Citation
Psychology Part II

Material Information

Title:
Psychology Part II
Creator:
SUNY Oswego
Schaeffer, Elizabeth ( Speaker )
Roberts, Kelsey ( Speaker )
Herr, Maya ( Speaker )
Mejia, Caesar ( Speaker )
Mohamed, Maysarah ( Speaker )
Tenbergen, Gilian ( Speaker )
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2021

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Subjects / Keywords:
Quest 2021
Psychology

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Abstract:
Is There a Relationship Between Digit Ratio and Sexual Excitation and Sexual Inhibition? An Empirical Investigation by Elizabeth Schaeffer. The current study investigated whether digit ratio scores predict performance on the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales. The hypothesis was that 1) there is a negative correlation between the participants’ digit ratio scores and scores on the SIS/SES, and 2) digit ratio measurements predict scores on the SIS/SES. The participants (N=40) were SUNY Oswego students and members of the Oswego, NY community. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire that asked about weight, height, and current medications and provided hair, nail, saliva, and blood samples for use in peripheral testosterone measurement. To measure digit ratio, participants’ hands were marked at the lowest joint crease and scanned using a Canon flatbed document scanner. Digit ratio was calculated by measuring the length of the index finger and dividing it by the length of the ring finger to the nearest millimeter. The last step of the study was to have the participants complete the SIS/SES questionnaire. This within subjects design used both Pearson’s Correlations and a linear regression analysis. Data analysis is currently ongoing. ( ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, )
Abstract:
Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray Area (PAG) and Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) in Association to Threat Bias in Anxiety Disorders by Kelsey Roberts. The periaqueductal grey area (PAG) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are highly involved in processing pain and fear. This study evaluated the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the PAG and LH in healthy controls (HC) and patients with anxiety related disorders (PAD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral data were obtained from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample. Participants completed a 5-minute resting fMRI scan and a dot-probe task outside the scanner. The dot-probe task consisted of two faces (threatening or neutral) appearing on a screen, one of which would be replaced by a dot that required a button press. Threat bias was computed as the difference in reaction time (RT) between the dot replacing the neutral faces and the threatening faces (i.e., RT in neutral – RT in threat). Positive threat bias reflects faster response for threatening faces that might indicate severe pain and anxiety. The rsFC of the whole brain connectivity showed no differences of the PAG or LH rsFC between both HC and PAD. Regression analysis showed negative correlations between the left PAGputamen rsFC and Threat Bias, and the right LH-inferior frontal gyrus rsFC and Threat Bias in PAD but not in HC. Regression analysis also showed a positive correlation between the right LH-posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex rsFC and Threat Bias in PAD but not HC. These connectivities may serve as an important neural indicator of anxiety disorders.
Abstract:
Joint Decision Making in the Monty Hall Dilemma by Maya Herr. The Monty Hall Dilemma is one that many people may have seen, but they are often not aware of the probabilities behind it. The MHD involves a simple task where participants choose a door, have all but one other door revealed, and then are offered the option to choose either their initial choice or the remaining door. The most effective strategy is to always switch doors, but participants often fail to switch, even arguing that staying is the superior strategy. Our experiment consists of two people, each making one decision out of the two (initial door pick, second door pick after one is taken away). This is to study the effect of an additional presence and joint decision making in the MHD. We hoped that both bias and teamwork might allow participants to better understand the strategy behind the Monty Hall Dilemma and provide insight into the underlying mechanism of their beliefs.
Abstract:
Delayed Response Time and Prize Value in the Monty Hall Dilemma by Caesar Mejia. The Monty Hall dilemma is a probability puzzle, depending on a participant’s understanding and practical application of Bayesian inferential statistics. Though inferential statistics are a basic technique utilized by people on a regular basis with little to no conscious effort, Monty Hall Dilemma continually exposes errors and biases found in the cognitive process of decision-making. The current study aims to address these errors by manipulating the conditions that researchers believe give rise to these defects in the decision-making process. We hypothesized that by extending the duration of time for a response and exploiting the values of the “prize” factor through various stages of the experiment will affect strategy adoption in the Monty Hall Dilemma.
Abstract:
Exploring Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Mental Health Using Free Recall by Maysarah Mohamed. The topics of mental illness and mental health are core areas of psychology, relevant to people from all age groups. Mental health influences how people feel, think, speak, and how they handle challenges in their lives. In our study, we are most interested in examining the connection between mental illness and trauma among different cultures by examining linguistic patterns. It has been established that language impacts the way people view different aspects about the world they live in. People who speak different languages have different perspectives, and their language influences their thought process. To explore the effects of language on mental health and trauma, we used a method known as free recall, where participants are given a category and attempt to recall as many words as possible from that category in a limited amount of time. Arabic and English speaking participants were invited to participate using categories of mental illness and trauma.
Summary:
Session II Chair: Gilian Tenbergen
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Collected for SUNY Oswego Institutional Repository by the online self-submittal tool. Submitted by Zach Vickery.

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SUNY Oswego
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Introduction Results Methods Investigation of The Role of KrsB in Rap1 Mediated Adhesion of Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum is a soil dwelling amoeba. D . discoideum is a good model organism for cell migration studies because its movement is like other amoeboid cells, such as neutrophils and metastatic cancer cells. Cell adhesion to substrate is an essential component of migration, yet little is known about its mechanisms in D . discoideum. Rap1 is a small GTPase. Its expression has been previously shown to increase cell adhesion, possibly by regulating Talin and Myosin II. 1,2 Kinase responsive to stress B ( KrsB ) is a negative regulator of cell adhesion, so activation of KrsB leads to decreased cell adhesion. This could be because it is negatively regulating Rap1. Previous studies have shown that expression of KrsB is not required for Rap1 to function, as its absence does not appear to change effect of Rap1 on adhesion. Research Question and Hypothesis Methods Results Discussion and Conclusions Kelsey Roberts and Dr. Yulia Artemenko Question: Does the expression of KrsB in D. discoideum reduce cell adhesion by negatively regulating Rap1? Hypothesis: KrsB is a negative regulator of Rap1. If this hypothesis is true, the overexpression of KrsB should reduce the ability of Rap1 to increase spreading. Quantification: Cell velocity was measured using Tracking tool pro. Area, perimeter, and GFP brightness were measured using FIJI (Image J). For KrsB induced cells, only cells with high KrsB expression (measured by GFP brightness values) were quantified. Statistical Analysis: A one way ANOVA was conducted to test for a relationship between KrsB expression/ mutant type and cell velocity, area and perimeter. Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Oswego I would like to thank Dr. Yulia Artemenko for the opportunity to conduct this study. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Research in Undergraduate Institutions (NSF RUI) grant no. 1817378 (to Y.A.). References Results of the random migration show that KrsB expression in KrsB null cells with or without constitutively active Rap1 improves migration. Interestingly, this is not accompanied by changes in cell spreading. Since Rap1 G12V did not show the expected increase in spreading, we tested the imaging conditions using Wild Type cells to see if there was a difference in spreading when cells are imaged in buffer. There was no difference in cell spreading found between imaging conditions. Set Backs and Future Directions: Rap1 expression was not considered during quantification, meaning that some of the cells that were measured may have lacked Rap1. Rap1 expression will be looked at, and only cells with Rap1 will be measured Transformed Rap1 G12V cells tended to lose KrsB expression as they aged, at a much faster rate compared to the other cell lines. More recent zaps will be used in future experiments No significant differences in cell spreading (measured by average area) were found between cell lines. Image of D . discoideum cells in brightfield view Random migration and cell spreading was imaged at 400X magnification on an LSM700 Zeiss confocal microscope. Three different positions were imaged per well in brightfield. Images were acquired every 15 sec for 45 frames. Images from the last frame were used in measuring cell spreading. After random migration, GFP and RFP images were taken for each ending position using epifluorescence. Brightfield images were acquired every 15 sec for 10 min and quantified to determine velocity. The last frame, which was used to quantify cell spreading, is shown. RFP and GFP images were captured for each position immediately after the last frame. One representative field is shown for each cell line. Acknowledgements Testing expression of RFP Rap1 G12V or RFP alone (vector) and KrsB GFP following doxycycline induction in KrsB null cells HL 5 24hrs No significant difference was found between cell spreading in cells imaged in either buffer or HL 5 media. Throughout the experiment we had frequent problems with contamination, leading to a smaller sample size. Future experiments will ensure a more sterile environment when handling cells. 1 Artemenko et al. Assessment of development and chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum mutants. Methods Mol Biol . 2011;769:287 309. doi:10.1007/978 1 61779 207 6_20 2 Artemenko Y, Devreotes PN. Assessment of Dictyostelium discoideum Response to Acute Mechanical Stimulation. J Vis Exp . 2017;(129):56411. Published 2017 Nov 9. doi:10.3791/56411 Data shown as mean +/ SD n =183 n =186 n= 180 Data shown as mean +/ SD; ***P<0.0001