Rice Creek Field Station Special Publication No. 2: Natural Areas of Oswego County

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Rice Creek Field Station Special Publication No. 2: Natural Areas of Oswego County
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Rice Creek Research
Weeks, John ( author )
Cox, Donald ( author )
Hawkins, Ed ( author )
Solosky, Mike ( author )
Hunsinger, Todd ( author )
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Rice Creek Field Station


Foremost among the goals of Rice Creek Field Station is the promotion of environmental awareness. This has been a theme in college courses, school programs, summer courses for children, and programs for the public offered at the station. Knowledge about the environment for every citizen is more important today than ever before. In 1743 John Bartram, a colonial amateur botanist visited Oswego and observed a wild plant the local residents called Oswego Tea. This beautiful plant is rarely observed growing wild in Oswego County today. In John Bartram's time Globeflower, another native plant, was fairly abundant; today it is an endangered species. These are but two of many possible examples of native species that have been influenced by human induced environmental changes. We obviously cannot return the environment to its 1743 condition. Since Oswego County became a political entity in 1816 the number of residents has increased steadily. The projection is that this increase will continue into the future. As the size of the human population increases the environment will become correspondingly less hospitable for wild species. The Natural Areas Handbook gives a brief description with a guide to the major natural areas in Oswego County that are open to the public. Rice Creek Field Station has produced this handbook to acquaint visitors and residents with areas of natural beauty in Oswego County. It is hoped the users will remember that these are the last refuges for many wild species. Help us preserve them for future generations. Donald D. Cox, Director Rice Creek Field Station
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State University of New York at Oswego

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Forward Foremost among the goals of Rice Creek Field Station is the promotion of environmental awareness. This has been a theme in college courses, school programs, summer courses for children, and programs for the public offered at the station. Knowledge about the environment for every citizen is more important today than ever before. In 1743 John Bartram, a colonial amateur botanist visited Oswego and observed a wild plant the local residents called Oswego Tea. This beautiful plant is rarely observed growing wild in Oswego County today. In John Bartrams time Globeflowcr, another native plant, was fairly abundant; today it is an endangered species. These are but two of many possible examples of native species that have been influenced by human induced environmental changes. We obviously cannot return the environment to its 1743 condition. Since Oswego County became a political entity in 1816 the number of residents has increased steadily. The projection is that this increase will continue into the future. As the size of the human population increases the environment will become correspondingly less hospitable for wild species. The Natural Areas Handbook gives a brief description with a guide to the major natural areas in Oswego County that are open to the public. Rice Creek Field Station has produced this handbook to acquaint visitors and residents with areas of natural beauty in Oswego County. It is hoped the users will remember that these are the last refuges for many wild species. Help us preserve them for future generations. Donald D. Cox, Director Rice Creek Field Station This project was funded by the Zoos, Botanical Gardens and Aquarium Grant Program which is administered by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation for the Natural Heritage Trust.


I 1 RICE CREEK FIELD STATION Special Publication No. 2 f\.._ 7/ :::/,A Catalogue of Habitats and Facilities (


Page 2 @[? Text prepared by JOHN A. WEEKS Edited by Dr. Donald D. Cox Research by Todd Hunsinger Graphics by Ed Hawkins and Mike Solosky Rice Creek Field Station is a unit of the SUNY College at Oswego President-Dr. Virginia Radley Provost-Or Donald Matthieu Acting Dean, Arts & Science -Dr. David King Dean, Professional Studies-Or. Elizabeth Moody Field Station Staff Director.-o. D. Cox Asst. Director-Diann Jackson Caretaker-Nancy Barney Secretary-Vivian Golding


TABLE of CONTENTS FORWARD . (Inside Front Cover) TITLE PAGE ..... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 MAP OF OSWEGO COUNTY 4-5 THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS OF OSWEGO COUNTY ......... 6-7 THE NATURAL HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY THE CULTURAL HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY Profiles of Natural Areas 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8-9 10-11 RICE CREEK Field Station .. . . . . . . . . . 12 DERBY HILL Observatory ... . . . . . . . . . . 13 SNAKE SWAMP Preserve . @ . . . . . . . . . . 13 RICHARD A. NOYES Sanctuary . . . . . . . . . . . 14 STATE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS . (Introductory) 15 CURTISS-GALE Wildlife Management Area {[) ... 16 DEER CREEK Wildlife Management Area 0 . . . . . . . . . . 16 HAPPY VALLEY Wildlife Management Area .. {[) ... 17 LITTLEJOHN Wildlife Management Area {E).................... 18 THREE-MILE BAY Wildlife Management Area (I}.................... 19 STATE FOREST AREAS . (Introductory) 20 Oswego-Lewis 1 -W. OSCEOLA State Forest (I}.................... 20 Oswego 1 KASOAG State Forest @ . . . . . . . . . . 21 Oswego 2 WINONA State Forest . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Oswego 3 AMBOY State Forest . (D . . . . . . . . . . 21 Oswego 4 & 5CHATEAUGAY State Forest (E} ... ... .............. 23 Oswego 6-ALTMAR State Forest (} 0 0 0 0 0 0. Z4 Oswego 7SANDY CREEK State Forest (E) .... .. .............. 24 Oswego 8SALMON RfVER State Forest {) ........ .......... .. 25 Oswego 9 & 10 O'HARA State Forest . . . . . . . . . . 25 Oswego 11 -ORTON HOLLOW State Forest .. . 26 Oswego 12TROUT BROOK State Forest (!) .................... 26 Oswego 13 STONE HILL State Reforestation Area @ . . . . . . . . . . 27 Oswego 14-BATTLE HILL State Reforestation Area {[) ... 27 SELKIRK SHORES State Park . . . . . . . . . . 28 BATTLE ISLAND State Park 0 . . . . . . . . . . 28 CAMPSITES AND OTHER AREAS G).@................... 29 NAVIGABLE AND FISHABLE WATERS 30-31 SALMON RIVER & CONSTANTIA Fish Hatcheries ............ FH1 ,FH2 .. .. .. .. 32 GUIDE TO HABITATS AND FACILITIES ................................... (Inside Back Coyer) Page 3


RICE CREEK Field Station {[) DERBY HILL Observatory {E) SNAKE SWAMP Preserve (} RICHARD A. NOYES Sanctuary STATE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS {[) CURTISS-GALE Wildlife Management Area {E) DEER CREEK Wildlife Management Area {[) HAPPY VALLEY Wildlife Management Area {E) LITTLEJOHN Wildlife Management Area (I} THREE-MILE BAY Wildlife Management Area STATE FOREST AREAS (D Oswego-Lewis l -W. OSCEOLA State Forest

LAKE ONTARlO PHOENIX Page 5 r---- ---1 ----r-----1 ----I I t I ____ I LACONA: I I ONEIDA LAKE 1 ---; I 1 I I I I I I I I I


Oswego County is a polyhedron from which a large bite-shaped sector has been removed to accommodate Lake Ontario. The county is just under 35 miles east/west by 30 miles north/south. Its area is just over 658,000 acres. West of interstate 81, the county is mostly gentle rolling lake plain. It varies in elevation-246 feet above sea level at the Lake Ontario shoreline to just under 500 feet ASL inland. East of interstate 81 the land is wilder. Just north of Oneida Lake is a narrow band of lake plain. North of this the land becomes increasingly rugged until it merges with the tughill plateau in the northeast sector of the county. Elevations range from 370 feet ASL at Oneida Lake to nearly 1,700 feet ASLin the Little john Wildlife Management Area. Oswego County has outstanding water resources. It contains portions of three large river systems and numerous smaller streams. It also has 160 internal lakes and ponds, ranging from about 30,000 acres (western portion of Oneida Lake) to just over 1 acre in size. Most of the factors which have produced the physical environment of Oswego County are geologic in origin. The bedrock which underlies the county consists of Ordovician sandstones and shale dating back to over 435 million years. South of these ancient rocks is a band of Silurian rock formations including sandstones, shale, and some limestone dating back to just over 390 million years. Of even greater influence on Oswego County, was the more recent action of the last glacier and of the great glacial lake which followed it. Most of the southern and western parts of the cout1ty are in the Erie-Ontario Lake plain. This area is sprinkled with numerous drumlins with combinations of rolling lowlands and small wetlands between. To the north the orientation of these ranks of drumlins is north-south turning abruptly eastward as they approach the southern boundary of the county. These drumlins or the intervening wetlands, can be seen to trace the course of the glacier as it flowed southward during the last period of advance. As the glacier retreated 10 to 12 thousand years ago, it left a great meltwater lake extending across the present Ontario Basin as far east as Utica and as far south as Camillus and Marcellus (southeast of Syracuse). To .the east its waters lapped against the foothills of the Tughill Plateau, and at one time perhaps, merged with Lake Erie to the west. For a long period of its history, the waters of Glacial Lake Iroquois were nearly 200 feet above the present surface of Lake Ontario. Only the highest drumlins would have projected above the waterline. Lake Neatawanta in Fulton would have been a shallow depression in the lake bed about 80 feet below the surface and Oneida Lake would have been at least 90 feet below the surface. of Glacial Lake Iroquois. south DRUMLIN PROFILE north SOILS OF OSWEGO COUNTY Glacial features have had a major influence on soil formation. Under the old glacial lake, deep layers of fine sand were deposited at the shoreline. East of interstate 81, the land was above the glacial lake level, so its soil and landforms are not strongly lake influenced. The soils covering the area not influenced by Lake Iroquois are mostly deep stony glacial tills, underlain at a depth of a foot to eighteen inches by a consolidated layer called a fragipan. These soils are acid and suitable agriculturally only for forage crops. Many of the farms were abandoned before the depression of the late 1920's and large tracts of land were acquired by federal, state and local governments. Soils of the rest of the county, especially near the lake are medium textured but often stony tills, strongly acid at the surface, but with weakly acid to neutral sub-soils. South of these tills, where the ancient lake depositions are exposed, are several expanses of fine textured lake-laid soils including silty and sandy loams and some very fine sands. Along the east shore of Lake Ontario, clearing of the land has exposed fine sands which when dry are easily displaced by the wind. Both here and along the ancient glacial lake shoreline, about 8 miles east of the present Ontario shoreline, are sand dunes and other sand blown features.


EAST-WEST PROFILE U.S. Rt 104 w z ::; ELEV :5 ----------a "' z "" ------3-->-Most of the soils are not conducive to intensive row crop agriculture because of their acidity, poor drainage, or stoniness. In spite of this, agriculture has always been an important part of the Oswego County economy, and today many fine farms remain, especially dairy farms, orchards and truck farms. Another post glacial legacy was a large number of deep kettlehole ponds, many of which had been completely filled with organic plant remains, and had developed swamp forest cover. Clearing of these areas has exposed a black organic soil called muck. Oswego County probably has more muckland than most of the counties in New York State. Properly handled, muckland provides a high yield of vegetable crops such as lettuce, onions and carrots. LAKE EFFECT STORMS THE CLIMATE OF OSWEGO COUNTY Certain agricultural crops benefit from the lake influenced climate of the Oswego County heartland. A small portion of northwestern Oswego County along with the extreme northern portion of Cayuga County enjoy the longest growing season in Upstate New York. For this area, the last killing frost usually NORTH-SOUTH PROFILE Co. Rt 17 Page 7 "" z :5 ..... ..... "" .... --j_:j _____ ...,_ ;;:_;: o o ____ --..... ><--->-..... "-0 "--' :t:3 is in April while the first killing frost in the fall comes after October 20th. In addition, the average maximum April temperature is usually 50 degrees fahrenheit or less. This prevents the premature opening of fruit tree buds, lessening damage from frost and improving chances of pollination. By contrast the highlands of the northeastern portion of the county have over a month less of growing season, with killing frosts_as late as mid-May and as early as October lst. Rainfall patterns are consistant with most of the county receiving just under 36 inches of annual rainfall fairly evenly distributed over the year. Snowfall varies from close to 100 inches per year to nearly 150 inches east of Lake Ontario. During the winter months HEAVY SNOW SQUALLS COOLING CONDITIONS OVER LAND (Moisture Precipitates from Clouds) areas east and south of the lake often experience lake-effect snowstorms. These result when air moves across the lake and picks up moisture, then releases it as the air passes over the colder land mass. A narrow band near the eastern shoreline receives the brunt of the lake-effect precipitation and is locally referred to as the "snow belt." Diagram 1 outlines this. ELEV ffi cz z a:: -----u ----------....: :s-s. o-' __ _. ___ ::;:---0:: 5 1itQ.Q. --0 -----8 ----


.. A NATURAL HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY THE PRIMEVAL PLANT COMMUNITY In pre-Columbian times, Oswego County included representatives of at least four eastern forest associations. That portion of the county west of a line extending from the eastern end of Lake Ontario southward, was typical of the Erie-Ontario Lake plain. It supported a combination of beech, sugar maple, basswood, white ash and tulip tree with a mixture of oaks on better drained soils and on the south facing slopes of drumlins. In lower lands and on the north slopes of the drumlins, hemlock was intermixed with the typical hardwoods. East of Lake Ontario and in a narrow band paralleling route 81 south to Brewerton, were typical Alleghenian hardwoods. They differed from the previous forests in having a higher percentage of black cherry, red oak, black birch and some black gum. Many of the dryer portions had an intermixture of white pine. East of this band of Allegheriian hardwoods, increasing amounts of paper birch, yellow birch and some of the northern understory plants such as striped maple, witch hopple and Canadian yew were found. Northward, white pine, balsam fir and red spruce were intermixed, increasing toward the Tug Hill Plateau until in places, the woodlands resemble the spruce-fir forests of the central Adirondacks and Canada. Distributed throughout the lowlands were expanses of swamp forests consisting mainly of elm, red maple, black willow, green ash, and alder. Chestnut was scattered throughout the central hardwood forests but was most abundant along the banks of the lower Oswego River and along the narrow plain north of Oneida Lake. The wildlife of this primeval forest included most of our common woodland species. Some of our commonest farmland wildlife were rare in precolonial times because forest openings were much less extensive. Cottontail rabbit, woodchuck and meadow vole were restricted to the scattered openings as were meadowlark, bobolink and robin. At the same time, some wildlife species now missing, were well represented. These included passenger pigeon, black bear, marten, fisher, bald eagle, osprey, moose, and wild turkey. Remains of mountain lion, buffalo and wapiti in Central New York Indian middens help to reinforce the pioneer tales of their presence. Chart 1COMMON MAMMALS OF OSWEGO COUNTY WOODLAND White-tailed Deer -H Opossum -E Raccoon -H Short-tailed Weasel Long-tailed Weasel Gray Fox Chipmunk Red Squirrel -H Gray Squirrel -H Flying Squirrel White-footed Mouse Porcupine Snowshoe Hare Pine Vole SEMI-OPEN White-tailed Deer -H Bobcat Striped Skunk Coyote -E Woodchuck -H Chipmunk Deer Mouse Meadow Vole Cottontail Red Fox Opossum -E FARM-URBAN White-tailed Deer -H Cottontail Striped Skunk Red Fox Woodchuck -H Raccoon -H Deer Mouse Gray Squirrel -H Red Squirrel -H Opossum Meadow Vole Norway Rat -A H Originally forest, adapted to a9riculture or suburban areas E -Not native, moved in by range extension A Introduced by man WETLAND-POND Muskrat Beaver Raccoon -H Mink Snowshoe Hare Page 8


.j l PRESENT DAY ENVIRONMENTS Remnants of these original forest types can still be seen in existing woodlots, but logging, epidemic diseases and changes in soils and have altered the woodlands. Chestnut and elm persist, but they no longer attain mature stature. Records show also that oak, tulip tree and other representatives of the southern and central hardwoods have declined while beech and maple have increased. Clearing of the forests to accommodate European style agriculture, has resulted in the introduction of alien plant and animal species. Most of these introduced species are restricted to human habitations, fields, and shrublands but they have an important influence on the natural history of the county. OSWEGO COUNTY WILDLIFE TODAY Interstate 81 provides a convenient dividing line between wildlife habitats. West of I-81 the dominant form of land use is still agricultural. Wildlife species that prefer open land or mixed habitat are more common there. Examples of these are ring-necked pheasant, cottontail, woodchuck and muskrat. Varying hare, porcupine, goshawk and hermit thrush are examples of wildlife more adapted to the woodlands and wetlands east of Deer, ruffed grouse, tree squirrels and crows are widely distributed throughout the county. Chart# 1 provides a more extensive listing of contemporary wildlife. Fish are abundant in streams, ponds and lakes of Oswego County. The Oswego River and its tributaries along most of the ponds and lakes in the western two-thirds of the county are more likely to harbor warm-water species. Waterways in the eastern highlands have larger populations of trout and salmon. More specific information is available on pages 30-31. *** Diagram 1-A PROFILE OF ROADSIDE WILDLIFE Starling Bluebird Robin Pheasant Meadowlark Woodchuck Red Fox Skunk Mourning Dove Blue Jay Cardinal Raccoon Deer Cottontail Page 9


A CULTURAL HISTORY OF OSWEGO COUNTY The first inhabitants of Oswego County are believed to have arrived following the last glacial retreat. This would make them contemporary with the great mammals and birds of that time. Many of these creatures have since disappeared completely. These early residents were hunters and foragers who stalked the great mammoths, musk oxen and saber-toothed cats that roamed the cold tundra landscape. Little is known about the origin or lifestyle of these people. They were followed as early as 6,000-7,000 years ago by Indians whose culture was advanced enough that they left behind evidence of gathering of plant as well as animal food. They fashioned flaked projectile points, stone tools and clay pots. Nearly 3,000 years ago they had advanced to a society based on agriculture and village life. Apparently, because of the extremities of the winter climate, Oswego County was largely hunting and foraging country, used mainly during the milder months. However, the Brewerton and Fulton areas give evidence of long time regular habitation. Oswego County with its extensive lakeshore, its rich marshlands, and productive waters was apparently valued highly by the Indians at the time of the arrival of the first white explorers, Samuel.De Champlain in 1615 and Father Simon LeMoyne in 1654. Both Champlain and LeMoyne were impressed with the richness of the countryside, and LeMoyne in discovering salt near Onondaga Lake provided an impetus for settling of the land by Europeans. Having travelled overland to reach the Salina salt beds, LeMoyne was astonished when the Onondaga Indians returned him to the Lake Ontario shoreline by way of the "grand" and "powerful Onondague" River. By 1720 the Oswego River had become an important water route and the point where the river flowed into the lake an important trading post. A fort was established there on the west bank in 1727. By 1743 farmer-savant John Bartram, on a botanical field excursion, counted a settlement of about 70 log houses at Oswego, largely associated with the fur trade. The fur trade flourished up to the Revolutionary War. During this period Fort1Dntario was built on the east side of the river. It was not until after the revolution that real settlement of the countryside began. A principal reason for this may have been the constant strife between the French and the British over the land along the lake and the river. REVOLUNTIONARY WAR LAND GRANTS SPUR. DEVELOPMENT The end of the Revolutionary War found the Oswego heartland li,tle changed. The British held the fort and the Oneida's and the Onondaga's still hunted fished as before. 0 It was not long, however, before the land was subdivided. In 1794 George Scriba obtained a patent for all of the land between the Oswego R1ver and the Salmon River south to the Oneida River and eastward beyond Oneida Lake. The land was divided into 24 townships, 16 of which became a part of Oswego County. Scriba proceeded to promote settlement in the area. Outside of the Scriba Tract, the land was divided into military plots and distributed to veterans. Settlement began in near Brewerton, Fulton, Oswego and in the Redfield area, because these were the most accessible by road or waterway. By the second decade of the 19th century, settlement was proceeding rapidly and log homes were being replaced by frame dwellings. THE FORMATION OF OSWEGO COUNTY In 1816 the County of Oswego was created, and settlement was accelerated. The completion of the Oswego Canal in 1929 added the potential for great commercial development, and the Village of Oswego became a boomtown. The rest of the county continued to be settled mostly for agriculture and logging. Agricultural land use increased until just before the turn of the century. The potential of the Oswego waterways to provide waterpower, lead to the establishment of saw and grist mills to serve the growing population. In 1848 two events of importance to the area occurred. The Syracuse to Oswego Railroad was completed and Thomas Kingsford began starch manufacture at Oswego. The former allowed Oswego to consolidate its position as a port-of-transfer for great lakes shipping, while the latter established an industry for which Oswego became famous during the 19th century. Another important event during that century was the establishment of the Oswego Normal School in 1861. This was a pioneering effort in teacher education. Originally an adjunct to the city school system, it eventually became a part of


the State University of New York, progressing from normal school to teacher's colleqe, to college of education and finally becoming a full fledged liberal arts college, The State University of New York College at Oswego. TWENTIETH CENTURY DYNAMICS DECLINE IN AGRICULTURE AND GROWTH OF PUBLIC LANDS Moving into the twentieth century, the Oswego River provided power for manufacturing and later for power generation. Included among present industries are paper closure, chocolate, filter fibers, brewing, aluminum products and power generation. In the development of natural areas, however, land use changes and the proximity to Lake Ontario are the prime factors. Most of the tillable land east of interstate 81 is suitable only for subsistance agriculture. Early in this century, tax delinquency and land abandonment became a serious problem resulting in public acquisition of large tracts in this area. The State Reforestation Law of 1929 and the Federal Resettlement Program of 1935 resulted in the establishment of 14 state forest tracts and 3 wildlife management areas in eastern Oswego County. *The Deer Creek Management Area was acquired under the Environmental Quality Bond Act of 1972. This opens nearly 41,000 acres to public use. In addition, several large tracts of county Page 11 reforestation property have been established most of them adjacent to the state lands. The total of these areas is 2,400 acres. There are also two State Parks in the county, Selkirk Shores .(980 acres near Pulaski) and Battle Island (235 acres near Fulton). A variety of nature related activities is possible at Selkirk Shores. Battle Island is dominated by an 18-hole golf course, but it is also used for cross-country skiing. Thirteen smaller parks totaling almost 700 acres, ranging in size from 4 acres to 118 acres per unit also exist. Some of these have good potential for natural history related activities, others are largely used for sports or other recreational outings. The most important recent natural history opportunity in Oswego County is the development of the Salmonid Fishery in the lake and in the tri b.utari es which drain the northeastern sector of the county. This is covered 1 n more detail in the body of the text. All of these indicate that Oswego County offers outstanding potential for educational and recreational activities centering on natural history. The growth of these activities has made an important contribution to the local economy. *The Happy Valley and Littlejohn areas were acquired by the Federal Government under resettlement and leased to the state under a 99 year agreement.


RICE CREEK Field Station Rice Creek Field Station is an instructional and research unit of the State University of New York College at Oswego, providing opportunities for biological and earth science field study throughout the year. Located one and one half miles south of the main campus and Lake Ontario, the field station building contains two lab/classrooms, a lecture room, collection storage and an exhibit area. The labs are equipped for work in both terrestrial and aquatic field biology. The field station is surrounded by 400 acres of varied habitats, including open fields, mature forests, 26 acre Rice Creek pond and land in several stages of succession. One of the station's educational features is the area where natural history displays are exhibited. The highlight of this area is an indoor viewing gallery which provides a unique overview of the aquatic/ wetland habitats throughout the year. School children visit the station and many individuals and groups use the area for hiking and cross country skiing. 0 I For More Information: Rice Creek Field Station SUNY College at Oswego Oswego, New York 13126 1 o,oo 2qoo' Page 12 Nature trails provide access to the various habitats around the station. The Carlita N. Snygg Memorial Trail is a gentle loop through intermediate growth forests and wetlands terrain, including a wooden walkway along an a active beaver pond. Adjacent to the Snygg Trail is the Wildflower Trail showcasing local woodland wildflowers. The Meadow Hardwood Trail and Succession Trail pass through pine plantations, a mature deciduous forest and fields showing various stages of succession. The Cross-Country Ski Trail is designed for beginning skiers. All trails are open to the public and are frequently used by local school groups and hikers. While on the trails, no collection is permitted, quiet would be appreciated and please, no smoking. Motorized vehicles are not permitted on the trails. Rice Creek offers a variety of lectures, workshops and field trips for the general public throughout the year. LEGEND GRASSLAND WOODLAND SHRUBLAND ORCHARD MARSHLAND FENCE BOUNDARY BUILDINGS WATER ,,(, .'"' ,,\J,;"'".,\It,:;,,, ,,l t .. :: ... : ,Jt. ---


DERBY HILL Bird Observatory The Derby Hill Bird Observatory is a 50 acre sanctuary owned and operated by the Onondaga Audubon Society of Syracuse. Its location on the extreme southeastern corner of Lake Ontario makes it an excellent place to observe migrating raptors. Hawks, eagles, and vultures use wind lift and thermals to conserve energy and improve flight distance during migration. Since thermals do not occur over cold bodies of water, birds approaching Lake Ontario turn and follow the shoreline. Thus, the southeastern corner of the lake becomes a funnel through which most of the birds must pass to the north. This results in tens of thousands of hawks passing the lookout between March and May. Derby Hill exit 36 SNAKE SWAMP Preserve Although this area is very small and has no internal access, it is of interest because of its location in a larger* Lake Ontario shoreline wetland, and because it has served as a late summer roosting and loafing area for black-crowned night herons. The wetland, itself, has a history of instability because of fluctuating water levels. In the last 40 years, it has changed from swampland to herbaceous marshland (due to high water levels) and is in the process of returning to swampland conditions after decades of lower water levels. It can be viewed from the shoulders of Lakeshore Road or from the Lakeshore. This area is owned (in part) by Save Oswego County, Inc. a private non-profit environmental organization. It i's managed to preserve its wetland cover and to protect the night herons (closed April 1 -August 31). Educational use is encouraged. For more information, contact Save Oswego County, Inc., Box 828, Oswego, N.Y. 13126. *Total acreage about 90. Page 13 From one of the three lookouts a lucky visitor might be able to catch a glimpse of species such as: bald eagle, golden eagle, peregrine or osprey. Derby Hill is also an excellent spot to witness the fall migration of waterfowl, gulls and jaegers. The woods and marshland are being prepared to serve as a center for nature education. This includes interpretive material and a trail system planned for the near future. The Derby Hill Observatory is located on Sage Creek Road off l04B one mile west of its intersection with Route 3. For information call 963-8291 or 457-7731. ... ca -c 0


RICHARD A. NOYES Sanctuary Noyes Sanctuary offers all the advantages of Derby Hill and more. Frequently, eagles and osprey are seen from Noyes that are not recorded at Derby Hill. These birds may cut across the corner of the lake to the northeast coastline. Great horned owls have been sighted on a year round basis. During the May migration about 30 species of warblers are commonly sighted. The fruits that grow in large quantities on the viburnum species near the parking lot attract flickers, waxwings, grosbeaks, catbirds, vireos, and thrushes during the fall. Visitors should take special note of the large barn swallow colony located in the overhanging ledges along the lakeshore. This is reportedly the only such colony in the state. The Richard Noyes Sanctuary is also owned and operated by the Onondaga Audubon Society. ---z 270"\.. elevations trails tJIRijP atone wall .. .swamp Page 14 A series of color coded trails wind throughout the sanctuary grounds. These trails can be an excellent place for birding for an observant hiker. The several suet feeders located on the trails are operated year-round and can be a good source of birds. Also, the winter seed feeder located in the northwest corner of the sanctuary is an excellent spot for cold weather birding. Frequent species are, woodpeckers, hawks, owls, and smaller birds. Noyes Sanctuary is located off Nine Mile Point Road (Route 63) north of its intersection with County Route 1 For information call 457-7731. N Noyes Sanctuary i


f f (" STATE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS Page 15 Oswego County contains over 20,000 acres of land maintained by the state as wildlife management areas. The current objectives for these areas are to provide habitat for a variety of wildlife species and to permit wildlife related recreational uses compatible with wildlife management techniques to provide the food, cover, and shelter requirements for various wildlife species are carried out in the areas. Off road vehicular travel is prohibited and the use of all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, motor scooters, mopeds, trail bikes, snowmobiles, four wheel drive vehicles is also prohibited throughout the area except on town and county roads. VI c.. ;:, 0 ;::::-1 ,';0 >,r-.0 ttl .0 c: ;:, 0 O'l"O O'l..-c:..-c: +-> ..... > ..... ttl C....c..u E-o E;:, roc: rtl"O (.J ...... (.J w Curtiss-Gale (Oswego County) NO NO Deer Creek Marsh (Oswego County} NO NO Happy Valley (Oswego County) YES YES Littlejohn (Oswego/Jefferson Counties) YES YES Three Mile Bay (Oswego County) NO YES Restricted 10/l-12/31 Ql O'l"O c:..-..... 3: +JQJVI c: +-> c: ;:,roo :c.....,._ Vl +-> "0 ttl tO Ql ;:, r-"0 O'l C..C:Ql ::::>:::>0:: NO YES YES YES YES Camping is prohibited except with a written permit from the regional wildlife manager. All camping is primitive in nature, meaning there are no facilities of any kind. Camping permits are issued free of charge by telephoning or writing to: Regional Wildlife Manager N.Y.S. Dept. of Environmental Conservation P.O.Box 5170 Fisher Avenue Cortland, N.Y. 13045-5170 Telephone: (607) 753-3095 VI VI Ql c: Ql r-0 VI..-+-> ::::> .0 Ql O'l g';;,l +-> 0 r-c: tO E .0 VI ..... Ql tO Ql +-> "0 +->>, Ql uo c:..-c: r-QJO'l c... ..... c: Ql +-> ;:,3: ;:,c:; "0 Ql ..r::: Vl tO r-..... ::I:QJVI ::r:o c:O:: >, Ql > .0 > +-> c: ::::> cc > c( tO r-rtlO r-+-> Ql > +-> 3: +-> ..... 3:..-O'l"O O'l "01-Ql OV'l+-' .et: c:..-O'l tOe( ttl '+-ttl ..... 3: c: 0 ;:, > Ql C..Ql c.. 0:: ......... ..r::: c( Ql Ql ;:, QJC... c..+-> c..>, ..r::: Ql u Ql +-> "0 O'l +-> ttl tO tOr-VI '+-u 0 c.. ..r::: rtlC:Ql ro>. 4--....., ttl +-> 3 :::> 0:: 3 cc 1-Vl 1-0 l.L o-Ql cc ::E 0 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO X NO YES NO YES YES* NO NO YES X YES n/a YES n/a NO YES YES X YES n/a YES n/a NO NO X NO YES YES n/a NO YES X JJ Camping is by permit only (except for Whitney Pond) and the permit must be obtained before.


CURTISSGALE Wildlife Management Area Page 16 To Hannibal AREA Phoenix To Syracuse The area contains about 45 acres. Althouqh Curtiss-Gale is one of the smallest wildlife areas in the state, its position along the Oswego River and the large size trees found there make it unusual. A number of migratory DEER CREEK Wildlife Management Area 1200 acres on N.Y.S. Rt. 3, 10 miles north of Mexico, N.Y. In both habitat variety and accessibility, this is an unusual wildlife manaaement area. Over 500 acres of the total wetland is marsh. The remaining 233 acres is in swamp-forest of soft maple, willow, elm and ash. The meandering channel of Deer Creek plus other open channels within the marsh, allow for excellent wildlife viewing from canoe or rowboat. Nearly 350 acres of hardwood forests and 80 acres of abandoned cropfields provide varied upland habitat. One of the most unusual features of this area is the mile of barrier beach and dunes which separate the lake from the wetland. Here typical dune and beach plants may be found. Four parking lots and a launch site provide access to the interior by canoe, foot trail and skiing in winter. Camping, swimming and snowmobiling are prohibited. This is a superior area for the observation of wildlife, especially wetland birds and mammals and shorebirds. Management is designed to maintain habjtat diversity. waterfowl and songbirds use the river at this point, particularly in the fall. The relatively insulated segment of mature timber provides a park-like setting that adds to the serenity of the area and enhances the species of songbirds and mammals found here. The area topography is gently rolling with an abrupt drop to the Oswego River. Vegetation consists of mature maple, basswood, tulip tree, American chestnut, black cherry, ash, beech and some hemlock with old field shrubs along the property boundaries. The Oswego County Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) has constructed a number of trails of varying lengths and a concealed observation blind located along the river. Individuals and educational groups are invited to use the area for birdwatching, nature hikes and a pleasant aesthetic experience. This area is a gift to the state by H. Salem Curtiss (1918} and Thomas and Ida Gale (1918). 0 w:.t a: "' "' ...I 1z 0 r.., _, I I I I I I I I I I I I \ \ \ (!. 1 I DEER CREEK MARSH I WILDLIFE ,-t / MANAGEMENT AREA N


' f I ' HAPPY VALLEY Wildlife Management Area Page 17 Totaling some 8,645 acres, HAPPY VALLEY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA is the largest wildlife management area in Oswego County. Due to the large size and various management techniques applied over the years, Happy Valley offers a variety of habitats and wildlife. Fields in all stages of succession exist along with northern hardwoods such as sugar maple, beech, yellow birch, and softwoods such as hemlock, white pine, and spruce. In the late 1930's WPA and CCC crews constructed three deep water structures on the area (96 acre Long Pond, 96 acre Whitney P.ond and 25 acre Mosher Pond). These ponds supply good fishing for largemouth bass and panfish. In the 1950's, emphasis on waterfowl marsh development brought about the construction of seven waterfowl marshes in the area. N I I 1 .... I I I I I VALLEY Wildlife associated with uplands and water are common and include deer, hare, squirrel, beaver, muskrat, raccoon, mink, weasel, fisher, and porcupine to name only a few. A large variety of songbirds as well as grouse, woodcock, turkey, and waterfowl are also on the area. Happy Valley has also been the field laboratory for research studies in the past and currently is the site for a long term grouse habitat improvement study. A good system of town roads and some maintenance roads provide access for hunting and fishing activities during good weather months. Hiking, birding, and cross country skiing are favorite activities also. Happy Valley is accessible by route 104 or county route 26. For information call: (607) 753-3095. SCALE IN FEET 0 2000 I I I I I I I I I 1 CiE:::J


LITTLEJOHN Wildlife Management Area This large remote wildlife management area consists of over 8000 acres of nearly unbroken woodlands in Oswego and Jefferson Counties. About 3/4 of the total acreage is in Oswego County. The upland forest areas are heavily interlaced with wetlands, mostly wooded. In addition to typical northeastern hardwoods, there is an intermixture of paper birch, white pine, spruce and balsam. Several beaver flows provide marshland settings and there is one pond of just over 100 acres in size. Headwaters of three watersheds arise in the Littlejohn area. Cottrell Creek, Beaver Creek both flow south into the Salmon River, while Raystone Creek flows northwest into South Sandy Creek and tributaries of Little Sandy Creek penetrate the lands between. r N Mannsville Rd. --l ___ J L-Page 18 Most of the wildlife typical of other state lands in eastern Oswego County, are found in Littlejohn, but there is also opportunity to see birdlife typical of the Adirondacks and southern Canada. Although there are no recreational facilities other than roads and trails, at Littlejohn, a wide variety of activities are possible there including hunting, fishing, hiking and boating (no motors allowed} during the milder months and cross-country skiing in winter. Picnicking and camping are allowed but a permit is required for camping. Snowmobiling is prohibited. There is a fire tower on Castor Hill in the southeast corner of the property. Good access to the area is afforded by an internal road system. There are twelve parking areas distributed over the area. LITTLE JOHN WILDLIFE r-' I _J MANAGEMENT AREA 8021 acres 9 miles east of Sandy Creek on County Rt. #17


1 I THREE-MILE BAY Wildlife Management Area Page19 3497 acres on Toad Harbor Road 2 miles west of Constantia This area is a portion of the north shore wetlands of Oneida Lake. Historically known as Toad Harbor Swamp, it is an area of organic (muckland) soils developed over acid beach or outwash sands. The swamp forest tree species are predominantly soft maples, with some cedar, ash, elm and alder. Upland portions include also white pine, white cedar, ash, oak and hickory. About 360 acres of former farmland is in transition between shrubland and pioneer woodland with spirea, highbush cranberry, dogwoods, aspen, pincherry and grey birch. Approximately 45 acres is kept in herbaceous or oldfield cover by mowing, burning or other means of control. i The overall management plan calls for those practices which encourage wetland species as well as some which favor a vartety of small game and non-game species which inhabit the upland fringes of wetlands. Included in addition to cover management, is the provision of food plants and nesting structures. Wildlife which may be observed includes wetland species such as water birds, beaver, muskrats and shore birds in season. Species encountered more often in uplands include deer, fox, ruffed grouse and a variety of song birds. Blinds are provided under permit, for waterfowl hanting. Fishing access to Oneida Lake is provided at Phillips Point. Other activities include boating (without motors}, hiking, cross-country skiing, picnicking, and nature studies. Camping permits may be obtained by environmental education


STATE FOREST AREAS The 14 state forest areas in Oswego County are concentrated in the northeastern quarter of the county. Although they are located mostly on land that was marginal for agriculture and therefore, abandoned during the first half of the century, they still present a rich diversity of terrain and cover types. Most of them are managed primarily for the encouragement of forest production, but they are still open to a wide variety of public use including hunting, fishing, hiking and camping where appropriate.* Forest types range from mixed stands to conifer plantations. In addition, some areas have large tracts of wetlands including both marshland and swamp forest. Several have large bodies of standing water. Some have excellent trout streams and some are more suitable for warm-water fishing. Because of the great diversity of terrain and habitat the variety of wildlife and plant life is also notable. One of the most interesting features is that some of the state forests harbor birds and plants at the southern extremities of their range. These are forms which are usually associated with Canada or with the heart of the Adirondacks. *For more information contact: Divisions of Lands and Forest, P.O.Box 5170 Fisher Avenue, Cortland, N.Y. 13045. Oswego-Lewis 1 -p a 9 e 2 0 WEST OSCEOLA State Forest With over 1000 acres of hardwoods and mixed forests, access to the east branch of the Salmon River and Prince Brook, and a posted internal road system, West Osceola Forest offers a wide range of recreational opportunities throughout the year. (Snowmobiling, X-country skiing, boating, hiking, fishing.) Management is for forest products and recreational use. It has nearly 700 acres of conifer plantations. \ I 0 \ 1 i j i----.l I I STATE . I c r.n :"': :1 0 r i"'l r.n (') i ', PVT i L:; i... .. I i ----11 i t---.-.r--._j j-----.J FOREST i I :II clark Rd. L. I ---. I "'-.... ........._J l'j i 1900 acres (' -1/), I (' I 4 miles south east of Redfield


STATE FOREST AREAS The 74 state forest areas in Oswego County are concentrated in the northeastern quarter of the county. Although they are located mostly on land that was margr"nal for agriculture and therefore, abandoned during the first ha1f of the century, they sti11 present a rich diversity of terrain and cover types. \ .. .. .i< '{'rom to ca,-.\feT \1'. areas have large t'<'acts of 1rtet\ands 1nc\mhng both marshland and s...amp forest. Several have large bodies standing water. Some have excellent trout streams and some are more suitable for warm-water fishing. Because of the great diversity o terrain habitat the variety of wildlife and plant l1fe is also notable. One or the most interesting features is that some of the state forests harbor birds and plants at the southern extremities of their range. These are fonms wflli:h are usuiJJly associated with Canada or ll'ith the heart or the Adirondacks. *For more inf'ortllatlon contact: fJiyfsfgns gf' Lands and Forest, P.O.Box 5170 Fisher Avenue, Cortland, N.Y. 13045. Oswego-Lewis 1 -Page 20 WEST OSCEOLA State Forest With over 1000 acres of hardwoods and mixed forests, access to the east branch of the Sa1mon River and Prince Brook, and a posted internal road system, West Osceola Forest offers a wide range of recreational opportunities throughout the year. \Snawmob1\1ng, \\. 1\l\l \)' ' . \ \ \ \ i----., \ \ \


Oswego 1 -KASOAG State Forest Pa 9 e 21 The outstanding feature of Kasoag State Forest is undoubtedly its terrain. The central portion presents a variety of glacial features including kame, kettle and eskers. It is has several small wetlands, including a beaver pond, and it traversed by two fishable streams. Cross Country skiinq, hiking and fishing are principal recreational Kasoag Lake opportunities. SCALE IN FEET forests and plantations are managed for forest products and recreation. 0 2000 4000 1,,,.,11 I Oswego 3AMBOY State Forest Most of the land in Amboy Forest is natural, second qrowth hardwoods or mixed forests. It presents an interesting glaciated terrain and a large flooded-wetland with a Great Blue Heron Rookery. ..._ AMBOY I STATE I I '-....... r .............. ..., 0 2000 I I I I I I I I I' I The internal road system is posted ( 1500 1 bs. or less) but provides excellent opportunities for snowmobiling, hiking and skiing. A good area for wildlife observation


Oswego 2WINONA State Forest Winona State Forest is a part of over 17,000 acres of adjacent state land (see Littlejohn Wildlife Management Area). It has outstanding forest resources including hardwoods, mixed stands and over 2000 acres of conifer plantations. It has a number of fishable headwater streams and over 500 acres of varied wetlands. Its internal service roads provide for outstanding snowmobiling, cross country skiing and hiking to observe nature and forest management techniques. It is the site of the Annual Tug Hill Tour-a-Thon, a well known cross country ski event. I ,_i I --1 ----.... .,"' 1-' SCALE IN FEET 0 2000 4000 1,,,, .. 1 I 5549 acres 7 miles south east of Adams ---------CO. osweoo co.----1 I I I I --State Rd. Forest I I I L--1 ________ I .J I I I -I I I ............ ( I I I I I I I I '--I ' ' I --1 I I I I I I I


1 Oswego 4 & 5 CHATEAUGAY State Forest Page 23 These two sprawling adjacent tracts extending nearly 3 miles north of County Rt. 2 and south to within a half mile of the Salmon River are here considered together. All acreages and cover percentages cited are combined for the two. About 450 acres of conifer plantations are intermixed with 2760 acres of second growth hardwood and mixed second growth forests. Also included is nearly 100 acres of wetland with swamp forests of hemlock, red spruce, green ash, elm and red maple. Management is for forest products and recreation, including fishing, hiking, cross country skiing and snowmobiling. A system of marked cross country trails miles) has been established and a lean-to where group camping is allowed. Orwell Brook provides good salmon fishing. I I r---.J 1 r-., i i i j j pvt j i :--, I :I'""\ r---=--j -,: ....... : i 'I _._H / ...... I --J r-: ; /''r i I ')''"<:: __ ..;...._._ __ ...,... __ I I I ,...,.,j :l I I I i I .,. ....... f'll pvt :l .. )l. l l...J p I i i I I I L..+ .J ._., l '-. ---. I ........ "'l... ..l S C A L E I.N F E E T 0 2000 I I I I I I I I I I I 4000 I J I \ \ \ I f r.....i CHATEAUGAY STATE FOREST Bee chenille '-...... l. .......... .......... ,..... .......... "' ......... I -.. . ........ ,....\ I ., i -.J I 3346 acres t ra i Is ...... ,." private pvt boundary--9 miles east of Pulaski on County Rt. 2


Oswego 6 -ALTMAR State Forest Page24 This land consists of 8 sprawling continuous plots with 580 acres of second growth forests and 190 acres of conifer plantations, 35 acres of semi-open or brushy land and 120 acres of wetlands. One of the interesting natural features is a sand dune area. Snowmobiling, cross country skiing, hiking and fishing. Posted and limited motor vehicle trails. =""' .... I ..... l I . I ........ / i ,,___-i SCALE IN t:"EET 2000 1 .. 1 4000 I I I. ............... -. / ................ ........ --I ""' 1----. i I ,. i i ......... I 1 F ., .-t 1 o ---r--..... 1' / ll -..... \. I "' . I :. f'-. ......., J s -. ...._._. I ._, -. 926 acres !i....:. 1' I .._, (...._ ......... ...._ . ......., 1 mile south of N.Y.S. Rt. 13 6 miles southeast of Pulaski Oswego 7 -SANDY CREEK State Forest This small area rests in the Erie-Ontario Lake Plain soils. It has about 318 acres of second growth hardwood and mixed forests, and 125 acres of conifer plantations. About 65 acres of semi-open land and 30 acres of wetlands add ecological diversity. 538 acres 3 miles south of Sandy Creek, west of County Rt. 4e r-, I I 1 I L--J I I SANDY CREEK STATE FOREST \ I \ I \ I \ SCALE IN FEET I \ I ::.: \ L-------i .. \ 40 ..... .... \ '---.l


Oswego 8 SALMON RIVER State Forest Page 25 This area consists of 1728 acres divided between hardwood and mixed second growth forest, and 285 acres of conifer plantations. There is also 20 acres of wetlands. The boat launching site and parking area on Salmon River Reservoir provide important recreational access. It also has posted motor vehicle trails, and provides for boating, fishing, picnicing, camping, hiking, cross country skiing and snowmobiling. I -. ----I -, ......... I ---I r--J -----r-------\ _____________ ...., __ ' ' SALMON RIVER STATE FOREST r---, ,----' ' \ ' -----' I I \ \ \ ' \ \ \ \ \ \ pv t. \ ------------\ 2033 acres On County Rt. 2, 2 miles Oswego 9 & 1 0 -O'HARA State Forest These are two adjacent tracts and are considered together in all acreages and percentages cited. This property contains 800 acres of second growth hardwoods, 20% of which is intermixed .. Along the south west boundary a tributary of the Mad River flows through ---1 2/3 miles of damp lowlands. In ---addition another 3 miles of O'HARA tributaries flow through more upland woods. There is also a small amount (14 acres) of open land and a similar acreage, of inland wetland. Hiking, fishing, snowmobiling and cross country skiing are possible here. FOREST ------I I I _j'


Oswego 11 ORTON HOLLOW State Forest This is abandoned farmland--about 170 acres in second growth forest and 200 acres in conifer plantations. Nearly 50 acres is in shrubby abandoned fields. The remainder is in wetland. The area is crossed by the west branch of Fish Creek. This area has some interesting terrain traversed by marked motor vehicle trails. Snowmobiling. cross-country skiing, hiking and fishing are possible here. 505 acres On County Rt. 13, 1 mile east of Williamstown Oswego 12 TROUT BROOK State Forest Page 26 This property rests along the east edge of the Tug Hill massive, as it meets the Erie-Ontario Lake Plain, It is traversed by a section of Trout Brook. It is entirely covered by second growth forest and plantations (about l/3 plantations). Skiing and hiking but not snowmobiling is possible, as well as fishing. including salmon fishing in Trout Brook. Nemier Rd. BROOK STATE FOREST "0 a: ... 0 > 6 miles south east of Sandy Creek, east of 622 acres the intersection of Bremm and Platt Road


Oswego 13STONE HILL State Reforestation Area .----.---------------------Page 2 7 Over half of this area is in low laying poorly drained soils. The remainder is in hilly stony soil. About 110 acres of this upland is in forest plantations, another 20 acres is in old field and shrubby cover. Most of the remainder is in second growth forests both hardwood and mixed stands. (Cross country skiing, hiking, and fishing are possible here.) Stone Hi II Kd r 1 'I I I 1 HILL I I I I I I ,: "';I I I 1 ... ;t;:--... -::'-1 I I I -.,, I ,. f :'; ,.,r_, I .. ,. I !:: .. r .... "' ... .. r ' r r ... 1 ..... wr,..: r "': r.l" I ? :J' iiY ... r;, I I .; ., ,.. / r ... ... I ----- ; r 1 { --I r .iY,.r ,{;.,./,.-I ;,. ;-;.,. .... ....... I STATE .;;:k ;:; :..' I I "')' , I" Jl .... ,.. ,_,.,. I ......... ,. I REFORESTATION I I AREA I I I I SCALEINFEET 11 11 l ... ," 4too 3 miles south west of Williamstown adjacent to the 870 acres south east corner of the Happy Valley GMA Little Pond Rd. --\.. --------Oswego 14-BATTLE HILL State Reforestation Area I '--' ' ' ' ---0 2000 1., . .. 1 1562 acres I I encompasses part of the valley of the north branch .,__...., ___ -tt,_....;._ of the Salmon River with adjacent uplands. I I I I I I ---' -----l BATTLE I HILL \STATE a----I REFOREST AT ----. ' ' I ----AREA ' -------. I ,Over 1200 acres of the total is in second growth forest with an additional 215 acres of conifer plantations. Over 100 acres of this area is in shrubby cover. There is also a 13-acre wetland. This area is the location of a large deer wintering area and a portion of the management plan is designed to provide winter browse for deer. Other features of the area include a parking area for access to the stream and a posted motor vehicle trail. Activities include hiking, fishing, cross country skiing, and snowmobiling.


SELKIRK SHORES State Park 1000 acres N.Y.S. Rt. 3, 4 miles from the Village of Pulaski This park located on N.Y.S. Route #3, one and one-half miles south of Port Ontario. Because of its location on the Ontario shoreline (over 1 mile of shoreline) between the Salmon River and Grindstone Creek and its nearly 700 acres of conifers and hardwoods it provides superior opportunity for a variety of nature oriented activities Fishing, hiking, camping and cross-country skiing. It is a particularly good place for birding especially during the migration seasons. Swinuning and picnicking are encouraged, and a limited number of cabins are available for those who wish to spend several days there. For more information, contact Central New York Parks and Recreation Commission, Jamesville N.Y. 13078, (315) 492-1756. BATTLE ISLAND State Park 235 Acres Rt. 48 3 Miles North of Fulton on N.Y.S. Although Battle Island is normally thought of as a golf course, it does have some woodlands and wetland areas and over 1 mile of river shoreline. Although access is restricted by the extent of the fairways during the golfing season, it can provide some good wildlife viewing in off seasons or by access from the river. Its best potential is in winter when it is open to cross country skiing. Contact the Central New York Park and Recreation Commission, Jamesville, N.Y. 13078, (315) 492-1756. Page 28 LAKE


CAMPSITES and OTHER AREAS Page 29 AMBOY 4H FORESTRY Tract & Environmental Center 150 Acres On County Rt. 183, 3.5 Miles N. of .Amboy Center This area provides some good examples of forest habitats, plantations and wetlands, including a beaver pond. It has a fine system of nature trails including two towers which overlook the beaver pond. Facilities include a lodge with kitchen and 40 bunk beds, two outhouses, outside showers, a pavilion, an amphitheater and a small museum. A dormitory which will sleep 60 and have indoor facilities is under construction. While the area is used primarily by 4H groups, Scouts, church youth groups and school groups, it is open to other groups for overnight and day use. For more information, contact: Oswego County Cooperattve Extension, Main Street, Mexico, N.Y. 13114, (315) 963-7286. CAMP HOLLIS Lake Ontario OSWEGO COUNTY FORESTS 44 Acres Off Health Camp Rd. 5 Miles W. of Oswego This small acreage offers mixed forest habitat, including about 4 acres kept open by mowing. It is traversed by a small stream and has over mile of high bluff Lake Ontario shoreline. Its,principal use is as a residential camp for Oswego County youth between 9 and 12 years of age, but is open to others by reservation. Camping, picnicking, hiking and swimming are possible. For information, contact: Oswego City-County Youth Bureau, 70 Bunner Street, Oswego, N.Y. 13126. Oswego County maintains nearly 2500 acres of land most of it Arovnd tbe Happy Valley Wildlife Management All of this l"nd is open to huRting and fishing subject to N.Y.S. laws. For more information contact: Agriculture and Environment Committee, "swego County Legislature, 46 E. Bridge Street, Oswego, New York 13126, TOWN AND MUNICIPAL PARKS Towns and Villages in Oswego County own 17 parcels of land totalling over 700 acres spread throughout the county. Some of them offer good opportunities for hiking, skiing or nature study. For more detailed information contact Towns of: Constantia, Hastings, Mexico, Oswego, Parish, Sandy Creek, Schroeppel, Scriba and Williamstown and the Municipalities of: Phoenix, Pulaski, Fulton and Oswego. NINE-MILE POINT ENERGY INFORMATION CENTER, Exhibits, Tours on Energy Productions and Use, Niagara-Mohawk N.Y.S. Power Authority, P.O.Box 81, Lycoming, N.Y. 13093


NAVIGABLE and FISHABLE WATERS Oswego County is often ca 11 ed a fisherman's paradise. It has abundant fishable ponds and streams, including 410 miles of trout streams (ranging from rivers to spring fed brooks), 84 miles of warm water rivers and 160 lakes and ponds, ranging from 30,000 acres (Oswego County portion of Oneida Lake) to numerous farm ponds and creek impoundments of 1 acre or more. Redfield Reservoir (3,380 acres), Lake Neatahwanta (749 acres), Lighthouse Hill Reservoir {164 acres), Long Pond (96 acres), Whitney Pond (96 acres), Mosher Pond (60 acres), and St. Mary's Pond (25 acres} provide opportunity to fish for pike, pickerel, largemouth bass, bullheads and other pan fish. The best resources for warm water game fish are Oneida Lake, the Lake Ontario Shoreline and embayments and selected spots along the Oneida and Oswego Rivers. Most popular warm water fish include largemouth and smallmouth bass, northern pike, walleye, catfish, bullhead, yellow perch, bluebill and calico bass. Ice fishing is particularly popular on Oneida Lake and Sandy Pond. Trout and salmon fishing has grown in popularity following the establishment of salmon in Lake Ontario. In addition to the lake itself, some of its larger tributaries such as Orwell Brook, Trout Brook, John O'Hara Brook, Grindstone Creek, the Little Salmon and the Salmon Rivers* are extremely productive in season. During the summer months, the trout and salmon can be reached only by deep trolling (below for brown, rainbow, chinook and coho, below 50 F for lake trout). Fish for lake trout and brown trout on the bottom, for rainbows, coho and chinook at optimum temperature above the bottom. The Salmon River* is the best salmon fishing stream. But fall spawning runs of salmon and steelhead do enter the other tributaries mentioned above. Little Sandy Creek is closed to fishing in October and November to encourage spawning of our native Atlantic salmon. Stream trout fishing may be successful right up to the headwaters of many streams. The Department of Environmental Conservation recommends Big Bay Creek, Dykeman Creek, Scriba Creek, and the west branch of Fish Creek. Fish caught there are mainly brook, brown, and rainbow trout. Page 30 All of the streams mentioned here contain permanent public access sections marked by yellow "public fishing area" signs. More than 60 miles of public fishing streams exist. The lakes, reservoirs and canal-river systems provide an excellent resource for boating. Much of this boating may have little to do with nature related activities, but the potential for canoeing, rowing or even quiet motor boating is exceptional. -, L..._ 1 }FL"LTO:"' Lake f __ L-------------, I I CANOEING, "Guide to Canoeable Waters of Oswego County", Available from Oswego County Public Information Office, 46 E. Bridge Street, Oswego, N.Y. 13126




ONEIDA LAKE Hatchery The ONEIDA LAKt FISH HATCHERY is operated by the N.Y.S. Department of Environmental Conservation. The hatchery supplies walleyes to many lakes around New York State. Included in this list is Honeoye, Canisius, Saratoga, and Oneida Lakes. Hatchery operations begin in the spring when the ice has cleared from the lake. At this time 320 million eggs are collected from the spawning walleyes in the lake. From these eggs 170-200 million fry are produced. Every year 103 million fry are returned to Oneida Lake. The rest of the fry are distributed to various bodies of water around the state. The hatchery is open to the public seven days a week, 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. from March through September. The best time to visit is during the spring when the eggs are being taken. Group tours may be arranged by calling ahead for an appointment. Picnic facilities are available at the nearby Constantia Town Park. Plans are underway to build a visitor information center for public use. This is expected to be completed before 1990. Walleyes, which can live to be over 20 years old, are a very popular game species. Some anglers consider walleyes to be the tastiest of the freshwater game fishes. The hatchery is located on Hatchery Road off N.Y. Route 49 in the Village of Constantia, For information call 623-7311. f{ To Oswego \ To Syracuse Oneida lake Fish *Hatchery LAKE SALMON RIVER Hatchery Pulaski To Watertown To Syracuse The SALMON RIVER FISH HATCHERY is operated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. This high technology facility produces more than 4.5 million fish each year. Game fish species raised at the hatchery include coho and chinook salmon, brown and rainbow trout, and steelhead. The hatchery, which began operation in 1981, has allowed the state to reintroduce salmon and lake trout to Lake Ontario and Lake Erie. Destruction of habitat, over-fishing, and predation by parasitic sea lampreys contributed to the disappearance of the salmon in 1900, and the lake trout by 1950. The hatchery is open to the public from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., seven days a week, from March 15 to November 30. Informative displays introduce visitors to fish hatchery operations and the DEC's Great Lakes Fisheries Management Program. A self-guided tour through the facility allows visitors to witness hatchery operations. Most people enjoy visiting the hatchery during spawning season (September through mid-November for salmon and March through April for steelhead). Call ahead to find out what operations are occurring at the time you want to visit. Tours for groups of 15-40 individuals may be arranged. The hatchery is located on county route 22 east of the village of Altmar. Immediate access from interstate 81 is possible by taking route 13 east to county route 22. For information call 298-5051. Pa9e32


GUIDE to HABITATS and FACILITIES FACILITIES HABITAT 0> 0> c c VI .._, s.. 0> c ..c VI VI QJ QJ u 0> c QJ VI QJ -c 0> -"" 0 .._, c -c s.. -c s.. c .._, c VI c c c. s.. "' c 0 "' VI "' QJ u c. E "' ::E 0 ..._ .._, QJ >, u ..c E "' <..!J -c -c 0.. VI s.. s.. 0> ....... VI 0.. "' u Qj c s.. -c I 0 ..0 .._, c 0> 0> 0> u s.. "' 0 s.. 0 s.. LL. 0 c c 0> c c u >, >, 0 0 E 0 QJ :::> c c. LL. ..c c. "' 3: -c 0 .._, .._, ..c c :::> c VI E QJ QJ -c QJ 0 u "' -"" c VI u E 0 E 3: -c :::> "' -"" s.. s.. c X c I 3: 0 :::> i: "' s.. "' "' c; s.. 3: "' .._, "' 0 ;: VI X VI c:> :I: :I: 0.. LL. <..!J LL. ...J c:> VI ...J VI :I: u A RICE CREEK Field Station N X N N X N N N x N N X X X X X X X X X B -DERBY HILL Observatory N N N N X N N N N N N X X X X X X X 0 X C SNAKE SWAMP Reserve N N N N N N N N N N N 0 0 0 X X X 0 0 0 D NOYES Sanctuary N N N N X N N N N N N 0 X X X X N X X X E CURTISS-GALE WMA* N X N N X N N N X N N 0 0 0 0 0 X X 0 0 F -DEER CREEK WMA* N X N 10 X 0 X N X N N 0 X 0 X X X X 0 0 G HAPPY VALLEY WMA* N X N 0 X X X N X 0 0 0 X X X X X X X X H LITTLEJOHN WMA* N X N 0 X X X N X 0 0 0 X 0 X X 0 X 0 0 I -THREE-MILE BAY WMA* N X N 0 X 0 X N X 0 N X X 0 X X 0 0 0 0 J WEST OSCEOLA State Forest X X N X X X X N N N N 0 X 0 X 0 X X X X K KASOAG State Forest N X N N X X X N N N N 0 X 0 X X X X X X L AMBOY State Forest X X N N X X X N N N N 0 0 X X 0 X X X X M WINONA State Forest X X N N X X N N N N N 0 0 0 X X X X X X N CHATEAUGAY State Forest X X N N X X X N N X N 0 0 X X 0 X X X X 0ALTMAR State Forest X X N N X X X N N N N 0 X X X 0 X X X X P -SANDY CREEK State Forest N X N N X X X N N N N 0 0 X X 0 X X X X Q SALMON RIVER State Forest X X N X X X X N X X X 0 0 0 X 0 X X X X R O'HARA State Forest X X N N X X X N N N N 0 X 0 X 0 X X X X S ORTON HOLLOW State Forest X X N N X X X N N N N 0 0 X X 0 X X X X T TROUT BROOK State Forest N X N N X X X N N N N 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X U STONE HILL State Forest N X N N X X X N N N N 0 X X X 0 0 X X X V -BATTLE HILL State Forest X X N N X X X N N N N 0 0 X X 0 X X X X W -SELKIRK SHORES State Park N X X X X N X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X -BATTLE ISLAND State Park N X N N N N X N N N N 0 0 0 X X X X 0 0 X Present or Some Restrictions Exist Contact Office for More Information N -Not Present or Not Permitted; 0 -No Significant Acreage Present Wildlife Management Area See Page 15 for More Inf?rmation