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Title:
At the Margin's Edge: Women's Activism in Ecuador
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Lisa M. Glidden & Melanie Shaffer-Cutillo (2017) At the Margin’s Edge: Women's Activism in Ecuador, Women's Studies, 46:1, 22-40,
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Glidden, Lisa M.
Shaffer-Cutillo, Melanie
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Women
Ecuador
Social Movements
Feminism
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AttheMargin ’ sEdge:Women'sActivisminEcuador LisaM.Glidden a andMelanieShaffer-Cutillo b a StateUniversityofNewYorkatOswego,Oswego; b SyracuseUniversity,Syracuse Wearetellingourstoriesandsharinglives sothatneveragaincanthetruthbedenied We ’ veuntiedourtonguesandwe ’ respeakingoutloud we ’ veunboundourfeetandwe ’ remarchingtowardfreedom … — SweetHoneyintheRock, “ SoundBytefromBeijing ” Introduction “ Sound BytefromBeijing, ” asongbytheacappellagroupSweetHoneyin theRock,isabouttheFourthWorldConferenceonWomenthattookplace inBeijingin1995.Thesongmovinglyrecountsseveralissueswomen aroundtheworlddealwith,andisultimatelyaboutwomen ’ sempowerment — womenwhocometogether,sharetheirtruths,andmoveforward together.Itrestsontheassumptionthatwomencanempowerthemselves byfindingtheirvoices.Itis,unfortunately,anidealthatisnotrealizedin manywomen ’ srealities.Thisarticleexamineswomen ’ smovementsin Ecuador,asmall,ethnicallydiversecountryreachingfromthenorthwestern coastofSouthAmericaacrossthepeaksoftheAndesmountainsintothe Amazonrainforest.Wearguethattheperceivedstrengthofagroupor socialmovementorganizationdiffersdependingonthescaleorlevelof analysisofthestudy.Bylookingatwomen ’ sorganizationsinthreepopulationsinEcuador — organizedurbanwomeninQuitowhoareprimarily whiteor mestizo (atermreferringtomixed-race),Indigenouswomenin theAndeanhighlands,andAfro-EcuadoreanorblackwomenonEcuador ’ s northerncoast — atthelocal,national,andinternationalscales,wefound thatwomen ’ sempowermentdoesnottranscendthelevelofanalysis.The strengthofwomen ’ svoicesatinternationallevelsmaynotbereflectedat locallevels,asisthecaseofIndigenouswomeninEcuador.Conversely, womenmaybeveryactiveandvocalatlocallevels,butnothavethe strengthoftheirvoicesheardatnationalorinternationallevels,aswe foundwithAfro-Ecuadorianwomen. Wealsofoundthat,aswithsocialmovementsmorebroadly,thereare manydifferentwomen ’ smovementsinEcuador.Theydonotsharethesame CONTACT LisaM.Glidden lisa.glidden@oswego.edu SUNY – CollegeatOswego,DepartmentofPolitical Science,439Mahar,#13,7060StateRoute104,Oswego,NY13126. WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 2017,VOL.46,NO.1,22 – 40 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00497878.2017.1252565 ©2017Taylor&FrancisGroup,LLC

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goalsorthesameunderstandingsoffeminism,nordomostofthewomen participatingconsiderthemselvesfeminists.Althoughtheactionsandbeliefs ofthevastmajorityofwomenweinterviewedfitwithinthetenetsof feminism — beliefinequality,fightingforgenderparity,andsoon — there wasaquitestrongrejectionofthetermfeminist.Thetermfeminismisquite politicized.Partoftherejectionstemsfromthepoliticalconnotationandthe pro-abortionrightsstanceassociatedwithleftistpoliticalparties(M.Torres). Therejectionalsostemsfromtheperceptionthattobea “ feminist ” isthe femaleequivalentofbeing “ machista , ” whichconnotesafeelingofsuperiorityanddominationofwomenovermen. 1 Women ’ smovementsinEcuadorareforthemostpartautonomous fromoneanother.Whiletherearesomevaliantattemptstobringtogether womenacrossdemographics, 2 inpractice,organizationsdonotcoordinate witheachother.Thedivisionsareacrossgeographic,class,andethnic lines.Ruralwomenbelievethaturbanwomenhavenoconceptionoftheir realityandsocontinuetoorganizeseparately.Indigenouswomen(and thiscrosseslineswiththerural/ur bandivideaswell)believethatothers cannotunderstandtheirissues,whileAfro-Ecuadorianwomenbelievethat nooneelsecanreallyunderstandtheirissues.Thesebeliefsarebasedon pastexperience.Manynon-whiteandnon-urbanwomenclaimthattheir voicestendtobedrownedoutwhentheyworktogetherwithother organizations. Wedevelopeachofthesefindingsingreaterdetailbelow.Webegin withadiscussionofourmethods,measures,andterminology.Inthethird sectionweprovideabriefhistoricaloverviewofwomen ’ smovementsand activisminEcuador — withafocusoncurrentactivism.Wediscuss Ecuador ’ sreporttotheUnitedNations ’ ConventionontheElimination ofAllFormsofDiscriminationAgainstWomen(CEDAW),theissueof domesticviolenceandstateresponsetoit,andempowermentprograms. Wethenexamineaselectionofwomen ’ smovementsineachourcategoriesofAfro-Ecuadorianwomen,Indigenouswomen,andwhite/ mestiza womenusingthescalelensdiscussedearlier.Weevaluatethemovements intermsoflocalvoice,nationalvoice,andinternationalvoice.Our conclusionsummarizesourfindingsandanalysisandpointstofurther avenuesofresearch. 1 Wefoundthiswidespreadperceptiontobeironic,giventhattheglobalfeminismliteratureoftendepictsa rejectionoffeminismintheglobalsouthasanimpositionbymiddle-classWesternwhitewomen.However,the rejectionoffeminismbymostEcuadorianwomenisthesamereasongivenbymiddle-class,mostlywhite studentsinourcourseshereintheUnitedStates,whoequatefeminismwithmaledominationandfeministswith femi-nazis. 2 Forexample,wewereabletoattendameetingorganizedbythe ForodeMujeres (Women ’ sForum),locatedin Quito,whoinvitedwomen ’ sorganizationsandactivistsfromeverydemographictocometogetherinQuitoand talkaboutwomen ’ sissuesinthecountry.Thepurposeofthemeetingwastoallowwomentosharetheir challengesandsuccesses,andtomakeconnectionsamonggroupssothattheycanworktogether. WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 23

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Methods,measures,andterminology 3 WeconductedfieldworkinEcuadori nDecember2008andJanuary2009.We organizedsemi-structuredroundtableev entswithwomenactivistsattworesearch sites.ThefirstroundtabletookplaceintheAndeancityofRiobamba,the provincialcapitalofChimborazo — aboutthreehourssouthofthecapitalcity, Quito. 4 Sixwomenparticipated,allofwhomself-identifiedasIndigenous.These womenworkorhaveworkedforIndigenous,religious,orwomen ’ sorganizations intheprovince.Theyoungestwomanwas31yearsold.Theeldestwomanhad beenanactivistforatleastfourdecades.Wealsoconductedpreliminaryinterviewswithoneoftheparticipantsbeforetheformalroundtable. ThesecondresearchsitewasSanLorenzo,acoastalcityaboutsevenhours northwestofQuito,justafewmilessout hoftheColombianborderinEsmeraldas province.Thereweconductedaroundtablewiththreewomenactivistswhoare membersofthelocalwomen ’ sorganization.Weconductedinformalpreliminary interviewswithoneoftheparticipantspriortotheroundtable. 5 InQuito,weattendedanational ForodeMujeres (Women ’ sForum), wherewomenfromalloverthecountrycametogethertodiscusstheirissues fortwodays.Theeventendedwithatriptothenationallegislaturesothat thewomencouldaddressCongress.Weinterviewedwomenactivistsfrom governmentalandnongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs)inEcuador ’ s capital,Quito,aswellasattendedeventshostedbywomen ’ sorganizations. Weconductedinformalinterviewswithwomenwhodonotself-identifyas activists.Wealsoconsultedsecondaryliterature,governmental,andintergovernmentalreports. Werecognizethattheargumentsmadebelowarebasedonasmallnumber ofinterviews.Moreresearchmustbedonetoestablishwhetherornotthese findingsaregeneralizabletothebroaderpopulationofEcuadorianwomen. Regardlessofwhetherourargumentsaregeneralizabletootherwomen ’ s organizationsinthecountry,wewerecontinuallystruckbytheincongruity ofthepowerofawoman ’ svoiceatthevariouslevelsofanalysis.Werecognize thatalthoughweusebroadcategoricaltermslikeIndigenousandAfroEcuadorian,ourargumentspertainsolelytowomenintheareaswevisited. AnoverviewofwomeninEcuador Womencompriseabout51%ofEcuador ’ s populationoffifteenmillion.An exactbreakdownalongethnicorraciallinesisdifficult,butabout30%ofthe 3 ThisresearchwasmadepossiblebyaStudent-FacultyCollaborativeResearchGrantfromSUNYOswego ’ sProvost, Dr.SusanColtrap-McQuin,agrantfromtheDeanofLiberalArtsandSciencesRhondaMandel,andtheWomen's Studiesprogram. 4 TheauthorsthankDr.ManuelaPicqforgenerouslysharinghertime,expertise,contacts,andfororganizingthe Riobambaworkshop. 5 TheauthorsthankPeterRedvers-LeeforgraciouslysharinghiscontactinformationregardingSanLorenzo. 24 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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populationareIndigenous(Glidden22),3%areofAfricandescent,and about65%are mestizo orwhite(TheWorldFactbook).Ecuador ’ spopulation isbecomingincreasinglyurban,withabouttwothirdsofthepopulation residingincities(TheWorldFactbook).Thislaststatistichasimportant implicationsforwomen ’ sorganizations,aswellasmunicipalorganizations thatpurporttoservewomen ’ sneedsbuthaveadifficulttimemeetingthe needsofIndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomen. Historically,womenwereactiveparticipantsinthecountry ’ ssocialmovements,althoughtheiractionsarenotalwaysreflectedinmainstreamhistory. Nonetheless,women ’ sparticipationinsocialandpoliticalmovementshas transformedEcuador.Theofficialhistoryandschoolbooksdiscussthesame fewwomen —ManuelaSanz,ManuelaCaizaresyAlvarez,ManuelaEspejo (womenconnectedtowell-knownmalefiguresinEcuadorattheturnofthe nineteenthcenturyduringthefightforindependence)andDolores Cacuango(oneofthefoundersoftheFederationofEcuadorianIndiansat theturnofthetwentiethcentury)—buttherearemanyothers.Literate womenattainedsuffragein1929,althoughitcanbearguedthatthiswas moretheresultofaconservativestrategytoincreaseitsvotingblocthanit wasaresultofwomen ’ sactivism.FromEcuador ’ sMayRevolutionin1944, whichoverthrewPresidentCarlosArroyodelRio,totheJanuary2000 uprisingthatdeposedPresidentJamilMahuad,women ’ sactivismhasbeen akeyfactorinthesuccessofmanysociopoliticalmobilizationsdueto women ’ sabilitytorapidlymobilizewithinlocalandregionalorganizations. In2002,Ecuadorsubmitteditsfourthandfifthperiodicreportofthegovernment’ simplementationoftheConventionontheEliminationofAllFormsof DiscriminationagainstWomen,whichEcuadorratifiedin1981,totheUnited Nations ’ CommitteeontheEliminationofDiscriminationagainstWomen. IntroducedbySoniaGarcaAlvarado,Ecuador ’ sDirectoroftheNational CouncilofWomen,thereportdocumentedthestatus,achievements,andchallengesEcuadorianwomenconfront.Whilethereportincorporateddatafor IndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomen,theUNcommitteeraisedmanyquestionsastothestatusofthesepopulations withinthereport,specificallyonthe subjectofviolence— aviolationofwomen ’ shumanrightsundertheConvention. Thereport ’ snotableabsenceofviolenceisespeciallysurprisinggiven recentevidence.Anationalstudyconnectingchildhoodandadultdomestic violencefoundthat40%ofwomensurveyedreportedintimatepartner violenceoverthecourseoftheirlifetimes(GmezandSpeizer559,562;see alsoRoldosandCorso).Thereportrevealedvastdiscrepanciesamong Ecuador ’ sdiversepopulations.ThegovernmentreasonedthattheinconsistenciesarosefromthesocialandculturalnormsthatprohibittheadvancementofIndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomen.Oneexplanationoffered bythegovernmentwasthatthetransmissionofnewsocialmoresrelatedto educationandequalrightsarehinderedbyawoman ’ sethnicidentityandWOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 25

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culture,asseeninthecaseofIndigenouswomenwho “ tendtopaymore attentionandgivehigherpriorityandimportancetothedailyneedsofthe family ” thanacquiringeducationorseekingoutprogramsspecificallyaimed attheneedswomen(UNCommittee18).Thissuggeststhegovernment ’ s understandingthattheconditionsofIndigenouswomenareexplicitlydueto Indigenousculturalnormsandarenotrelatedtogovernmentpolicies.This maybetrue(CEPAR;Picq, “ IdentityPoliticsinEcuador; ” Picq, “ Gender withinEthnicity ” ),butevidenceonthegroundprovidedtotheauthorsby IndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomenactivistssuggeststhatthecultural normscanbeandarechallengedbythosewithinthecommunities. GenderparityisguaranteedbytheConstitutionof2008,althoughinprivate andpublicspheresgenderparityhasnotbeenachieved.Wearguethatparityis notlikelytobeachievedanytimesoon,asthevoicesofthevariouswomen ’ s movementsarenotequallyheard.Women ’ smovementsinEcuadorare fracturedbyperceivedculturaldifferences,bothgeographicandethnic, whichcontinuefractionalization,thusensuringmarginalization.InEcuador, women ’ sactivismandmobilizationiscomprisedoflocalwomen ’ sorganizationsthataredependentonagenderidentitydeterminedbycultural,religious, social,andpoliticalconstructionsthatvarywithinEcuador ’ sdistinctregions. Itisthesesameconstructionsthatremainabarriertotheunificationofthe diversepopulationsofwomeninEcuador — specificallywhite/ mestiza , Indigenous,andAfro-Ecuadorianwomen.Wearenotarguingforaunified movementorganizationally,butsuggestthatthedisparatewomen ’ smovementsneedtocommunicateifcultural,social,andpoliticalnormsareto change.Instead,itseemsasthoughthevariousgroupscontinuewiththeir assumptionsaboutothersandsodonotbroadenthescopeoftheirclaims. Thefollowingthreesectionsprovidecasestudiestosupporttheclaimswe makeabove.Weexamineeachofthecases — Afro-Ecuadorianwomen ’ sorganizations,Indigenouswomen ’ sorganizations,andwhite/ mestiza women ’ s organizationsintermsofthepowerofeachmovement ’ slocal,national,and internationalvoices. Afro-Ecuadorianwomen Ecuador ’ s Afro-Ecuadoriancommunityisarelativelatecomertoorganizing. Thefirstorganizationsappearedintheearly1990s,afterIndigenouscommunitiesachievedameasureofsuccessbymobilizingnationally.Womenwere involvedinAfro-Ecuadorianmobilizationfromthebeginning,yet,unlike Indigenouswomenactivists,chosetoformtheirownorganizationstodeal directlywithissuespertainingtothemasAfro-Ecuadorianwomen.Thebroader Afro-Ecuadorianorganization,also — unliketheirIndigenouscounterparts — supportedthismovebecausetheysawwomen ’ sorganizationsasstrengthening theoverallmovement(Morales). 26 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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Ecuador ’ sblackpopulationismarginalized — geographically,politically, socially,andeconomically.ThemajorityofAfro-Ecuadorianslivein Esmeraldasprovince,inthenorthwestcornerofthecountrybordering ColombiaandthePacificOcean.Thecoastalprovinceisinanecologically sensitivearea,andishometorapidlydisappearingmangroveforests,shrimp farms,andpalmplantations. Internationalvoice MOMUNE,theMovimientodeMujeresNegrasdelNortedeEsmeraldas (BlackWomen ’ sMovementsofNorthernEsmeraldas),likethenational-level blackwoman ’ sorganization,hasconnectionswithinternationalNGOsand intergovernmentalorganizations.TheWorldBank,forexample,hasfunded projectsforruraldevelopmentamongminoritypopulations.Afro-Ecuadorian womenarenotasvisibleasIndigenouswomenontheinternationalstage,yet theyhavebecomeincreasinglyvisibleindomesticpolitics. Nationalvoice AccordingtotheWorldBank,83 – 100%ofthepopulationofSanLorenzo, Esmeraldasprovincelivesinpoverty(Araujo22).Afro-Ecuadorianswerenot astrongpoliticalpresenceuntiltheirmobilizationinthe1990s.The1998 ConstitutionestablishedEcuadorasapluri-ethnicstate: “ guaranteeingtherights ofbothindigenouspeoplesandAfro-Ecuadorians ” (MinorityRightsGroup International).Afterthe2007elections,therewasoneAfro-Ecuadorianelected totheone-hundredmemberlegislature(MinorityRightsGroupInternational). Socially,evenwithconstitutionalguarantees,Ecuador ’ sblackpopulationcontinuestofacesocialandeducationaldiscrimination(MinorityRightsGroup International;Robinson).Recentchangesinthe2006Constitution — forexample,thecreationofaCouncilofParticipation — mayexpediteAfro-Ecuadorian women ’ sentranceintonationalpoliticsatagreaterlevel. Localvoice Thewomen ’ smovementofSanLorenzoseekstoempowerwomenwholivein thethreemunicipalitiesthatmakeupMOMUNE.Thegoalsofthemovement aresimilartootherwomen ’ sorganizationsinthecountry.Thesewomen educatetheircommunitiesaboutdomesticviolence,aimtoendimpunityfor perpetratorsofviolenceagainstwomen,promotethehistoryofblackwomen thatisabsentfromschoolcurricula,andimprovethepositionofwomenin theircommunitiesthroughcapacity-building — thatis,empoweringwomen throughrightseducationandleadershiptraining.MOMUNErunstheCasade WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 27

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laMujer(Woman ’ sHouse),aspaceforwomentoconvene,learn,andorganize.Afro-Ecuadorianwomenbelievetheyfacedistinctchallengesasblack womeninEcuador.Forthisreasontheychoosetomaintainself-runorganizations,asopposedtoaffiliatingwithlarger,nationalwomen ’ sorganizations. TheactivistsofMOMUNEachievetheirgoalsbyimplementinglocalinitiatives,suchasdomesticviolenceinterventionsandorganizingcapacity-building workshopstoempowerwomen.MOMUNEmemberssimultaneouslyempower womenandraisecommunityawarenessaboutAfro-Ecuadorianwomen ’ sissues throughtheorganizationsmemberproducedmagazine, LaVozdelaMujer (Women ’ sVoice) .TheseactionsalsoreinforcetheAfro-Ecuadoriancultural normofwomen ’ sstrongsocialconnectionswithoneanother.Asoneofthe womenwespokewithtoldus,bythetimetheyareintheirlateteens,women havestrongfriendshipsthatcontinueintoadulthood(Lastra).Ourinterviewees repeatedlymentionedthepoweroftheserelationships,particularlyintimesof economicorpersonalproblemssuchasdomesticviolenceorpersonalillness. Analysis Afro-Ecuadorianwomen ’ slocalvoiceisstronginthattheywillstandupfor themselvesandhavestrongrelationshipswithotherwomen,butweakinthat theyhaveveryfewresourcesandlittlepower.Oneofthemostcommonly reportedcomplaintsweheardfromAfro-Ecuadorianwomenwasaboutthe lackofworkopportunities.Manyofthewomenwithpaidemploymentin SanLorenzoworkforpalmoilplantationsdoingveryhard,lowpaidwork. Largenumbersofwomenmaketheirlivingbyworkinginthemangroves, extractingcrabandconchbothforsubsistenceandtosell.Workingin mangrovesinvolveslonghoursofdigginginfeet-deepmudaroundthe mangrovetreerootstofindenoughshellsandcrabsfortheday.These womendonothavethetimetoattendcapacity-buildingworkshops.They lackthetimetoeitherimprovetheireducationalstatus,orhelptheirchildren withhomework.Theyalsodonotearnenoughmoneytobeabletoimprove theireconomicsituation.Asecondchallengerevolvesaroundslowlychangingracialattitudes.Dark-skinnedEcuadoriansfacedailydiscriminationin employment,education,andinsocialattitudes — althoughsomearguethat discriminationhasdiminishedoverthelastdecade. Indigenouswomen Indigenouswomen,likeotherEcuadorianwomen,contendwithdomestic violence, machismo,unpaidlabor,rape,doubleortripleworkdays,andlow status.Indigenouswomenfaceadditionalproblems,includingthehighest ratesofilliteracyinthecountry,lowlevelsofschoolenrollment,andhigher 28 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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infantandmaternalmortalityrates(WittandFund).While85%ofEcuador ’ s Indigenouschildrenattendprimaryschool,only65%ofIndigenousgirls attend.Fewerthan22%ofEcuador ’ sIndigenouschildrenattendsecondary school.Asaresult,Ecuador ’ sIndigenouspopulationhasanaverageformal educationlevelof4.3yearscomparedtoseventoeightyearsfornonIndigenousEcuadorians.Morethan30%ofIndigenouswomenfifteenyears andoverhavenoformaleducationexperienceand53%areilliterate,compared to35%ofIndigenousmen(Hughes6).Becauseoftheseeducationaldisparities,Indigenouswomenhavehigherriskfordomesticviolenceandhigher maternalandinfantmortalityriskthantheirnon-Indigenouscounterparts. TheIndigenousmaternalmortalityrateis250per100,000comparedtothe nationalaverageof74.3per100,000.Indigenousinfantmortalityratesare 83 – 100per1,000incontrasttothenationalaverageof23per1,000 (MontenegroandStephens;Fretes-Cibils,Giugale,andSomensatto). Internationalvoice EcuadorianIndigenouswomenhavebeenactiveontheglobalstage,sharing theirvoicesandexperienceswithtransnationalNGOsandtheUnited Nations.AnaMariaGuacho,oneoftheleadersweinterviewed,isamember oftheUN ’ sInternationalWorkingGrouponIndigenousAffairs(IWGIA). Thewomenwespoketoareactiveinnationalpoliticsaswell.Forexample, womenlikeCristinaCucuriandSandraPatarónofthe RedProvincialde OrganizacióndeMujeresIndígenasdeChimborazo (ProvincialNetworkof IndigenousWomen ’ sOrganizationsofChimborazo)areresponsiblefor severalarticlesongenderparity,equality,andrightsforIndigenousjustice inEcuador ’ snewConstitution. Nationalvoice Indigenousgroupscomprisesomewherebetween15 – 37%ofEcuador ’ spopulationtoday(Picq;Wilmer;Zamosc).FromthetimeoftheSpanish Conquest,Indigenouspopulationsweremarginalized,subjectedtoharsh laborpractices,andwereruledbyadifferentsetoflawsthantheSpaniards (Larson).Indigenousuprisingsoccurredthroughoutthecolonialandrepublicaneras(Becker;Hemming),yetthedominantdiscourseestablishedthat “ Indians ” weredocileandapolitical. LeftistsmobilizedIndigenouspeoples,especiallyinthehighlands,intothe FederationofEcuadorianIndians(FEI)in1944.Womenwereinvolvedin leadershiprolesoftheFEI(Becker141).Prominentwomenactivistsduring thisperiodwereIndigenouswomenactivistslikeDoloresCacuangoand TránsitoAmaguaña.TheFEIlostmuchofitsmomentumbytheearly WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 29

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1960sbecausemanyIndigenousmembersfeltthattheyhaddemandsas Indígenasthatwerenotbeingmetinanorganizationthatviewedthe worldthroughaclass-basedlens. 6 TodayEcuador ’ sIndigenouspopulationisorganizedfromthelocaltothe nationallevel.Community-levelorganizationscreatedinthe1960sworked togetheroverthefollowingtwodecadestoformregionalorganizationslike Ecuarunari(1972)andfinallyanationalorganization,CONAIE(1986), amongothers.Theorganizationscreatedinthe1960swereethnicallybased andpromotedIndigenousidentityatatimewhenthatidentitywasstill subjectedtoderision,prejudice,andmarginalization.Someofthesegroups cameaboutbecauseoftheexperiencesofLeftistorganizingwhileotherswere influencedbyliberationtheologiansoftheCatholicChurch(Glidden; Guacho).AlthoughtherehasbeenmuchromanticizationoftheIndigenous movement(Picq),bythe1990sIndigenousgroupsweremobilizedtothe extentthattheyhadthepowertoshutdownthecountryduringtheir levantamientos(uprisings). Localvoice WomenwereinvolvedinIndigenousorganizationsfrominception,butthe degreetowhichtheywereallowedtoleadordiscussissuesimportantto womenwaslow.WomenlikeDioselind aIzaQuinatoa,thePresidentofthe OrganizacióndeMujeresdeUNO-CANC-Toacazo-Planchaloma(UNO-CANCToacazo-PlanchalomaWomen ’ sOrganization),tookpartinearlyorganizational meetingsofregionalgroupsinthelate1960s, “ eventhoughwomen ’ sparticipation waslow, ” andtodaycallsonherformerregionalgroup “ toincludewomenmore intheirmeetings,becauseanorganizat ionwheremenandwomenareunequalis anincompleteorganization ” (Tibán,Ilaquiche,andAlfaro31).Itwasalsodifficult forwomentoovercometheirsubservientsocialpositionstobetreatedasequalsin someIndigenousorganizations.Womenwereexpectedtoservetheirmale counterpartsatmeetings,forexample(Lind, “ GenderedParadoxes ” 32).For reasonssuchasthese,womendecidedtoorganizeapartfromlocalandregional Indigenousorganizationsintospecificallywomen ’ sorganizations. TheRedProvincialdeOrganizacióndeMujeresIndígenasdeChimborazois onesuchexample.Comprisedofaboutthirtylocalwomen ’ sorganizations,it wasformedbywomenwhohadbeeninvolvedwithprovincial-levelorganizations.Aswithwomeninmovementsaroundtheworld,thewomenweretoldthe organizationshadtofocusattentiononthebroaddemandsofthegroup, inthiscasegeneralIndigenousissues,beforethegroupshouldmakemore gender-specificdemands.Thereforethewomendecidedtocreatetheirown organizationsthatarelinkedtogetherbyRedProvincial(Cucuri). 6 SeeBeckerforadetailedhistoryofFEIandleftistactivism. 30 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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WespoketoseveralwomenleadersinChimborazoprovince,ahighland provinceabout150kilometerssouthofEcuador ’ scapital.Theyrangedfrom self-employedentrepreneurs,topotentialpoliticalcandidates,tomovement activists.Noneofthosecategoriesaremutuallyexclusive.Allofthewomen consideredthemselvesactivistsofsomesort.Noneofthewomenconsidered themselvesfeminists,astheirunderstandingoffeminismisessentiallythatit istheoppositeofmachismo,andthesewomenallsaidtheybelievemenand womenshouldbeequal. Analysis InterviewswithwomenactivistsfromChimborazobroughttolightseveral paradoxes.First,therightofIndigenouscommunitiestooperateunderlocal conceptionsofIndigenousjusticeisanimportantcomponentofIndigenous (includingIndigenouswomen ’ s)demandsontheEcuadorianstate.However, Indigenousjusticeismuteregardingissuesimportanttomanywomenlike domesticviolence,rape,andforcedmarriages.Inmanyways,theprovisioningofIndigenousjusticeshasmadeitmoredifficultforIndigenouswomen toobtainjusticewithintheircommunities.AstudyofIndigenousjusticein Guatemalafound “ womenareeffectivelybeingjudgedbythemenoftheir communities,oronoccasionoftheirownfamilies,inaccordancewith patriarchalstructuresandingrainedgenderideologies ” (SeiderandSierra 19).AlthoughsomegovernmentworkersbelievethatIndigenouswomen haveastrongcommunitysupportsystemtodealwithcasesofdomestic violence(M.Torres),ourintervieweessaidthishadnotbeentruefor decades.Meanwhile,fewruralIndigenouswomenwillinvolvethestatein casesofdomesticviolence.Evenwithouttheseobstacles,asnotedbybothan activistfromManabíprovinceandafemalejudgeinQuito,acultureof impunityinstate-orcommunity-runlegalinstitutionsmakesitverydifficult forwomen ’ sorganizationstoachievejusticeforwomen. ThesecondparadoxisthatalthoughIndigenouswomenactivistsarevocal atnationalandinternationallevels,theirvoicesarenotheardlocally,and theyarenotlikelytospeakuplocallyaboutproblemsimportanttothemas women.Wearguethisisduetosocialcontrolsthatservetokeepwomen silent.Formsofsocialcontrolandappropriatefemalebehaviordiscourage thetypesofbehaviorrequiredbywomentoconfronttheirproblemsand changetheirreality.Gossipisapowerfulformofsocialcontrol(Seiderand Sierra16)thatservestoensurethatwomenwhomightcomplainstayoutof thegossipradar.Nowomanorgirlwantstobethesubjectofgossip,bringing shametoherfamilybygoingagainsttheirwishes,withtheendresultthatshe willmarrythemanwhorapedher,forexample. ThethirdparadoxisthatalthoughIndigenouswomenarewellorganized ataprofessionallevel,thereareveryweaknotionsoffriendshipamong WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 31

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Indigenouswomen(Guacho).Thereisalackofasupportsystemwithin IndigenouscommunitiestodealwithissuesthatIndigenouswomenbelieve areimportant.Inanurbansetting,womenmightorganizeormobilize informally — overcoffee,laundry,lunch(M.Torres).Duringtheseinformal momentsawomansharingastoryofdomesticviolencemightbeencouraged byherfriendtospeakout,reachouttoasupportorganizationlike LasTres Manuelas (discussedbelow),orwillhearthatitisnotherfault(M.Torres). ThesetypesofconversationsdonottakeplaceamongIndigenouswomenof thehighlands. Takentogether,thesethreeparadoxesensurethatthefundamental issuesimportanttoIndigenouswomenintheirday-to-daylivesarenot addressed.Indigenousjusticehasnomechanismandcannotadjudicateon thesetypesofissues,anditisnowthelegitimatesourceofjusticewithin communities.Womenactivists,sovociferoustothoseoutsideoftheir communities,willnot — andperceivethattheycannot — speakupwithin theircommunitiestochallengethesubjugationofwomen.Ifwomenhad intimatefriendships,therewouldbeaspacetospeakupandthesupport tospeakout.However,ifawomanbeatenbyherhusbandconsiders herselfluckybythefactthat “ shecangooutaloneupinthehillswith heranimalsforthedayandnothavetodealwithherhusbandorothers ” (Guacho),thendailyconditionsareunlikelytochangedespitethestrong mobilizationofIndigenouswomen. White/ mestiza organizations OfEcuador ’ s morethanfifteenmillioncitizens,almosthalfarewomenandfemale childrenwhoconfrontthegenderedchallengesofpoverty,discrimination,and violence.Themajorityofthesewomenare mestiza.Mestiza women ’ sabilityto addressgenderissueswithinEcuadoriansocietyisduetotheirstrategyof incorporatinginternationallegislationa ndtheirwillingnesstoinstitutionalize women ’ sorganizationswithinthestateapparatus.Theirsuccessinthese endeavorsisduetotheirself-portrayalasEcuador ’ sWomen ’ sMovement, whichhasallowed mestiza womentogarnergreaterinternationalandstate supportfortheirgoals.ThistechniquebenefitsamajorityofEcuador ’ swomen, butithasmarginalizedothers,suchasIndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomen. Internationalvoice Despiteinstitutionalization,genderremainedasemi-stagnantpoliticaland socialissueuntilthe1990swiththeculminationofthe1995FourthWorld ConferenceonWomeninBeijing.Beijing ’ sPlatformforActionputforward anagendato “ removealltheobstaclestowomen ’ sactiveparticipationinall spheresofpublicandprivatelifethroughafullandequalshareineconomic, 32 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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social,culturalandpoliticaldecision-making ” (UnitedNations, “ Platformfor Action ” 4),whichacceleratedEcuador ’ swomen ’ smovement.Withinayear, thestateconsolidatedgender-focusedinstitutionsunderthe Consejo NacionaldeMujeres (NationalWomen ’ sCouncil)(CONAMU)tooversee allgender-focusedgovernmentpolicies. 7 In1997,thewomen ’ smovement sawthelargestnumberofsinglecandidaciestothenationalCongressin thecountry ’ shistory,whichinpartresultedintheinclusionofwomen ’ s rightswithinthe1998PoliticalConstitution(MinorityRightsGroup International6).Thesedevelopmentsaimedtoguaranteewomen ’ sequality andfullparticipationasEcuadoriancitizensnotonlyasameanstoaddress thedemandsofEcuadorianwomen,butalsotomeettheconditionsof internationallegalframeworks. Internationallaw,suchastheConventiontoEndDiscriminationAgainst Women,hasprovidedwomen ’ smovementsanimportantmeanstodemand continuationofgender-focusedstatepolicies.Theco-optationbetweenthe women ’ smovementandthegovernmentisfurtherreinforcedbyinternationalsponsorshipandfundingforgender-focuseddevelopmentprojects releasingthestatefromfurthereconomicburdensentailedinmeeting thesedemands.Ecuador ’ swomen ’ smovementsusethisdynamictoaddress theirconcernsthroughdevelopinggender-focusedpoliciesongenderissues frompovertyandeducationtohealthandeconomicdevelopment. Nationalvoice Ecuador ’ s mestiza womenmobilizedthroughEcuador ’ stumultuoushistoryof sociopoliticalunrest.Perhapsthemosthistoricallywell-knownexampleof women ’ smobilizationisinthe “ GloriousMayRevolution ” of1944when womenleaderssuchasNelaMartínezandSeñoraAlbaCalderondeGil organizedfortheremovalofCarlosArroyodelRíoandhisgovernment (Lear).In 1944 , mestiza womenorganizedwithIndigenouswomensuchas DoloresCacuangooftheFederationofEcuadorianIndianstodemandbetter educationfortheirchildren,economicsolutionstoprevalentfoodshortages, andbetterpay.Afterthismobilization,womenformedthe AcciónFemeninade Pichincha (FeminineActionofPichincha)andcontinuedorganizingfor women ’ srights(Lind, “ GenderedParadoxes ” 32).Aswithwomen ’ smovementsallovertheworld,Ecuador ’ swomencontinuedtoorganizealthough theirmobilizationoftenremainedinthesupportingroleofEcuador ’ ssociopoliticomovementsrelatedtoland,labor,andurbanstrugglesinthe1970sand 1980s.Duringthisperiod,women ’ sorganizationsbegantobeinstitutionalized throughtheappointmentofleadingwomen ’ sactivistsandorganizations withinstateagenciessuchasMinistryofSocialWelfareandthecreationof 7 AlthoughnowthatCONAMUhasbeendismantleditremainstobeseenwhetherornotothergovernment ministriesincorporatewomen ’ sissuesintotheiroperations,whichwasthepurposefortheaction. WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 33

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theNationalWomen ’ sOfficein1980(Lind189). 8 Women ’ sorganizations achievedseveralkeyvictoriesinthe1980sthroughinternationalpoliciesand legislation,whichdirectlyimpactedwomen ’ sabilitytoplacegreaterdemands onthestateforgender-inclusivepolicies.Thegovernment ’ sratificationof theConventiontoEndDiscriminationAgainstWomenin1981increasedthe creationofnationallegislationtoaddresstheneedsofwomen. Whileprogresswasinitiallyslow,bythelate1980sthewomen ’ smovement hadmadeseveralinroads.Forexample,Article41ofEcuador ’ s1988 Constitutionestablishedthestate ’ sobligationtodevelopandimplementpolicies aimedatgenderequalityandfocuswithinstateprograms.Anotherachievement withintheconstitutionwasArticle254,establishinganationalsysteminwhich all “ planningshalltakeage,ethno-cultural,andlocalandregionaldifferences intoaccountandshallincorporateagenderfocus ” (Vega4). Despitetheachievementsmadeinthepasttwentyyears,Ecuador ’ s women ’ smovementsremainchallengedbytheseissuesasthegenderfocusedpoliciescontinuetobenefittheneedsofonesegmentofthefemale population.Thisexclusioncanbeseenintwoareasonewhichthewomen ’ s movementfocusesitsgendermainstreamingefforts,thoseofpovertyand education.Anestimated7outof10ofEcuador ’ scitizensarelivingin poverty(TheWorldFactbook).In2005,63%ofthepopulationlivedin povertywith31%inextremepoverty — definedaslivingonlessthanadollar perday(HarariandHarari).Asof2005,theWorldBankfoundthatdespite politicalgains,morethanhalfoftheEcuadorianpopulationcontinuedtolive inpoverty.Eighty-sevenpercentoftheIndigenouspopulationlivedin poverty,andintheruralhighlandsthatnumberroseto96%.Fifty-six percentoftheIndigenouspopulationlivedinextremepoverty(World Bank, “ EcuadorHighlights ” table4).Bytheendofthesecondhalfofthe 2010s,thepercentageofIndigenouspeoplelivinginextremepovertyfellby 31%,althoughthepovertygapbetweenIndigenousandnon-Indigenous populationincreasedby13%(WorldBank, IndigenousLatinAmerica 59). SeventypercentoftheAfro-Ecuadorianpopulationlivesinpoverty(Minority RightsGroupInternational),while30%ofthe mestizo populationlivesin poverty,and8%ofthe mestizo populationlivesinextremepoverty( “ Health SystemProfileEcuador ” ). Povertyisnotdeterminedbyeconomicstatusalone,butexclusionfrom resourcessuchasadequateandaffordablefood,housing,healthcare,education,andbasicservices.Stuntingorlimitedphysicalgrowthisonecomprehensiveindicatorofpovertyasitisadirectoutcomeofapopulation ’ soverall standardoflivingincludingenvironmentalconditionsandaccesstofood, housing,education,andhealthcare.Nearly21%ofEcuador ’ schildrenunder 8 TheNationalWomen ’ sOfficehashadseveralnamesasastateinstitution.Duringthelate1980stheorganization wastitledtheNationalWomen ’ sBureau(DINAMU).Since1997,thestateinstitutionhasbeentitledCONAMUor theNationalWomen ’ sCouncil.Formoreinformationsee http://www.conamu.gov.ec/CONAMU/portal/home.do . 34 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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agefivearestunted.Indigenouschildrencomprise62%andAfro-Ecuadorian childrencomprise22%ofthechildrenunderagefivewhoarestunted (WorldBank, “ IndigenousLatinAmerica ” 43). Womenarenoticeablyabsentwithinsuchpovertystatistics,revealingthe prevalenceofgenderdiscriminationinthegovernmentpolicies.However, statisticsrelatedtoheadofhouseholdsuggesttherealityofwomen ’ spoverty inEcuador.Nationwideonly643,359ofEcuador ’ s4.4millionwomenownor payforhomesoftheirown(Vega8).In2004,CONAMU ’ ssolutionwastosigna cooperativeagreementestablishingtheInter-InstitutionalCooperative Frameworkfor “ gender-mainstreamingandcomprehensiveprotectionof women ’ srightsinnationalpovertyreductionpolicies ” asameansofaddressing gendergapsinunemploymentandpovertyreductionpolicies(Vega11). Gender-mainstreamingisatooltopromotegenderequality,wheregender becomesafactortobeconsideredinpolicycreationandanalysisthroughout thegovernment.Undergender-mainstreaming,everygovernmentagency wouldanalyzeaproposedpolicyortheeffectsofapolicyintermsofthe economic,political,scientific,andgenderimpacts,insteadofrelegatingwomen ’ s issuestoaseparateMinistryofWomen ’ sAffairs.However,theratesofsuccess forgender-mainstreamingstatepoliciestoreducewomen ’ spovertyratesare curtailedbyacontinuationofdiscriminatorypracticeswithinthepublicsector inregardstoequalityintheareasofemploymentandpropertyforwomen. Womenfaceatripleworkloadbeginningintheiryouth,makingitdifficult tocontinuetheireducation,particularlyafterage14.Femalechildrenresponsibleforcontributingtothefamilyincomewillnotbeabletoachievetheir educationalpotential.Ecuador ’ snationalilliteracyrateis9%withanaverage lengthforschoolingat7.3yearswithmoreeducationalfundingplacedtoward Spanish-speaking/ mestizo populations(Vegatable6).Regardlessofthisfunding,womencomprise55%oftheilliteratepopulation(Vegatable5).Women ’ s illiteracyratesarehigherinruralareasas66%ofruralwomen(18% mestizo and48%Indigenous)areilliterate( “ PortraitofIndigenousWomen ” ). Oneofthesolutionsofferedbythewomen ’ smovementwasthe1998 creationofthePro-GenderEquityNetwork,whichaimstoincorporate genderperspectiveswithinEcuador ’ seducationalpolicies.However,these policiesmoreoftenthannotfailtobeimplementedduetothegovernment ’ s reluctancetoconsiderwomen ’ silliteracyapriorityandtheeducational system ’ sinsensitivitytogenderissuesandwomen ’ srights(Vega15). Localvoice Thewomen ’ smovement ’ srelationshipwiththestateisbasedontheirparticipationinstrategicnegotiationstogainthepowerto “ nameanddefinepolicy agendasasmuchasthepoweracquiredthroughaccesstotheeconomicand socialbenefitsofmodernizationandcitizenship ” (Lind22).However,the WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 35

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movement ’ sinstitutionalizationhasnotbeenanidealsituationasitsendeavors tocreateandimplementgenderinclusivepolicieshavebeenhinderedby administrativeandlegislativepracticesthatare “ shapedbyacultureofexploitationanddiscrimination ” perpetuatinggendergapsandinequality(Lind, “ GenderedParadoxes ” 11).Moreimportantlythemovement ’ sinstitutionalizationhasincreasedfragmentationwithinEcuador ’ swomen ’ smovementinthat allwomen ’ svoicesarenotheard.Institutionalizationhinderswomen ’ sorganizationssuchas LasTresManuelas tocommunicatewithnon-institutionalized women ’ sorganizationssuchas CasaFeministadeRosas (theRosesFeminist House)andwomenactiviststhatofferdifferentperspectivesrelatedtowomen ’ s livesparticularlyontheissuesofabortionanddomesticviolence. Analysis Ecuador ’ sinstitutionalizedwomen ’ smovementhasenabledtheexclusionof minoritywomenfromthebenefitsofthemovement ’ ssuccessfulgender policies.ThisexclusionisduetomisperceptionsofIndigenousandAfroEcuadorianwomenandtheirculturesbythepredominantlymestiza women ’ smovementsandorganizations. Asaninstitutionalizedwomen ’ sorganization,thecaseof LasTresManuelas offersinsightintothisdilemma.FundedbythemunicipalityofQuitoand variousNGOs,suchastheCenterforEqualityandJustice, LasTresManuelas focusesontheneedsofwomenandtheirfamiliesintheareasofpsychological, legal,andmedicalservices,aswellastheareaofsocialwork. LasTresManuelas offersservicesforthepreventionofalcoholismanddomesticviolencethrough familyandgroupcounseling,aswellascommunityactivities( Administración ZonaCentro ).Whiletheservicesofferedareopentoallwomenandtheir familiesregardlessofethnicity,themajorityservedaremestiza.Inquiriesasto thenumbersofIndigenouswomenwhohadusedtheseinvaluableservices werelimitedtotenwomeninoneofthesocialworker ’ sfiveyearsofexperience there(M.Torres).Further,bythebeginningof2009,Afro-Ecuadorianwomen hadbarelyusedtheservicesofferedby LasTresManuelas atall. Thesefiguresconflictwiththestatisticsandneedsofethniccommunities — inparticularwithregardtodomesticviolenceinthelivesofIndigenous women.Whenquestionedaboutthelownumbersforthatgroup,thereply wasthatwomenseeksupportfortheseissueswithintheirowncommunities (M.Torres).Thepresumptionbythelargely mestiza women ’ smovementthat IndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomenremainisolatedwithintheircommunitiesbecausetheirneedsaremetwithinthosecommunitiesischallenged byorganizationssuchas CasadelasFeministas andthe ForodeMujeres .These andotherpredominantly mestiza women ’ sorganizationsseektobridgethe dividesbetweenwomenandwomen ’ sorganizationsbyofferingpublicforums andwomen ’ sspacetoincreasecommunicationregardingrelevantandshared 36 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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topicsofgender.Again,thisendeavorbythewomen ’ smovementisinfluenced byinternationaldevelopmentsaswhenCEDAWraisedquestionsastothe statusofIndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomenwithinthe2003CEDAW pressrelease(UnitedNations, “ Ecuador ’ sGenderEquality ” ).Theresulthas beenthere-evaluationanddesignoftheEqualOpportunityPlanby CONAMUandotherinstitutionalizedwomen ’ sorganizationsinorderto “ strengthentheinstitutionalstatusofgenderatthegovernmentallevelin ordertoincreasethechancesofhavinganimpactonthegovernmentagenda andtheNationalBudget ” asameanstoadvancemandatoryrecognitionsof women ’ srights(Vega7).AnotherresultoftheCommittee ’ srecommendations isthatthewomen ’ smovementhasbeguntoincorporateethnicminority womenandtheirclaimswithintheirdiscourse.Thisbroadeningshould increasegenderperspectiveswithingovernmentalpolicies,especiallyonthe issueofviolenceagainstwomen. Conclusion Ourresearchsuggeststhatinadditiontolookingatthediversityofwomen ’ s m ovements,wecangainadeeperunderstandingofthosemovementsby examiningtheiractivismandpresenceatdifferentscalesorlevelsofanalysis. Whenlookingatacountryseparatedbystrongracialandethnicdivisions,we cannotunderstandwomen ’ smovementsinEcuadorwithoutlookingatacrosssectionofEcuador ’ ssocietytoincluderuralandurbanwomen,andIndigenous andAfro-Ecuadorianwomen.Weusedtheterm “ voice ” asawaytoexaminethe presenceandpowerofwomen ’ smovementsatinternational,national,andlocal levels.Wefoundthattherearemarkeddifferencesinwomen ’ svoicesatthese differencelevels.Afro-Ecuadorianwomenhadstrongvoicesandactivismatthe locallevel,whichdidnottranslatetonationalorinternationallevels.Indigenous womenhadstrongvoicesininternationalforums,andtoanextentatthe nationallevel,whichwasnotreflectedinlocalcontext.Mestizawomeninthe capitalwerewellorganized,althoughrecentresearchsuggeststhatwomenin ruralprovinceslagbutarecatchingupintermsofempowerment(Friederic20). Ruralmestizawomenwereconcernedaboutacultureofimpunityforperpetratorsofdomesticandsexualviolence. Culturalnormsarequitepowerfulinshapingbehavior,asourinterviews withIndigenousandAfro-Ecuadorianwomenactivistspointedout.Butin thespiritof “ SoundBytefromBeijing, ” unlesswomenarewillingtostart talkingtooneanother,theyarenevergoingtobeabletochallengecommunityandbroadersocialnorms,includingconceptslikefriendshipthatturned outtobeanimportantfactorconnectedtolocalmobilizationinthe IndigenousandAfro-Ecuadoriancommunitieswestudiedwherewomen hadlessaccesstogovernmentprogramsthanthosewholiveinQuitoor othercities. WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 37

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WomeninEcuadoracrossethniclinesaremobilized,organized,andwant theirdemandstobeheard.Pastdiscrimination,thefearoffuturediscrimination,andrealandperceivedculturalnormskeeptheseorganizationsrelativelyseparatefromoneanother.Whilesomeorganizationslikethe Forode Mujeres areactivelyworkingtobridgegapsamongethniccommunities,most organizationshaveanarrowmembershipfocus.Wearguethatthisservesto weakenimpactsofwomen ’ sactivisminEcuador. Wenotedabovethatourfieldsitesandinterviewswerelimited.Still,wethink thesearemeaningfulinsightsandconclusionsthatspeaktoactivismbeyondour smallinterviewsample.Diversewomen ’ sgroupsfromalloverthecountry attendedthetwo-dayWomen ’ sForum.Theconcerns,successes,andstories conveyedbytheleaderssupportwhatwefoundinourfieldwork.Inaddition,the IndigenouswomenwespoketoinRiobambarepresentedseveraldifferent organizationsandcommunities.Theyspokefromtheirexperiencesbothin theircommunitiesandasleadersintheirorganizations.Futureresearchshould analyzeIndigenouswomenandwomen ’ sorganizationsinotherregionsinorder toseehowgeneralizableourconclusionsare.TheAfro-Ecuadorianwomenwe interviewedtalkedabouttheirownexperiences,andalsoabouttheirworkwith womeninothercommunitiesthroughtheirregionalpartnerorganization.We didnothavearural mestiza groupinourinterviewsandhadtorelyonthe positionstheypresentedatthenationalWomen ’ sForum.Assuch,wethinkour limitedfieldworksuggestsarichresearchagendaforscholarsinterestedin gender,socialmovements,andculture. Workscited Araujo,MaríaCaridad. “ The1990and2001EcuadorPovertyMaps. ” WorldBank .2007, siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPGI/Resources/342674-1092157888460/4938601192739384563/10412-08_p153-176.pdf .Accessed31Jan.2009. Becker,Marc. IndiansandLeftistsintheMakingofEcuador ’ sModernIndigenousMovements . Durham:DukeUP,2008. CenterforStudiesofPopulationandSocialDevelopment(CEPAR)(Ecuador)andDivision ofReproductiveHealth,CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention(CDC). “ Ecuador ReproductiveHealthSurvey2004/EcuadorEncuestaDemográficaydeSaludMaternae Infantil2004(ENDEMAIN). ” CEPAR. GlobalHealthDataExchange .2005, ghdx.health data.org/record/ecuador-reproductive-health-survey-2004 .Accessed22May2014. Cucuri,Cristina.Personalinterview.January2009. Friederic,Karin. “ ViolenceAgainstWomenandtheContradictionsofRights-in-Practicein RuralEcuador. ” LatinAmericanPerspectives vol.41,no.1,2014,pp.19 – 38, lap.sagepub. com/content/41/1/19 .Accessed19May2014. Fretes-Cibils,Vicente,MareloGiugale,andEduardoSomensatto,eds. RevisitingEcuador ’ s EconomicandSocialAgendainanEvolvingLandscape .WorldBank,2008.< openknow ledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/6540 >.Accessed22May2014. Glidden,LisaM. MobilizingEthnicIdentityintheAndes:AStudyofEcuadorandPeru . LexingtonBooks,2011. 38 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO

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Gómez,AnuManchikanti,andIleneS.Speizer. “ IntersectionsbetweenChildhoodAbuseand AdultIntimatePartnerViolenceAmongEcuadorianWomen. ” MaternalandChildHealth Journal ,vol.13,no.4,2009,pp.559 – 66. CINAHLPluswithFullText .Accessed20June2012. Guacho,AnaMaría.Personalinterview.January2009. Harari,Raul,andHomeroHarari. “ Children ’ sEnvironmentandHealthinLatinAmerica: TheEcuadorianCase. ” AnnalsoftheNewYorkAcademyofSciences ,vol.1076,2006,pp. 660 – 77. MEDLINEwithFullText .Accessed20June2012. HealthSystemProfileEcuador:MonitoringandAnalysisoftheChangeandReformProcesses . PanAmericanHealthOrganization,,2008. Hemming,John. TheConquestoftheIncas .HarcourtBrace,1970. Hughes,Jessica. “ Gender,Equity,andIndigenousWomen ’ sHealthintheAmericas. ” Report fortheGenderandHealthUnitwiththeHealthServicesOrganizationUnitofthePanAmericanHealthOrganization , RegionalOfficeoftheWorldHealthOrganization .2004, www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2011/gdr-gender-equity-and-indigenous-women-healthamericas.pdf .Accessed2April2014. Larson,Brooke. TrialsofNationMaking:Liberalism,Race,andEthnicityintheAndes, 1810 – 1910 .CambridgeUP,2004. Lastra,JuanitaMina.Personalinterview.January2009. Lear,John. “ TheLadyPackMuleRebels. ” SaturdayEveningPost 23Dec.1944. Lind,Amy. “ GenderinNeoliberalStates:FeministsRemaketheNationinEcuador. ” Latin AmericanPerspectives ,vol.30,no.1,2003,pp.181 – 207. AcademicOneFile .Accessed 22May2014. ——— . GenderedParadoxes:Women ’ sMovements,StateRestructuring,andGlobal Development .PennsylvaniaUP,2005. MinorityRightsGroupInternational. WorldDirectoryofMinoritiesandIndigenousPeoplesEquador:Overview.UNHCRRefworld .2008, www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4954ce3223. html .Accessed8Feb.2009. Montenegro,Raul,andCarolynStephens. “ IndigenousHealth2:IndigenousHealthinLatin AmericaandtheCaribbean. ” Lancet vol.367,2006,pp.1859 – 69. Morales,Ines.Personalinterview.Jan.2009. Picq,ManuelaLavinas. “ IdentityPoliticsinEcuador:TrappedBetweenGenderand Ethnicity. ” InternationalStudiesAssociation.26 – 29 Mar.2008,HiltonHotel,San Francisco,CA. ——— . “ GenderwithinEthnicity:HumanRightsandIdentityPoliticsinEcuador. ” New VoicesintheStudyofDemocracyinLatinAmerica ,editedbyGuillermoO ’ Donnell, JosephS.Tulchin,andAgustoVaras,withAdamStubits,WoodrowWilsonCenterfor Scholars,2008. “ APortraitofIndigenousWomenoftheAmericas. ” RightsandDemocracy ,Governmentof Canada.2006, http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/E84-16-2006E-2.pdf . Robinson,Lori. “ ANewDayforBlacksinEcuador. ” TheNewCrisis ,vol.109,no.6,2002,pp. 32 – 35. MasterFILEPremier .Accessed20Aug.2008. Roldós,MaríaIsabel,andPhaedraCorso. “ TheEconomicBurdenofIntimatePartner ViolenceinEcuador:SettingtheAgendaforFutureResearchandViolencePrevention Policies. ” TheWesternJournalofEmergencyMedicine ,vol.14,no.4,2013,pp.347 – 53. Seider,Rachel,andMariaTeresaSierra. “ IndigenousWomen ’ sAccesstoJusticeinLatin America. ” CMIWorkingPaper,WP2010:2 .2010, www.peacewomen.org/assets/file/ Resources/NGO/justice_indig_2010.pdf .Accessed8June2015. SweetHoneyIntheRock. “ SoundBytefromBeijing. ” … TWENTY-FIVE … ,Rykodisc,1998. WOMEN ’ SSTUDIES 39

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Tibán,Lourdes,RaúlIlaquiche,andEloyAlfaro,editors. MovimientoIndígenayCampesino deCotopaxi “ MICC ” :CotopaxiMarkamantaRunakunapakJatunKuyurimuy:Historiay ProcesoOrganizativo .DiseñoGráfico,2003. Torres,Monica.Personalinterview.Jan.2009. Torres,RosaMaría. “ IlliteracyandLiteracyEducationinEcuador:OptionsforPolicyand Practice. ” CaseStudyPreparedattheRequestofUNESCOforInclusioninthe 2006 EducationforAllGlobalMonitoringReport .FronesisInstitute.2006, portal.unesco.org/ education/es/files/ … options … /Torres_Real_options.doc . UNCommitteeontheEliminationofDiscriminationAgainstWomen(CEDAW). “ ConsiderationofReportsSubmittedbyStatesPartiesunderarticle18ofthe ConventionontheEliminationofAllFormsofDiscriminationagainstWomen: CombinedFourthandFifthPeriodicReportsofStatesParties:Ecuador, ” CEDAW/C/ ECU/4-5.2002, http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Countries.aspx? CountryCode=ECU&Lang=EN . UnitedNations. “ Ecuador ’ sGenderEqualityMechanismsNeedRealPowertoAchieve PositiveResults,SayExpertsinWomen ’ sAnti-DiscriminationCommittee. ” United Nations.11July2003, http://www.un.org/press/en/2003/wom1411.doc.htm . ——— . “ PlatformforAction:MissionStatement. ” DivisionfortheAdvancementofWomen, DepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs .1995, www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/ platform/plat1.htm#statement . Vega,CeciliaValdivieso. QuestionnairetoGovernmentsonImplementationoftheBeijing PlatformforAction(1995)andtheOutcomeoftheTwenty-ThirdSpecialSessionofthe GeneralAssembly(2000) .CONAMU,2004. Wilmer,Franke. TheIndigenousVoiceinWorldPolitics .Sage,1993. Witt,Paulina,andUNDP-SpainMDGAchievementFund. MDGF-1781 : Developmentand CulturalDiversitytoReducePovertyandPromoteSocialInclusion .2007, sdnhq.undp.org/ opas/en/proposals/suitable/284 .Accessed31Jan.2009. WorldBank. “ IndigenousPeoples,Poverty,andHumanDevelopmentinLatinAmerica19942004:EcuadorHighlights. ” WorldBank .2005, web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ COUNTRIES/LACEXT/0,contentMDK:20505836~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~ theSitePK:258554~isCURL:Y,00.html .Accessed13July2012. ——— . IndigenousLatinAmericaintheTwenty-FirstCentury .WorldBank.2015.License: CreativeCommonsAttributionCCBY3.0IGO. TheWorldFactbook. “ CountryPages-Ecuador. ” CentralIntelligenceAgency .2008, www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook . Zamosc, Leon. “ AgrarianProtestandtheIndianMovementintheEcuadorianHighland. ” ContemporaryIndigenousMovementsinLatinAmerica ,editedbyErickD.Langer,with ElenaMunoz,ScholarlyResources,Inc.,2003,pp.36 – 68. 40 L.M.GLIDDENANDM.SHAFFER-CUTILLO