Citation
Anthropology Capstone Projects II

Material Information

Title:
Anthropology Capstone Projects II
Series Title:
Quest
Creator:
SUNY Oswego
Ossa, Alanna ( Speaker )
Meigel, Matthew ( Speaker )
Mintz, Alexander ( Speaker )
Neratko, Ashley Palmer ( Speaker )
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2021

Notes

Scope and Content:
These represent the original research projects undertaken by Anthropology Seniors for their CAPSTONE experience.
Abstract:
Matthew Meigel. Title: The Effects of Social Media on the Formation of Self Insulating Communities. Abstract: In this study I evaluate the role that the use of technology via new social media impact the formation of radical groups like Qanon. In tracing how previous cult conspiracies gained political power in the United States during the 19th century, such as the “Know Nothing Movement”, and the Anti-Masonic party, I discuss how changes in anonymity and availability from this century have sped up the formation of the Qanon cult. In collecting information about how previous conspiracy cults gained political organizational and infrastructural power, I examine how media venues like reddit, and later, Facebook help create self-insulating peer groups that magnify the impacts of conspiracy theories. I argue that a better understanding of community formation in these venues can provide guidelines on what kind of measures can be taken in moderation to reduce harmful impacts.
Abstract:
Alexander Mintz. Title: Examining Digital Inequalities. Abstract: In this study I hope to evaluate the ways which age range impacts one's goals in utilizing the digital. I will compile data from notable sources looking at people’s usage of different media sources and studying which age groups consume what media sources the most. One's consumption can be indicative of what they consider most important or valuable. Digital media sources are so accessible and prominent in modern society that this data will contain impactful information.
Abstract:
Ashley Palmer Neratko. Title: The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools. Abstract: Indian Boarding Schools were implemented in the late 1800s as a means of assimilating Native Americans into the dominant culture. Attendance was often forced by the government, or was sometimes voluntary due to inadequate living conditions on reservations. Instead of receiving an education, children were treated poorly and over worked by military style training. This had an effect on their physical and health and through intergenerational trauma, which still affects Native Americans’ physical and mental health today. Data will include tables, graphs, and maps. Utilizing article sources, I will explain how and why boarding schools were created and what life was like for a Native American who attended one. I will use health records to show how Native American health was affected by attending a boarding school. I will examine past and current Native American health issues and expect to find higher rates of alcoholism, diabetes, and death compared to the general population. In conclusion, I expect to show that Native Americans are still suffering from the traumas of Indian Boarding Schools and the impacts on quality of education, loss of language and culture, rates of poverty, and rates of physical and mental health. It is of the utmost importance to listen to attendees and their families’ stories so they are recognized by the general public and the actions are not repeated.
Summary:
Session Chair: Alanna Ossa
Acquisition:
Collected for SUNY Oswego Institutional Repository by the online self-submittal tool. Submitted by Zach Vickery.

Record Information

Source Institution:
SUNY Oswego Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
SUNY Oswego
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

OswegoDL Membership

Aggregations:
Quest
Added automatically

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Cultural Genocide and Intergenerational Trauma Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu

PAGE 2

The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools What Were Indian Boarding Schools? Were they educating children or kidnapping them? • Boarding schools were implemented in the late 1800's by the United States government and religious missionaries as an attempt of Native American cultural genocide. • Boarding schools were thought to be cheaper than wars or treaties with Native Americans. Schools were paid on a per capita basis by the government. • Children were kidnapped or stolen and forced to attend boarding schools. • Instead of being educated, children were treated like slaves. They were raised in a militarylike atmosphere and worked many long hours per day. • Children were forced to pray every day to a religion they didn't know or understand and were forbidden to express their own beliefs. Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 2

PAGE 3

The typical student dormitory sleeping quarters in boarding schools. Students sometimes slept 3-4 children per bed. The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 3

PAGE 4

Doctored photos of students "before" and "after" entering Carlisle Indian School. https://historydaily.org/american-indians-before-and-after-carlisle The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 4

PAGE 5

Students assembled at Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. www.home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 5

PAGE 6

Carlisle Indian School cemetery. https://carlisleindianschoolproject.com The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Boarding schools were very overcrowded. This led to a rampant spread of diseases, such as tuberculosis. Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 6

PAGE 7

"A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man" Richard Henry Pratt, founder of Carlisle Indian School. The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 7

PAGE 8

"Mama was made to kneel on a broomstick for not speaking English, locked in closets for not speaking English. They would pee their pants and then the nuns would take them out [of the closet] and beat them for peeing their pants." "Papa was beaten with a belt. He saw one of his fellow students die from a beating at the school." "Papa said, ÔI just couldn't learn that language.' So they put lye soap in his mouth and the kids would get blisters." Denise Lajimodiere The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 8

PAGE 9

What is Intergenerational Trauma? The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools • Intergenerational trauma is a legacy of unresolved grief that is passed down from generation to generation. • One can inherit trauma from one's parents, or even grandparents. • It is also a process by which genes are switched on and off. These epigenetic changes are inherited by later generations. • It creates poor physical and mental health. • It is the systematic destruction of the language, traditions, and values that make one group distinct from another. Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 9 What is cultural genocide?

PAGE 10

Intergenerational trauma is very prevalent in Native American communities. They have dealt with unbelievable atrocities. This includes the long history of colonialism, wars with American colonies, the loss of land, being forced to live on reservations, and children being abducted to live and work in boarding schools. The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 10

PAGE 11

The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Through politics, religions, and propaganda Americans were reinforced that boarding schools would rapidly "civilize" Native Americans, and they would no longer be a threat or menace to the country. Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 11

PAGE 12

The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools "The tuberculosis rates spoke for themselves. The Indian rate per 100,000 was 46.9, among African Americans it was 33.9, and for Anglos it was 12.1" Dejong, David H. "Unless They Are Kept Alive" Federal Indian Schools and Student Health, 1878-1918 Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 12

PAGE 13

Tuberculosis morbidity at Haskell Institute, a Native American Youth Boarding School 1910Ð1940: The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Source: Tuberculosis Death and Survival among Southern California Indians, 1922Ð44 Clifford E Trafzer https://doi.org/10.3138/cbmh.18.1.85 Published Online: December 13, 2016 Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 13 Kansas Morbidity Rate Haskell Morbidity Rate

PAGE 14

The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Current State of Native American Health • Native Americans are dying in their 30's and 40's. • Over 80% of Native American adults are overweight or obese. Among American adults, 2/3 are overweight. • 50% of Native American children are overweight. • 30% of Native American adults have pre-diabetes compared to 27% of American adults. • In 2013, 8.8% of homes on reservations were overcrowded, compared to only 3% in the rest of the country. • The tuberculosis infection rate was four times higher than the general population in the early 1900's. Currently, the infection rate is eight times higher than the general population. Physical Health Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 14

PAGE 15

Current State of Native American Health • Native American's have the highest rates of mental health disorders in the United States. • Former boarding school attendees have higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse. • Those who were raised by boarding school attendees are signi! icantly more likely to have general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts. • A 2014 White House report stated that there is a state of emergency regarding Native youth post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide rates three times the rate of the general public, and the same as Iraqi war veterans. Mental Health The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 15

PAGE 16

Current State of Native American Health • Suicide is the second leading cause of death-2.5 times the National rate-for Native youth in the 15-24 age group. • Much higher rates of frequent mental distress (14%) compared to the general population (8%). Rates of depression are 10-30% and post-traumatic stress disorder are 22% compared to adults in general (8%). • Five times more likely to die of alcohol-related causes. • The highest rate of illicit drug use (18%) and the highest rate of substance abuse (11.1%). The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 16 Mental Health

PAGE 17

Current State of Native American Education The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools • In 2009, it was reported that the average public school graduation rate is 78% for all students, 83% for white students, and only 69% for Native American students. • There are 48,000 students attending tribal schools, where graduation rates are only 53%. • Only 13% of Native American students ! inish college compared to 28% of the entire student population. • In Oregon, 33% of Native American children missed at least 10% of the school days in 2015-2016. Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu 17

PAGE 18

I would like to give thanks to my grandfather, who was an Indigenous Puerto Rican and a migrant to the United States in the mid 1900's. He taught me the value of culture with his retainment of Spanish language, music, and food. I would also like to give thanks to The National Boarding School Healing Coalition for their amazing amount of advocacy. They can be found at www.boardingschoolhealing.org The Truths of American Indian Boarding Schools Ashley Palmer Neratko SUNY Oswego Spring 2021 apalmer2@oswego.edu Thank you! 18