged 15 75 Veery 29 213 Shove 11 er, Northern 14 64 Vireo, Philadelphia 30 226 Shrike, Loggerhead 29 221 Red-eyed 30 225 Northern 29 220 Solitary 30 225 Siskin, Pine 35 267 Warbling 30 227 Snipe, Common 19 116 White-eyed 30 224 Sora 18 108 Yell ow-throated 30 224 Sparrow, Chipping 36 276 Vulture, Black 16 90 Clay-colored 36 276 Turkey 16 90 Field 36 277 Warbler, Bay-breasted 32 242 Fox 36 279 Black and White 30 228 Grasshopper 35 271 Blackburnian 31 240 Harris 36 277 Bl ackpoll 32 243 Henslow's 35 272 Black-throated Blue 31 237 House 33 253 Black-throated Green 31 239 Lincoln's 36 280 Blue-winged 30 230 Savannah 35 271 Canada 33 252 Sharp-tai 1 ed 35 273 Cape May 31 236 Song 37 281 Cerulean 31 240 Swamp 36 281 Chestnut-sided 32 242 Tree 36 275 Connecticut 32 248 Vesper 36 273 Golden-winged 30 229 i te-e rown ed 36 278 Hooded 33 250 White-throated 36 278 Magnolia 31 235 Starling 30 223 Myrtle 31 237 Swallow, Bank 26 189 Mourning 32 248 Barn 26 191 Nashville 31 233 Cliff 27 192 Northern Parul a 31 234 Rough-winged 26 190 Orange-crowned 31 232 Tree 26 188 Palm 32 245 Swan, Mute 13 51 Pine 32 244 Whistling 13 52 Prairie 32 245 Swift, Chimney 24 168 Prothonotary 30 229 Tanager, Scarlet 34 260 Tennessee 30 231 Teal, Blue-winged 14 62 Townsend s 31 239 Green-winged 14 60 1 son s 33 251 Tern, Black 23 155 Worm-eating 30 229 Caspian 23 155 Yellow 31 234 Common 22 152 Yellow-rumped 31. 237 Forster's 22 151 Yell ow-throated 32 241 Sooty 23 153 Waterthrush, Louisiana 32 247 Thrasher, Brown 28 207 Northern 32 247 Thrush, Gray-cheeked 29 212 Waxwing, Bohemian 29 219 Hermit 29 210 Cedar 29 219

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Whimberal Whip-poor-will l.Ji geon, American European Wi 11 et Woodcock, American Woodpecker, Black-backed Three-toed Downy Hairy Pileated 19 117 24 166 14 63 1-zt--"6-3 20 120 19 116 25 178 25 177 25 177 25 173 Red-bellied Red-headed Wren, Carolina House Long-billed Marsh Short-billed Marsh Winter Yellowlegs, Greater Lesser Yellowthroat, Common 25 173 25 174 28 204 28 201 28 204 28 205 28 202 20 121 20 122 32 249 I