Rice Creek Field Station Bulletin No. 2: The Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station

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Rice Creek Field Station Bulletin No. 2: The Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station
Series Title:
Rice Creek Research
Hickey, John ( author )
Maxwell, George ( author )
Shearer, Robert ( author )
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Subjects / Keywords:
Rice Creek Field Station


This issue of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin is devoted to a study of the flora of Rice Creek Biological Field Station, completed by John Hickey, a graduate student at State University College, Oswego, in 1970-71. This study, the result of Mr. Hickey's master's thesis research, was under the direction of Professor Norman Gillette of this college's Biology Department. The herbarium here at the biological station contains a reference collection of the flora of Oswego County. The collection is, in the main, the result of Mr. Hickey's research, although additions to the collection have been made by others, including Professor Mildred Faust of Syracuse, New York, and Professor Phil Walker of Plattsburgh, New York. Those interested in utilizing the collection are welcome to do so.--George Maxwell, Director of Rice Creek Field Station
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Contains John T. Hickey's Master's Thesis from SUNY Oswego, "The Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station."
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Submitted by Shannon Pritting ( on 2011-07-06.
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Made available in DSpace on 2011-07-06T20:35:20Z (GMT).
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State University of New York at Oswego

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SUNY Oswego
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SUNY Oswego
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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-J ----/,. .;. 1', -i-J :.. \. ., )1 .J, J CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION .'j BULLETIN /,. ... Vol.1 No. 2 J Fall 1974 j ." I)/\J'L' /:-' t :./-,t t c' L-r 'OJ, ... I..:t' J j j J j ] Rice J ] - j Editor Robert I. Shearer Creek Biological Field Station State University College Oswego, New York 13126 I I 323727 --:------_ ...... I


] ] PREFACE ] This issue of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin is devoted to a stuqy of the flora of Rice Creek Biological Field Station,] completed by John Hickey, a graduate student at State University College, ] Oswego, in 1970-71. This stuqy, the result of Mr. Hickey's master's thesis research, was under the direction of Professor Norman Gillette ] of this college's Biology Department. The herbarium here at the biological station contains a reference ] J collection of the flora of Oswego County. The collection is, in the main, the result of Mr. Hickey's research, although additions to the collection have been made by others, including Professor Mildred Faust ] of Syracuse, New York, and Professor Phil Walker of Plattsburgh, New York. Those interested in utilizing the collection are welcome to do ] J so. Comments concerning this issue are welcome and should be addressed to Robert I. Shearer, Assistant Director, Rice Creek Biological Field ] Station, State University College, Oswego, New York 13126. George R. Maxwell II J Professor of Zoology and Director, Rice Creek Biological Field Station State University College] Oswego, New York 13126 ] ] ] J as


TABLE OF CONTENTS I Preface-G. R.Maxwell. . 1 Editor's Comments -R.I. Shearer 3 The Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station -John T. Hickey 4 J Abstract.. 5 Acknowledgement.. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . ....... 6 ] ] Introduction. 7 Map of Rice Creek Biological Field Station. Figure 1 Part I -Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station. ]9 Part II -A Key to the Vascular Plants of the ] Rice Creek Biological Field Station. 29 Part III The Vegetation TYpes of the Rice Creek] ] Biological Field Station. 59 Discussion.. 70 SlJIIlma:r-y- . 73 ] Literature Cited 74 ] ] J J ] ]i t K' i


] EDITOR'S COMMENTS ] ] For some time students at the Rice Creek Biological Field Station have often reffered to "The Flora of the Vascular Plants of the Rice Creek J ] Biological Field Station" by John T. Hickey to identify plant specimens. The key included in the paper and reference collection at the biological ] station have proved to be excellent tools in teaching the use of dichotomous keys and plant taxonomy. It was felt that Mr. Hickey's study should J be a separate issue of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station Bulletin so that others also might appreciate its usefulness. I wish to extend sincere appreciation to John for allowing us to 1 reproduce his work. He has asked that all rights to his work be reserved and the text of this pUblication, or any part thereof, not be reproduced1 in any manner whatsoever without his written permission. Mr. is 1 at present a Biologist with the U.S. Fish &Wildlife Service in Cortland, New York. 1 I am also extremely grateful to Carol Wernick, Laboratory Assistant, for her tremendous effort put forth in technical assistance and typing of1 the manuscript. 1 1 1 l l J


l l l 1 1 THE FLORA OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE RICE CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION 1 -j 1 1 1 1 by John T. Hickey June, 1971 1 1 l l l l l


ABSTRACT The flora of the vascular plants of the Rice Creek Biological Field Station was compiled. A specimen of each species present was collected and is preserved and on file in the herbarium of the Field Station. A key to the genera of vascular plants was constructed. A description was made of the vegetation types. The flora was compared with other floras and found to be of the Beech-Maple forest association of the eastern deciduous forest. -... d iiiI a& -I t 1..


.. IJ ] ] ACKNOWLEDGMENT ] I would like to express my appreciation and thanks to the many people who have helped me complete this study. Special thanks go to] ] my mother and father for their understanding and sacrifice involved in enabling me to attend graduate school. I would also like to thank Mr. and Mrs. James O'Connor for their friendship and hospitality and ] especially Pat for her patient and professional typing; Dr. George R. Maxwell for his support, assistance and advice on many occasions;] ] Dr. Ernest G. Wise for his concern and encouragement; Dr. Donald D. Cox for initially advising me in undertaking this study; Dr. Mildred E. Faust for her help in identifYing and checking specimens and for ] the inspiration I have received from having the privilege and pleasure of working with her; and Dr. Norman J. Gillette, my advisor, for his ] 1 never-failing help and assistance, his many hours of work with me on the study, and the immense contribution to my knowledge of botany I have gained from him. ] ] ] ] ] ] ] j'


INTRODUCTION ,I';" .t"7' The Rice Creek Biological Field Station of the State University of New York College at Oswego is a teaching and research facility located about two miles south of the main campus of the college in Oswego County, New York. The property of the Field Station and adjacent college-owned property totaling approximately 400 acres was the area from which the flora was compiled (See Figure 1). A flora is an inventory of the plants of an area. Such a listing has many uses. A flora provides historic documentation of the conditions prevailing in the area at the time the inventory is made. A collection, if made, may be used as an aid in identifying other specimens; is a first step in the study of the vegetation of an area, and as such encourages future research. The flora of the Field Station was compiled during 1970. Standard plant collecting techniques were followed in collecting, pressing and mounting specimens. 587 specimens were collected. With the exception of of the woody plants, most specimens were in flower at the time of collection. A total of 344 species from 75 families was listed. Many of the identifications were verified by Dr. Mildred E. Faust. One specimen of each species in the flora is on file in the herbarium of the Field Station. Scientific nomenclature and the order of families listed are from Gray's Manual2! Botany, 8th edition (Fernald, 1950). Common names are from Gray's Manual of Botany and Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Onondaga County, New York (Faust, 1961). The ---r--tf:;;1 -;'x:.' cia 31--:--!J L] .i


J capital letters following the common names refer to the tracts of the Field Station where the plants were collected (See Figure 1). j The northern boundary of the area covered is marked by an old wire fence with now fallen wooden posts. This fence is difficult to] follow along the northern boundary of Tract B. North of Tract A is ] an open field now being invaded by shrubs and trees and planted with pines. To the north and west of Tract J are woods. The west ] boundary of the Station is easily followed by a wire fence and Cemetery Road. South of Tract S is a hedgerow which extends along the west ] boundary of Tract R. South of Tract R is a wooded area. South of Tract ] E is an orchard. East of Tracts I, 0, P and Q is a field. East of Tract N is a wooded area. North of Tract H and East of Tract M is J an orchard. The eastern boundary of Tract M extends north as a stone wall along the east boundary of Tract B until it intersects ] the wire fence marking the northern boundary of Tract B. 1 ] 1 J ] ] ] ] ]


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] FLORA OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE RICE CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION ] EQUISETACEAE (HORSETAIL FAMILY)] Equisetum arvense L. COMMON HORSETAIL. K, near stream; along Rice Pond; E, along stream; M. ] POLYPODIACEAE (FERN FAMILY)] ] Athyrium Filix-femina (L.) Roth. LADY FERN. C,A,E. Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt. SPINULOSE WOOD-FERN. D. Dryopteris ThelyPteris (L.) Gray. MARSH FERN. E, along stream. ] Onoclea sensiblis L. SENSITIVE FERN. D, along stream. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. CHRISTMAS FERN. A.] pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. COMMON BRAKE. S, west edge along trail. ] PINACEAE (PINE FAMILY) ] Abies balsamea (L.) Mill-BALSAM FIR. F. Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch. TAMARACK. F. ] Picea Abies (L.) Karst. NORWAY SPRUCE. F, G. Picea rubens Sarg. RED SPRUCE. In woods northwest of bridge over Rice] Creek, south of station. Pinus resinosa Ait. RED PINE. F.J Pinus L. WHITE PINE. F. .. Pinus sylvestris L. SCOTCH PINE. P.] Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. CANADA HEMLOCK. In woods northwest of bridge. ] TYPHACEAE (CATTAIL FAMILY)] ] TYpha angustifolia L. NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL. Margin of Rice Pond. Typha latifolia L. BROAD-LEAVED CATTAIL. Margin of Rice Pond. ]


1 Sparganium eUrycarpum Engelm. GIANT BUR-REED. West margin of Rice Pond. 1 1 ZOSTERACEAE (PONDWEED FAMILY) Potamogeton crispus L. CURLY PONDWEED. In northwest corner of Rice Pond. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. NUTTALL'S PONDWEED. K, in stream. 1 Potamogeton foliosus Raf. LEAFY PONDWEED. Rice Pond. Potamogeton illinoensis Morong. ILLINOIS PONDWEED. E, in stream. l l ALISMATACEAE (WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY) Alisma triviale Pursh. COMMON WATER-PLANTAIN. K, near stream; Rice Pond margin.l Sagittaria latifolia Willd. ARROWHEAD. E, along stream and in swampy area. l HYDROCHARITACEAE (FROG'S BIT FAMILY) l Elodea canadensis Michx. WATERWEED. Rice Pond. l l GRAMINEAE (GRASS FAMILY) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. QUICK-GRASS. M. Agrostis alba L. REDTOP. In field near station. l Agrostis alba L. var. palustris (Huds.) Pers. CREEPING BENT. H, in l field near station. Anthoxanthum odoratum L. SWEET VERNAL GRASS. Roadside, A, C, J, K, field l near station. Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Mert. &Koch. TALL OAT-GRASS. l Bromus inermis Leyss. SMOOTH BROME. S, Pond margin. Cinna arundinacea L. STOUT WOODREED. E, Near stream. Dactylis glomerata L. ORCHARD GRASS. Roadside. l Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. POVERTY GRASS. Roadside. 1 Digitaria Ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. SMOOTH CRABGRASS. Station lawn. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. BARNYARD GRASS. Pond margin near station. ] I /


r-1 ,.. ".t-f 1'1 Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv. LOW LOVEGRASS. Station lawn. Glyceria grandis S. Wats. REED-MEADOW GRASS. E, along stream. Glyceria melicaria (Michx.) F.T. Hubbard. SLENDER-MANNA GRASS. A. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. FOWL-MEADOW GRASS. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. RICE CUTGRASS. Margin of Pond. Leersia virginica Willd. WHITEGRASS. Roadside. Lolium perenne L. PERENNIAL RYE GRASS. Roadside. Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.) Fern. WIRESTEM. Panicum capillare L. COMMON WITCHGRASS. Near station. Panicum Gattingeri Nash. TUFTED WITCHGRASS. Roadside. Phalaris arwldinacea L. REED CANARYGRASS. Roadside. Phleum pratense L. COMMON TIMOTHY. M, Roadside. Poa alsodes Gray. GROVE MEADOWGRASS. M,K, Margin of Pond. Poa annua L. LOW SPEARGRASS. Station lawn. Poa pratensis L. KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS. B, south edge; L; Near Pond. Poa saltuensis Fern. &Wieg. Near Pond. Poa trivialis L. ROUGH MEADOWGRASS. S, near stream. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. FOXTAIL. Near station. CYPERACEAE (SEDGE FAMILY) Carex convoluta Mackenz. A, B. crinita Lam. Near station. Carex laxiflora Lam. E, A. Carex lupulina Muhl. Roadside, Margin of Pond. Carex lurida Wahlenb. C, North edge. Carex pedunculata Muhl. A. Carex pensylvanica Lam. H, near small pond. Carex retrorsa Schwein. Margin of Pond. Carex scoparia Schkuhr. H; K, in field and near stream.


stipata Muhl. L, wet area; K, wet area. Carex vulpinoidea Michx. S, near Pond; Margin of Pond near station; K;J Roadside. ] Cyperus strigosus L. STRAWCOLORED GALINGALE. E, along stream; H, west edge. Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. THREE-WAY SEDGE. Margin of Pond. ] Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. &S. NEEDLE SPIKE-RUSH. E, in mud along stream. ] Eleocharis calva Torr. SLENDER SPIKE-RUSH. Rice Pond. Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schultes. BLUNT SPIKE-RUSH. Roadside. ] Scirpus atrovirens Willd. DARK GREEN BULRUSH. Roadside. J Scirpus expansus Scirpus lineatus Fern. WOOD BULRUSH. Margin of Pond. Michx. REDDISH BULRUSH. K, wet area. ] Scirpus validus Vahle SOFT BULRUSH. Margin of Pond. ] Acorus Calamus L. ] J Arisaema triphyllum Peltandra virginica ] ARACEAE (ARUM FAMILY) SWEET FLAG. E, in stream. (L.) Schott. JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT. A. (L.) Schott & End!. GREEN WATER ARUM. E, near stream; D, near pond. LEMNACEAE (DUCKWEED FAMILY) ] Lemna minor L. COMMON DUCKWEED. Rice Pond. Lerona trisulca L. STAR DUCKWEED. M, in small pond. ] Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. BIG DUCKWEED. Rice Pond. ] ] PONTEDERIACEAE (PICKERELWEED FAMILY) Pontederia cordata L. PICKERELWEED. Margin of Pond; K, in stream. ] JUNCACEAE (RUSH FAMILY) Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. NARROW-PANICLED RUSH. E, wet area.] Juncus bufonius L. TOAD RUSH. Roadside. ]


Polygonum punctatum Ell. DOTTED SMARTWEED. Margin of Pond. Polygonum sagittatum L. ARROW-LEAVED TEARTHUMB. E, near stream. Rumex Acetosella L. SHEEP SORREL. Near station; K, near stream. Rumex crispus L. CURLY DOCK. N. Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf. JUMP SEED. E, along stream. CHENOPODIACEAE (GOOSEFOOT FAMILY) Chenopodium album L. LAMB'S-QUARTERS. B. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. MEXICAN TEA. Near Pond at station. PHYTOLACCACEAE (POKEWEED FAMILY) Phytolacca americana L. POKEWEED. Roadside. CARYOPHYLLACEAE (PINK FAMILY) Cerastium arvense L. FIELD CHICKWEED. L. Cerastium vulgatum L. COMMON MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED. Station lawn. Dianthus Armeria L. DEPTvORD PINK. K, near stream. Lychnis alba Mill. WHITE CAMPION. N, near station, Roadside. Saponaria officinalis L. SOAPWORT. Roadside. Silene cucubalus Wibel. BLADDER CAMPION. In field near station. Stellaria graminea L. COMMON STITCHWORT. G. Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo. CHICKWEED. Station lawn. CERATOPHYLLACEAE (HORNWORT FAMILY) Ceratophyllum demersum L. HORNWORT. Rice Pond. RANUNCULACEAE (CROWFOOT FAMILY) Actaea pachypoda Ell. OOLL' S-EYES. A. Anemone canadensis L. CANADA ANEMONE. H, west edge. Caltha palustris L. MARSH-MARIGOLD. K, near stream. .---_._--"->


Clematis virginiana L. VIRGIN'S BOWER. Roadside. 1 J Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. GOLD THREAD. Woods northwest of bridge. Hepatica acutiloba DC. SHARP-LOBE HEPATICA. A. Ranunculus abortivus L. KIDNEY-LEAF CROWFOOT. E, near stream. 1 Ranunculus acris. L. TALL FIELD BUTTERCUP. H, Roadside, J, L, S. Ranunculus scleratus L. CELERY-LEAVED BUTTERCUP. D. 1 Thalictrum polyganum Muhl. TALL MEADOWRUE. D. l BERBERIDACEAE (BARBERRY FAMILY) l Berberis Thunbergii DC. JAPANESE BARBERRY. B. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. BLUE COHOSH. A. l Podophyllum peltatum L. MAY-APPLE. D. l PAPAVERACEAE (POppy FAMILY) l Chelidonium majus L. CELANDINE. Near bridge. l Dicentra Cucullaria (L.) Bernh. DUTCHMAN'S-BREECHES. L, in hedgerow of southeast corner. l CRUCIFERAE (MUSTARD FAMILY) Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. WINTER CRESS. In field near station. 1 1 Berteroa incana (L.) DC. HOARY ALYSSUM. Station lawn. Brassica Kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler. CHARLOCK. E, near, stream. Capsella Bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Station lawn. 1 Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.) BSP. 3PRING CRESS. K, near stream. Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. PENNSYLVANIA BITTER CRESS. Near Pond. lI Dentaria diphylla Michx. TWO-LEAVED TOOTHWORT. A. Dentaria laciniata Muhl. PEPPERWORT. A.l l Hesperis matronalis L. DAME'S ROCKET. M, near metal bridge. Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. DOWNY PEPPERGRASS. In field near station. Rorippa islandica (Oeder.) Borbas. MARSH YELLOW CRESS. Near Pond. ] .,.'",-.


.1 ( CRASSULACEAE (ORPINE FAMILY) Sedum Telephium L. LIVE FOREVER. S. SAXIFRAGACEAE (SAXIFRAGE FAMILY) Penthorum sedoides L. DITCH STONECROP. Roadside. Ribes cynosbati L. PRICKLY GOOSEBERRY. A, Roadside. Tiarella cordifolia L. FOAM FLOWER. A. ROSACEAE (ROSE FAMILY) Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. TALL AGRIMONY. A. Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. SHADBUSH. Woods northwest of bridge. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. EUROPEAN THORN. Roadside. Crataegus punctata Jacq. LARGE-FRUITED THORN. L, hedgerow. Fragaria vesca L. WOOD STRAWBERRY. D, C. Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. FIELD STRAWBERRY. 0, Roadside. Geum canadense Jacq. WHITE AVENS. D. Potentilla'recta L. ROUGH-FRUITED C!NQUEFOIL. Roadside. Potentilla simplex Michx. OLD FIELD CINQUEFOIL. Roadside. Prunus Avium L. SWEET CHERRY. Roadside. Prunus Ehrh. BLACK CHERRY. Roadside. Prunus virginiana L. CHOKECHERRY. Roadside. Pyrus Aucuparia (L.) Gaertn. EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN-ASH. Roadside. Pyrus communis L. PEAR. Roadside. Pyrus Malus L. APPLE. Roadside. Rosa canina L. DOG ROSE. J. Rosa multiflora Thunb. C. Rosa palustris Marsh. SWAMP ROSE. E, wet area southwest corner Rubus allegheniensis Porter. HIGHBUSH BLACKBERRY. C, Roadside. Rubus flagellaris DEWBERRY. C, R, A. Rubus idaeus L. WILD RED RASPBERRY. L. east hedgerow. --. _.. pi ....... t .J!II!IJ.j,-"L-. ..


.J 18 Rubus odoratus L. PURPLE FLOWERING RASPBERRY. Roadside. 1 1 Spiraea alba Du Roi. NARROW-LEAVED MEADOW SWEET. A, B. Spiraea latifolia (Ait.) Borkh. BROAD-LEAVED MEADOW SWEET. A. 1 LEGUMINOSAE (PULSE FAMILY) Apios americana Medic. WILD BEAJI. E, near stream; Margin of Pond. 1 1 Gleditsia triacanthos L. HONEYLOCUST. E, west side stream. Lotus corniculatus L. BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL. M, G. Medicago lupulina L. BLACK MEDICK. Station lawn. 1 Medicago sativa L. ALFALFA. N. Melilotus alba Desr. WHITE SWEET CLOVER. K, dry soil. 1 1 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. YELLOW SWEET CLOVER. In field near station. Robinia Pseudo-Acacia L. BLACK LOCUST. D, along road. Trifolium agrarium L. YELLOW CLOVER. In field near station. 1 Trifolium hybridum L. ALSIKE CLOVER. In field near station. Trifolium pratense L. RED CLOVER. In field near station. J 1 Trifolium repens L. WHITE CLOVER. In field near station. Vicia americana Muhl. VETCH. J, In field near station. 1 Vicia dasycarpa Ten. VETCH. S, In field near station. Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench. SLENDER VETCH. L, east side near trail. 1 OXALIDACEAE (WOOD-SORREL FAMILY) Oxalis europaea Jord. TALL SOUR GRASS. E, S, Roadside.1 1 GERANIACEAE (GERANIUM FAMILY) Geraniurn robertianum L. HERB ROBERI'. A. J EUPHORBIACEAE (SPURGE FAMILY)J Euphorbia maculata L. SPOTTED SPURGE. Station lawn. ] .... '" _.,r.o I --,


19 LIMNANTHACEAE (FALSE MERMAID FAMILY) Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. FALSE MERMAID. E, along stream. ANACARDIACEAE (CASHEW FAMILY) Rhus radicans L. POISON IVY. Roadside. Rhus typhina L. STAGHORN SUMAC. D. ACERACEAE (MAPLE FAMILY) platanoides L. NORWAY MAPLE. Roadside. Acer rubrum L. RED MAPLE. S, in south hedgerow. Acer saccharum Marsh. SUGAR MAPLE. Roadside. BALSAMINACEAE (TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY) Impatiens capensis Meerb. SPOTTED TOUCH-ME-NOT. E, in wet areas near stream. RHAMNACEAE (BUCKTlIORN FAMILY) Rhamnus cathartica L. EUROPEAN BUCKTHORN. Roadside, A. VITACEAE (VINE FAMILY) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. VIRGINIA CREEPER. C. Vitis Labrusca L. FOX GRAPE. B. Vitis vulpina L. RIVERSIDE GRAPE. L, in east hedgerow. TILIACEAE (LINDEN FAMILY) Tilia americana L. BASSWOOD. C. MALVACEAE (MALLOW FAMILY) Malva moschata L. MUSK MALLOW. Roadside


20 GUTTIFERAE (ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY) Hypericum perforatum L. COMMON ST. JOHN'S-WORT. N, Roadside. VIOLACEAE (VIOLET FAMILY) Viola conspersa Reichenb. DOG VIOLET. Roadside. Viola cucullata Ait. BLUE MARSH VIOLET. A, C, D. Viola pallens (Banks.) Brainerd. NORTHERN WHITE VIOLET. E, near stream. Viola pensylvanica Michx. SMOOTHISH YELLOW VIOLET. A, B, C, D, K. Viola rostrata Pursh. LONG-SPURRED VIOLET. A. I ELAEAGNACEAE (OLEASTER FAMILY) J commutata Bernh. SILVERBERRY. Station lawn. ] ] ONAGRACEAE (EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY) Circaea quadrisculcata (Maxim.) Franch. & Sav. ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. A. Epilobium coloratum Biehler. PURPLE-LEAVED WILLOWHERB. H, west edge. ] Epilobium hirsutum L. GREAT HAIRY WILLOWHERB. K. Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. WATER PURSLANE. E, near bridge.] ] Oenothera biennis L. EVENING PRIMROSE. L. Oenothera perennis L. SUNDROPS. Roadside. ] HALORAGACEAE (WATER-}ULFOIL Myriophyllum exalbescens Fern. WATER MILFOIL. Rice Pond.] UMBELLIFERAE (PARSLEY FAMILY)J Cicuta bulbifera L. BULB-BEARING WATER HEMLOCK. Near Pond. Daucus carota L. WILD CARROT. Roadside.J Sium suave Walt. WATER PARSNIP. Margin of Pond. ) I .4':".... --------'_._----.. --,---"


21 CORNACEAE (DOGWOOD FAMILY) Cornus alternifolia L. f. ALTERNATE-LEAF DOGWOOD. D. Cornus Amomwn Mill. SILKY DOGWOOD. E, along stream; Roadside; Near station in wet ground. Cornus racemosa Lam. GRAY DOGWOOD. E, near stream. Cornus stolonifera Michx. RED OSIER DOGWOOD. E, near stream. PYROLACEAE (WINTERGREEN FAMILY) Monotropa uniflora L. INDIAN PIPE. A. PRlMULACEAE (PRIMROSE FAMILY) Lysimachia ciliata L. FRINGED LOOSESTRIFE. E. Lysimachia Nummularia L. MONEYWORT. D. Lysimachia terrestris (L.) BSP. SWAMP CANDLES. E, wet area. OLEACEAE (OLIVE FAMILY) Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahle GOLDEN BELL. Roadside. Fraxinus americana L. WHITE ASH. Roadside. Fraxinus nigra Marsh. BLACK ASH. E, near stream. GENTIANACEAE (GENTIAN FAMILY) Centauriwn wnbellatwn Gilib. CENTAURY. L, roadside. APOCYNACEAE (DOGBANE FAMILY) Apocynwn androsaemifoliwn L. SPREADING DOGBANE. G, in open area. ASCLEPIADACEAE (MILKWEED FAMILY) Asclepias incarnata L. SWAMP MILKWEED. Rice Pond, in shallow water. Asclepias syriaca L. COMMON MILKWEED. Field near station.


CONVOLVULACEAE (CONVOLVULUS FAMILY) 22 Convolvulus sepium L. HEDGE BINDWEED. R. Cuscuta Gronovii Willd. DODDER. Near metal bridge. HYDROPHYLLACEAE (WATERLEAF FAMILY) Hydrophyllum virginianum L. VIRGINIA WATERLEAF. B I I ] ] BORAGINACEAE (BORAGE FAMILY) MYosotis scorpoides L. FORGET-ME-NOT. D, near Pond. VERBENACEAE (VERVAIN FAMILY) Verbena hastata L. BLUE VERVAIN. Near Pond; Roadside; G, south edge. Verbena urticifolia L. WHITE VERVAIN. Margin of Pond, Roadside. ] ] ] ] ] LABIATAE (MINT FAMILY) Glechoma hederacea L. GILL-OVER-THE-GROUND. D. Leonurus cardiaca L. MOTHERWORT. near bridge. Lycopus americanus Muhl. CUT-LEAVED WATER HOREHOUND. Roadside. Nepeta cataria L. CATNIP. E, near bridge. Prunella vulgaris L. HEAL-ALL. B; H, west edge near trail. Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad. MOUNTAIN MINT. B. Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Durand & Jackson. MOUNTAIN MINT. ] ] Satureja vulgaris (L.) Fritsch. BASIL. K, near stream. Scutellaria galericulata L. HOODED SKULLCAP. Near Pond. Scutellaria lateriflora L. SKULLCAP. Margin of Pond. ] ] ] Physalis heterophylla Solanum carolinense Solanum Dulcamara L. SOLANACEAE (NIGHTSHADE FAMILY) Nees. CLAMMY GROUND CHERRY. K. L. HORSE-NETTLE. G, west edge. NIGHTSHADE. Roadside.


".SCROPHULARIACEAE (FIGWORT FAMILY) Chelone glabra L. TURTLEHEAD. N, C. Gratiola neglecta Torr. HEDGE-HYSSOP. D, in mud near stream. Linaria vulgaris Hill. BUTTER-AND-EGGS. Roadside. Mimulus ringens L. MJNKEY FLOWER. Near station. Penstemon Digitalis Nutt. BEARD-TONGUE. H. Verbascum Blattaria L. MOTH MULLEIN. In field near station. Verbascum 'I'hapsus L. COMMON MULLEIN. Roadside. Veronica officinalis L. COMMON SPEEDWELL. J. Veronica serpyllifolia L. THYME-LEAVED SPEEDWELL. Station lawn. OROBANCHACEAE (BROOM-RAPE FAMILY) Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. BEECHDROPS. Woods northwest of bridge. PLANTAGINACEAE (PLANTAIN FAMILY) Plantago lanceolata L. ENGLISH PLANTAIN. Near station. Plantago major L. COMMON PLANTAIN. Near station. Plantago Rugelii Dcne. RUGEL'S PLANTAIN. Roadside. RUBIACEAE (MADDER FAMILY) Galium asprellum Michx. ROUGH BEDSTRAW. S, wet area near stream. Galium Mollugo L. WILD MADDER D. Galium obtusum Bigel. STIFF MARSH BEDSTRAW. D, near stream Mitchella repens L. PARTRIDGE BERRY. A. CAPRIFOLIACEAE (HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY) Lonicera canadensis Bartr. FLY HONEYSUCKLE. A. Sambucus canadensis L. ELDERBERRY. D. Sambucus pubens Michx. RED-BERRIED ELDER. B. Viburnum acerifolium L. MAPLE-LEAVED VIBURNUM. A. Viburnum Lentago L. NANNYBERRY. A.


h Viburnum opulus L. HIGHBUSH CRANBERRY. Roadside. Viburnum Rafinesquianum Schultes. DOWNY ARROW-WOOD. D, wet ground; Roadside. h CUCURBITACEAE (GOURD FAMILY) 1 1 1 1 1l lll l1 1J 1 Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) T. & G. WILD CUCUMBER. E, near stream. CAMPANULACEAE (BLUEBELL FAMILY) Lobelia Cardinalis L. CARDINAL-FLOWER. E, along stream. Lobelia inflata L. INDIAN TOBACCO. E. COMPOSITAE (COMPOSITE Achillea Millefolium L. COMMON YARROW. Roadside. Achillea ptarmica L. SNEEZEWEED. Near Pond. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. RAGWEED. Near Pond. Antennaria neglecta Greene. PUSSY'S TOES. C, in dry area; S. Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Hook. PUSSY'S TOES. Roadside. Anthemis Cotula L. MAYWEED. K. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. COMMON BURDOCK. Roadside. Aster divaricatus L. WHITE WOOD ASTER. A. Aster novae-angliae L. NEW ENGLAND ASTER. J. Aster simplex Willd. WHITE FIELD ASTER. In field near station. Bidens frondosa L. BEGGAR'S TICKS. Near Pond. Bidens laevis (L.) BSP. SMOOTH BUR MARIGOLD. Margin of Pond. Centaurea Jacea L. KNAPWEED. G. Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum L. WHITE DAISY Near station. Chrysanthemum Parthenium (L.) Bernh. FEVERFEW. D, near bridge. Cichorium Intybus L. COMMON CHICORY. Roadside. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. CANADA THISTLE. M. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Tenore. BULL-THISTLE. N.1 Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. DAISY FLEABANE. R, N. J --,.-._-..


25 Erigeron philadelphicus L. PHILADELPHIA FLEABANE. Roadside. Erigeron strigosus Muhl. DAISY FLEABANE. In field near station. Eupatorium maculatum L. JOE-PYEWEED. Near Pond. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. BONESET. E, near stream. Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. WHITE SNAKEROOT. K; C, near road. Gnaphalium uliginosum L. LOW CUDWEED. Station lawn. Hieracium aurantiacum L. DEVIL'S PAINT-BRUSH. L. Hieracium florentinum All. KING DEVIL. Near station. Hieracium pratense Tausch. KING DEVIL. J. HyPochoeris radicata L. CAT'S EAR. 0, west edge along trail. Lactuca canadensis L. WILD LETTUCE. C, near road. Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter. PINEAPPLE-WEED. Station lawn. Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. CLIMBING BONESET. E, along stream. Picris hieracioides L. PICRIS. Roadside. Rudbeckia hirta L. BLACK-EYED SUSAN. R, H. Solidago caesia L. WOODLAND GOLDENROD. B. Solidago canadensis L. CANADA GOLDENROD. N. Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. LANCE-LEAVED GOLDENROD. In field near station. Solidago nemoralis Ait. GRAY GOLDENROD. In field near station. Solidago rugosa Ait. WRINKLE-LEAVED GOLDENROD. In field near station. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. SPINY-LEAVED SOW THISTLE. Roadside. officinale Weber. COMMON DANDELION. Station lawn. Tragopogon pratensis L. GOAT'S BEARD. M, west edge near trail. Xanthium strumarium L. COCKLEBUR. On island in northwest corner of Rice on gravel.


---j INDEX J Page No. Page No. l Abies 9 Caulophyllum 16 Acer 19 Centaurea 24 Aceraceae 19 Centaurium 21 J Achillea 24 Cerastium 15 Acorus 12 Ceratophyllaceae 15 Actaea 15 Ceratophyllum 15 l Agrimonia 17 Chelidonium 16 Agropyron 10 Chelone 23 Agrostis 10 Chenopodiaceae 15 Alisma 10 Chenopodium 15 Alismataceae 10 Chrysanthemum 24 Alnus 14 Cichorium 24l Ambrosia 24 Cicuta 20 l l Amelanchier 17 Cinna 10 Anacardiaceae 19 Circaea 20 Anemone 15 Cirsium 24 Antennaria 24 Clematis 16 Anthemis 24 Compositae 24 Anthoxanthum 10 Convallaria 13 Apios 18 Convolvulaceae 22 Apocynaceae 21 Convolvulus 22 Apocynum 21 Coptis 16 l Araceae 12 Cornaceae 21 Arctium 24 Cornus 21 'j Arisaema 12 Corylaceae 14 I l i',IArrhenatherum 10 Crassulaceae 17 I.'Asclepiadace'ae 21 Crataegus 17 !ll Asclepias 21 Cruciferae 16 Aster 24 Cucurbitaceae 24l Athyrium 9 Cuscuta 22 l Cyperaceae 11 Balsaminaceae 19 .l:E.erus 12 Barbarea 16 l Berberidaceae 16 Dactylis 10 Berberis 16 Danthonia 10 Berteroa 16 Daucus 20 Betula 14 Dentaria 16 Bidens 24 Dianthus 15 Boraginaceae 22 Dicentra 16 l Brassica 16 Digitaria 10 1 Bromus 10 Dry-opteris 9 Dulichium 12 Caltha 15 J J Campanulaceae 24 Echinochloa 10 Caprifoliaceae 23 Echinocystis 24 Capsella 16 Elaeagnaceae 20 Cardamine 16 Elaeagnus 20 Carex 11,12 Eleocharis 12 Cary a 14 Elodea 10 Caryophyllaceae 15 Epifagus 23 J t


27 Epilobium Epipactis Equisetaceae Equisetum Eragrostis Erigeron Erythronium Eupatorium Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Fagaceae Fagus Floerkea Forsythia Fragaria Fraxinus Galium Gentianaceae Geraniaceae Geranium Geum Glechoma Gleditsia Glyceria Gnaphalium Gramineae Gratiola Guttiferae Haloragaceae Hemerocaliis Hepatica Hesperis Hieracium Hydrocharitaceae Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophyl1um Hypericum Hypochoeris Impatiens Iridaceae Iris Juglandaceae Juncaceae Juncus Labiatae Lactuca Laportea Larix Leersia Leguminosae Lemna 20 13 9 9 11 24,25 13 25 18 18 14 14 19 21 17 21 23 21 18 18 17 22 18 11 25 10 23 20 20 13 16 16 25 10 22 22 20 25 19 13 13 14 12 12,13 22 25 14 9 11 18 12 Lemnaceae 12 Leonurus 22 16Lepidium 13Liliaceae Limnanthaceae 19 Linaria 23 Lobelia 24 Lolium 11 Lonicera 23 Lotus 18 Ludwigia 20 Luzula 13 Lychnis 15 Lycopus 22 .!=l.simachia 21 Maianthemum 13 Malva 19 Malvaceae 19 Matricaria 25 Medicago 18 Melilotus 18 Mikania 25 Mimulus 23 Mitchella 23 Monotropa 21 Muhlenbergia 11 Myosotis 22 Myriophyllum 20 Nepeta 22 Oenothera 20 01eaceae 21 Onagraceae 20 Onoclea 9 Orchidaceae 13 Orobanchaceae 23 Ostrya 14 Oxalidaceae 18 Oxalis 18 Panicum 11 Papaveraceae 16 Parthenocissus 19 Peltandra Penstemon Penthorum Phalaris Phleum Physalis Phytolacca Phytolaccaceae Picea Picris Pinaceae Pinus Plantaginaceae Plantago 12 23 17 11 11 22 15 15 9 25 9 9 23 23


1 c...v Poa 11 Solidago 25 Podophyllum 16 Sonchus 25 Polygonaceae 14 Sparganiaceae 10 Polygonatum 13 Sparganium 10 Polygonum 14,15 Spirea 18 Polypodiaceae 9 Spirodela 12 J i Polystichum 9 Stellaria 15 Pontederia 12 Pontederiaceae 12 Taraxacum 25 Populus 13 Thalictrum 16 ..... Potamogeton 10 Tiarella 17j Potentilla 17 Tilia 19 l Primulaceae 21 Tiliaceae 19 Prunella 22 Tovara 15 Prunus 17 Tragopogon 25 l Pteridium 9 Trifolium 18 Pycnanthemum 22 Trillium 13 Pyrolaceae 21 Tsuga 9 Pyrus 17 Typha 9 Typhaceae 9 Ranunculaceae 15l Ranunculus 16 Ulmaceae 14 l Rhamnaceae 19 Ulmus 14 Rhamnus 19 Umbelliferae 20 Rhus 19 Urtica 14 l Ribes 17 Urticaceae 14 Robinia 18 Uvularia 13 Rorippa 16 Rosa 17 Verbascum 23 Rosaceae 17 Verbena 22 Rubiaceae 23 Verbenaceae 22 1 Rubus 17,18 Veronica 23 J Rubeckia 25 Viburnum 23,24 Rumex 15 Vicia 18 Viola 20 J Sagittaria 10 Violaceae 20 Salicaceae 13 Vitaceae 19 Salix 14 Vitis 19 Sambucus 23 1 Saponaria 15 Xanthium 25 Satureja 22 Saururaceae 13 Zosteraceae 10 1 Saururus 13 Saxifragaceae 17 SCirpus 12 Scrophulariaceae 23 Scutellaria 22 Sedum 17J Setaria 11 Silene 15 Sisyrinchium 13 ] Sium 20 Smilacina 13 Solanaceae 22 ] Solanum 22 ]


29 A KEY TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE RICE CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION HOW TO USE THE KEY Read the first pair of choices and decide which choice describes the plant in question. Follow the key to the name of a GENUS by moving to successive pairs of choices as directed at the end of each choice. After a GENUS name is reached, check the index of the list of plants at the station to see the page the GENUS is listed on so that the family may be found. To be sure of the identity of the plant, compare it with a herbarium specimen at the station. The plants in the herbarium are arranged in folders alphabetically by family.


] ] MAJOR GROUPS OF KEY ] Ferns and Horsetails p. 31 WoodyPlants. p. 32J Submerged or Floating Aquatic Plants p. 37 ) Herbaceous p. 38 Net-veinedHerbs............................ p. 42) KEY TO MAJOR GROUPS a. Ferns and Horsetails (Plants not producing flowers or seeds). . .. . . . . .. . . p. 31 aa. Not Ferns or Horsetails (Plants producing flowers and seeds) b b. Plants WOOdy (Trees, shrubs, and woody vines). p. 32 bb. Plants not woody (Herbaceous). .c c. Aquatic plants, with leaves submerged or floating. (Not including cat-tails, arrowheads and others which have stems rising above the water surface) p. 37 cc. Plants not aquatic; Land Plants (If rooted in water the stems and leaves rise above the water surface) .d d. Plants with parallel-veined leaves and flower parts in threes and sixes (Herbaceous Monocotyledons). p. 38 dd. Plants with net-veined leaves and flower parts in fours and fives and some threes p. 42 [ ) I.'


31 FERNS AND HORSETAILS a. Stems jointed, leaves whorled and scale-like (Horsetail, Family Equisetaceae) . . . .Equisetum aa. Stems underground, leaves large, flattened, and expanded (Ferns, Family Polypodiaceae). .b b. Stem and leaves with hairs only, lacking scales Pteridium bb. Stem and often leaves scaly. .c c. Veins of leaves connected forming a network. Onoclea cc. Veins of leaves free from each other. .d d. Leaves pinnate, with a lobe projecting from one side of each leaflet.. Polystichum dd. Leaves not as above. .e e. Sori at a slant. Athrium ee. Sori rounded Dryopteris ,-t-,


--32WOODY PLANTS Leaves evergreen or needle-like (Pines, Family Pinaceae). p. 32 Leaves not evergreen or needle-like (deciduous) .p. 33 KEY TO FAMILY PINACEAE a. Leaves growing in clusters of ten or more, deciduous Larixaa. Leaves not growing ten or more to a cluster, evergreen. .b i l [b. Leaves, needle-like growing in clusters of twos I or fives.............. Pinus bb. Leaves occurring singly along the branch. .c c. Leaves four-sided. Picea IIIcc. Leaves flat. .d d. Leaveswithaleafstalk. Tsuga dd. Leaves without a stalk, attached directly to the twig...................... Abies _-"0._" ;"<' .r.-.::... .. :." .'


I {.J M 33 !\ WOODY PLANTS WITH DECIDUOUS LEAVES, NOT PINESii \\ :i a. Leaves alternate to one another on the twig. .b !: b. Leaves compound, divided into leaflets. .c c. Leaves twice compound. Gleditsia cc. Leaves once compound. .d ii H,; d. Leaflets three. .e;I ;1 \.1 e. Stems prickly Rubus ee. Stems not prickly. Rhus dd. Leaflets more than three. f f. Leaves palmately compound. .g g. Stems prickly... Rubus gg. Stems not prickly, climbing. Parthenocissus ff. Leaves pinnately compound. .h h. Lateral buds hidden. .i i. Thorns paired. Robinia ii. Thorns not paired. Gleditsia hh. Lateral buds not hidden. j j Thorns present. Rosa .' jj. Thorns absent. .k k. Margins of leaflets entire.... Rhus kk. Margins of leaflets not entire. .1 1. Stipules present. Pyrus 11. Stipules absent. Carya bb. Leaves simple, not divided into leaflets. .m m. Leaves lobed. .n n. Stems climbing. .0 o. Leaves deeply lobed at base of leaf. Solanum 00. Leaves not deeply lobed, stem with tendrils (Grapes, Family Vitaceae) Vitis


nn. Stems erect. .p p. Leaves palmately lobed. .q q. Plants very prickly. Ribes qq. Plants not prickly. Rubus pp. Leaves pinnately lobed. Crataegus mm. Leaves not lobed. .r r. Leaves entire. .s s. Leaves and twigs covered with silvery scales. Eleagnus ss. Leaves and twigs not covered with silvery scales. .t t. Stems with simple and branched spines. Berberis tt. Stems not as above. .u u. Leaves with veins running parallel to margins to tip of leaf Cornus uu. Leaves without veins as above, buds covered by single hood-like scale Salix rr. Leaves toothed. .v v. Plants without buds present, short and herb-like with reddish, branched stem. .Penthorum vv. Plants not as above (Trees and Shrubs). .w w. Leaf stem flat. Populus ww. Leaf stem round, not flat. .x x. Leaves circular, as broad as long, large (four inches in diameter), heart-shaped at base Tilia xx. Leaves not circular. .y y. Leaves with single sharp tooth. ... Fagus I yy. Leaves with double teeth or very small teeth. .z z. Twigs with thorns. .a a. Leaves tapering to base.. .. Crataegus aa. Leaves not tapering. Pyrus zz. Twigs without thorns. .b


35 b. Leaves with large double teeth, leaf bases oblique. ..... Ulmus bb. Leaves with small teeth. c c. Pith triangular, buds stalked . Alnus cc. Pith small or circular. .d d. Buds covered by hood-like scale .... .. ... ... .. SA.lix dd. Buds covered by two or more scales. .e e. Twigs with wintergreen taste, bark yellow on older trees.......... .... Betula ee. Twigs without yellow bark without wintergreen taste. .f f. Leaves with veins parallel to margin.. Rhamnus ff. Leaves without veins parallel to margin. .g g. Small trees with very shreddy bark Ostrya : gg. Not as above. .h h. Petioles with glands near upper end atleaf. . . . . .. . . . . PrllI1us hh. Petioles without glands. .i i. Twigs with sweet taste, usually hairy (Apple). Pyrus ii. Twigs without sweet taste. j j. Leaves arranged in groups on stem. . .. Amelanchier jj. Leaves arranged singly on stem usually overlapping. .Spiraea aa. Leaves opposite. .k k. Simple, not divided. .1 1. Leaves palmately lobed. Acer 11. Leaves not lobed. .m m. Leaves entire. .n n. Side veins parallel to margin. Cornus nn. Side veins not parallel to margin. .0 1_ "----


36 o. Plants with milky juice. . . Apocynum 00' Plants without milky juice Lonicera mm. Leaves toothed. .p p. Side veins parallel to margin. Rhamnus pp. Side veins not parallel to margin. .q q. Stems with large thorns. .. ... Crataegus qq. Stems without large thorns. .r r. Bud scales overlapping. Forsythia rr. Bud scales not overlapping. .. Viburnum kk. Compound, divided. .s s. Leaves with three or fewer leaflets Forsythia ss. Leaves with more than three leaflets. .t t. Leaves with very large pith and large raised lenticels Sambucus tt. Leaves with small pith, lenticels not raised.. . . . . . .. Fraxinus


37 SUBMERGED AND FLOATING AQUATIC PLANTS a. Plants or leaves of plants floating on surface. b b. Small plants without stems. .c c. Roots solitary on each plant body Lerona cc. Roots two or more on each plant body Spirodella bb. Plants with stems and floating leaves Potamogeton aa. Plants submerged. .d d. Plants forming extensive submerged colonies of tiny plantswithnostems. Lerona dd. Not as above. .e e. Leaves alternate on stem .Potamogeton ee. Leaves whorled on stem. .f f. Leavessimple .......... Elodea ff. Leaves divided. .g g. Leaves pinnately divided. Myriophyllum gg. Leaves palmately divided Ceratophyllum


HERBACEOUS MONOCOTS a. Leaves grass-like, Iris-like or Cattail-like. .b b. Leaves over one inch wide. .c c. Flowers large, blue (Iris) Iris cc. Flowers small, green-brown. .d d. Flowers in burlike heads Sparganium dd. Flowers in spikes. .e e. Stem circular. Typha ee. Stem triangular Acorus bb. Leaves under one inch wide. f f. Stem triangular. .g g. Flowers with inflated sac enclosing ovary. Carex gg. Flowers without sac. Cyperus ff. Stems not triangular. .h h. Flowers blue. Sisyrinchium hh. Flowers not blue. .i i. Flowers born on side of stem, flowering stalks leafless. j j. Leaves thick, round. .k k. Plantshairy..Luzula kk. Plants not hairy. Juncus jj. Leaves thin, flat. .1 1. Flowers axillary, many from leaf sheaths.... .. Dulichium 11. Flowers nearly terminal, solitary Scirpus ii. Flowers terminal, stem leaves present, alternate. .m m. Stem solid, flowers solitary, terminal. . Eleocharis mm. Stem hollow, cylindrical (Grasses, Family Gramineae). .n n. Spikelets single, flattened from the back. .0


39 o. Spikelets surrounded by bristles, flowers spike-like. Setaria 00. Spikelets without bristles. .p p. Sterile lemma awned or sharp pointed. Echinochloa pp. Sterile lemma not awned. .q q. Spikelets stalked in open panicles Panicum qq. Spikelets sessile in one-sided racemes Digitaria nn. Spikelets not single, flattened from the side. .r r. Glumes lacking, blades very rough, wetareas. Leersia rr. Glumes present. .s s. Spikelets three-flowered, only upper floret perfect. .t t. Lemma awned, plant with distinctive odor. Anthoxanthum tt. Lemma not awned Phalaris ss. Spikelet one-flowered to many-flowered, all perfect. .u u. Spikelets sessile on opposite sides of a zig zag axis. .v v. Spikelets with one edge to rachis Lolium vv. Spikelets with side to rachis Agropyron uu. Spikelets in open or closed panicle. .w w. Spikelets one-flowered. .x x. Spikelets in a closed panicle. Muhlenbergia xx. Spikelets not in a closed panicle. .y y. Spikelets in spike-like panicles. Phleum yy. Spikelets in open panicles. .z z. Articulation below glumes, nearstream. Cinna zz. Articulation above glumes, in field. .Agrostis


40 ww. Spikelets two-flowered to many-flowered. .a a. Glumes shorter than lowest floret. .b b. Lemmas three nerved. Eragrostis bb. Lemmas five nerved. .c c. Lemmas keeled on back. .d d. Spikelets in one-sided clusters Dactylis dd. Spikelets not one-sided. .e e. Lemmas awned. .Bromus ee. Lemmas not awned. Foa cc. Lemmas rounded on back. .f f. Lemma nerves prominent, parallelGlyceria ff. Lemma nerves faint, converging toward apex. .g g. Lemmas with apical teeth 8.I1d an awn. .. ... Bromus gg. Lemmas only pointed. Foa aa. Glumes as long as the lower-most floret. .h 'h. Florets two, one perfect, one staminate Arrhenatherum hh. Florets two or more alike. Danthonia aa. Leaves not grass-like or Iris-like. .i i. Leaves simple, entire. j j. Flowers in panicles growing on margin of pond ornearstream. Alisma jj. Flowers not as above. .k k. Flowers radially symmetrical, stamens four or six (Family Liliaceae). .1 1. Stem leafy. .m m. Leaves whorled, net-veined. Trillium mm. Leaves alternate. .n n. Flowers axillary. .0 o. Stem simple, flowers greenish Polygonatum


r 41 00. Stem branching, flowers not greenish. Uvularia nne Flowers in a terminal raceme. .p p. Leaves two or three Maianthemum pp. Leaves several. Smilacina 11. Stem not leafy, most leaves basal. .q q. Flowers large, orange Hemerocallis qq. Flowers not orange. .r r. Flowers solitary, nodding Erythronium rr. Flowers not solitary Convallaria kk. Flowers bilaterally symmetric, flowers in racemes. Epipactis ii. Leaves arrow-shaped or divided. .s s. Leaves arrow-shaped, growing near water. .t t. Flowers green brown in a spadix. Peltandra tt. Flowers not green brown. .u u. Flowers white Sagittaria uu. Flowers blue. Pontederia SSe Leaves divided. Arisaema


.., 42 NET-VEINED HERBS This group is divided into five sub-groups on the basis of flower color. Flowers white or whitish p 43 Flowers yellow or orange p. 50 Flowerspinkorred.....p. 53 Flowers blue or purple p. 56 Flowers or brown. p. 57


43 FLOWERS WHITE OR WHITISH a. No green leaves present. .b b. Stems orange, climbing Cuscuta bb.Stemserect Monotropa aa. Green leaves present. .c c. Leaves appearing only at base of plant, not on stem (Basal). p. 44 cc. Leaves appearing on stem. .d d. Leaves and branches opposite or whorled. p. 45 dd. Leaves and branches alternate. p. 47


44 FLOWERS WHITE LEAVES ALL BASAL a. Leaves entire. .b b. Plants growing in wet areas on margin of pond or stream. .c c. Leaves arrow-shaped. Sagittaria cc. Leaves not arrow-shaped Alisma bb. Plants growing in dryer areas. .d d. Flowers in a spike.. Plantago dd. Flowers in several heads, plants wooly. Antennaria aa. Leaves toothed or deeply lobed or divided. .e e. Leaves toothed. Tiarella ee. Leaves deeply lobed or divided. .f f. Leaves lobed, not divided. Hepatica ff. Leaves divided. .g g. Leaves much dissected, flowers yellow tipped with two inflated spurs. Dicentra gg. Leaves trifoliate. .h h. Plants with bright yellow roots and shiny leaves, in cool woods Coptis hh. Plants not as above growing mostly in fields or more open areas (Strawberries). Fragaria


WHITE FLOWERS, LEAVES OPPOSITE ON STEM a. Leaves and branches opposite and whorled. .b b. Leaves entire. .c c. Flower parts in threes, large showy petals, flowering in spring. Trillium cc. Flower parts in fours and fives. .d d. Plant creeping with flowers in pairs. Mitchella dd. Plants upright, not creeping. .e e. Plants with square sterns. .f f. Leaves whorled. .. Galium ff. Leaves not whorled. Pycnanthemum ee. Plants without square sterns .g g. Plants with inflated, veined calyx. .h h. Plant with smooth stem. Silene hh. Plant with hairy stem Lychnis gg. Plants without inflated calyx. .i i. Styles three Stellaria ii. Styles five. Cerastium bb. Leaves toothed, deeply lobed or divided. .j j. Leaves toothed. .k k. Plants climbing with triangular shaped leaves. Mikania kk. Plants not climbing. .1 1. Plants with square sterns. .m m. Flowers 1/4 inch long growing from axils of leaves Lycopus mm. Flowers 1/2 inch long, terminal. Nepeta 11. Plants without square sterns. .n


46 n. Flowers in branching, flat-topped clusters (Heads of flowers). nne Flowers otherwise. .0 o. Flowers large and showy, in terminal close groups or panicles. .p p. Flowers stemmed. Penstemon pp. Flowers stemless Chelone 00. Flowers small in spike-like clusters. .q q. Flowers with two parts, petals deeply notched. Circaea qq. Flower parts in fives. Verbena jj. Leaves deeply lobed or divided. .r r. Plant climbing. Clematis rr. Plant not climbing. .s s. Plant with large flower in crotch below two large umbrella-like leaves Podophyllum SSe Plant not as above. .t t. Plant with leaves that surround stem. Anemone tt. Plant without leaves surrounding stem. .u u. Plant with flowers clustered in heads, leaves trifoliate, plants of fields. Trifolium uu. Plant without flowers in heads, plants of woodlands. Dentaria


FLOWERS WHITE LEAVES ALTERNATE a. Leaves entire. .b b. Plant growing in shallow stream water with tapering, nodding clusters, heart-shaped leaves .. Saururus bb. Plants not growing in water. .c c. Plant climbing with large (two inches) pink, showy, bell-like flowers. white Convolvulus cc. Plants not as above. .d d. Plants with flowers (heads). e in dense clusters e. Plant densely white wooly stem, low growing. on leaves and Gnaphalium ee. Plant with aster-like flowers with numerous rays (30) Erigeron dd. Plants without flowers four or five petals. in heads, but with .f f. Plant with four notched petals and downy leaves . Berteroa ff. Plant over three feet high with large leaves and flowers with five petals. Phytolacca aa. Leaves toothed or divided. .g g. Leaves toothed. .h h. Flowers in four parts, flowers. .i not in heads of aster-like i. Plants with stem leaves clasping the stem. .j j. Basal leaves divided into leaflets Capsella jj. Basal leaves not divided into leaflets. Lepidium ii. Plants without seem leaves clasping. .k k. Flowers 1/2 inch wide, larger under two inches long, basal roundish, spring flower. leaves leaves Cardamine kk. Flowers 3/4 inches to one inch wide, leaves three inches long or more, summer flower. . . Hesperis hh. Flowers not in four parts, flowers in heads. .1 1. Rays 20-40, fall flowers. .Aster


48 11. Rays 40-70, summer flowers. .............. Erigeron gg. Leaves divided. .m m. Plants climbing. .Echinocystis mm. Plants not climbing. .n n. Plants small, inconspicuous, streamside herbs with minute, solitary, axial, peduncled flowers. Floerkea nne Plants not as above. .0 o. Flowers daisy-like. .p p. Plants with finely divided leaves. Anthemis pp. Plants without finely divided leavesChrysanthemum 00. Flowers not daisy-like. .q q. Leaves deeply lobed, not divided, flowers with four petals, in a spike, some leaves clasping. Capsella qq. Leaves divided. .r r. Leaves divided into many finely cut segments. .s s. Flowers in flat-topped clusters radiating from a dark center. Daucus SSe Flowers not radiating from a dark center, flowers appearing to have five petals (actually flowers in heads) Achillea rr. Leaves divided into three to five leaflets or more than five leaflets. .t t. Leaves divided into three to five leaflets. .u u. Flowers in long clusters, leaves trifoliate.. Melilotus uu. Flowers not as above, leaves not trifoliate. .v v. Stamens numerous and conspicuous.Geum vv. Stamens five, flowers bell-shaped. Hydrophyllum


tt. Leaves divided into five or more leaflets. .w w. Leaflets three-lobed. Thalictrum ww. Leaflets not three-lobed .x I x. Plants with eight-nine leaflets, tiny fourparted flowers with six stamens, two of which are inserted lower than the other four. Cardamine xx. Plants not as above y y. Flowers in a dense spike-like cluster. Actea yy. Flowers not as above. .z z. Leaflets sparsely slender toothed. Cicuta zz. Leaflets copiously toothed. Sium


50 FLOWERS YELLOW OR ORANGE. a. Plants with no green leaves.. Epifagus aa. Plants with green leaves. .b b. Plants flowering in early spring before leaves of plant develop, leaflets three-five-lobed, in woods. Caulophyllum bb. Plants not as above. .c c. Plant small lawn weed with milky juice and green-yellow flowers. Euphorbia cc. Plants not as above. .d d. Flowers in heads (dense clusters of stalk-less flowers). .e e. Plant with root leaves only (Basal), no leaves growing off stem. .f f. Leaves deeply lobed. .g g. Leaves very hairy, stem sometimes branched. Hypochoeris gg. Leaves not very hairy (Dandelion) Taraxacum ff. Leaves not deeply lobed Hieracium ee. Plants with stem present. .h h. Leaves opposite Bidens hh. Leaves alternate. .i i. Leaves entire. .j j. Plants with milky juice. .k k. Lower leaves lanceshaped, flowers 1/4 inch wide...Lactuca kk. Lower leaves narrow, flowers one to two inches wide. Tragopogon jj. Plants without milky juice, flowers small Solidago ii. Leaves toothed or divided. .1 1. Leaves toothed. .m


51 m. Flowers with black centers (Black-eyed Susans). Rudbeckia rom. Flowers without black centers. .n n. Leaves hairy, stick to clothing. Picris nne Leaves not hairy, but prickly.' Sonchus 11. Leaves divided (compound). .0 o. Leaves very dissected, plant smelling like pineappleMatricaria 00. Leaves only divided. .p p. Leaflets five Lotus pp. Leaflets three. .q q. Plants with downy stems. Medicago qq. Plants without downy stems Trifolium dd. Flowers not in heads. .r r. Leaves opposite. or whorled. .s s. Leaves giving appearance of being whprled, leaves trifoliate, flower parts five. Oxalis \, SSe Leaves opposite. .t t. Leaves with punctate dots when 'Jheld up to light Hypericum tt. Leaves without punctate dots. .u u. Flowers with five parts... Lysimachia uu. Flowers irregular. Gratiola rr. Leaves alternate. .v v. Leaves entire. .w w. Flowers with four regular parts Oenothera ww. Flowers irregular Linaria vv. Leaves toothed Or divided. .x


.. 52 x. Leaves only toothed, not divided. .y y. Leaves heart-shaped or kidney-shaped. z z. Flowers large with five petals, leaves kidney-shaped. . Caltha zz. Flowers small, leaves heart-shaped. . Viola yy. Leaves pot heart-shaped or kidney-shaped. .a a.. Flowers irregular, stem ,juicy, along stream. Impatiens aa. Flowers regular. .b b. Stem with sticky hairs, flowers' in axils of leaves Physalis bb. Stem without sticky hairs, flowers in a spike. Ve rbas cum xx. Leaves divided or deeply lobed. .c c. Leaves trifoliate, flowers in loose clustered spikes.. Melilotus cc. Leaves not trifoliate. .d d. Flowers in four parts. .e e. Plants with yellow juice Chelidonium ,.i ee. Plants without yellow juice. .f f. Flowers 1/2 inch or more in width. Brassica ff. Flowers less than 1/2 inch in width. .g g. Upper leaves clasping the stem. Barbarea gg. Upper leaves not clasping the stem, lobes toothed. Rorippa


53 dd. Flowers in five parts. .h h.Flowe,rs in s,l?ikes, leaves with large and small leaflets interspersed. Agrimonia hh. Flowers not in spikes. .i i. Leaves with stipules at base of petiole. Potentilla ii. Leaves without stipules. Ranunculus FLOWERS PINK OR RED a. Plants without green leaves. .b b. Flowers nodding, solitary, turning blackish, plant unbranched. .. Monotropa bb. Flowers not nodding, born in spikes, plant branching.. Epifagus aa. Plants with green leaves. .c c. with root leaves only, nb leaves on flowering stem, leaves deeply lobed. . Hepatica cc. Plants with leaves on stem. .d d. Leaves alternate on stem. .e e. Plants with milky juice. Asclepias ee. Plants without milky juice. f f. Leaves entire. .g g. Plants with cylindric stipules sheathing the stem at the nodes. Polygonum Tovara gg. Plants without stipules forming sheath around stem at nodes. .h h. Plants climbing. . Convolvulus hh. Plant not climbing, flowers inahead... .. .Arctium ff. Leaves toothed or divided. .i


,-54 i. Leaves toothed. j j. Flowers in a head. .k k. Leaves spiny Cirsium kk. Leaves not spiny, only lower leaves toothed. Centaurea jj. Flowers not in a head. .1 1. Plants with very leaves. Sedum fleshy 11. Plants without leaves. fleshy .m m. .nFlowers with four petals. n. Flowers tiny. Epilobium nne Flowers large, in showy clusters. Hesperis mm. Lobelia Flowers with five fused petals in a tube ii. Leaves deeply lobed or .0divided. o. Malva Leaves deeply lobed, flowers with five showy rose-like petals indented at tip. 00. Leaves divided. .p p. Leaves with three leaflets. Cardamine pp. Leaves with leaflets. more than three .q q. Leaves with five leaflets. Apios qq. Leaves with more than five leaflets. ..... Vida dd. Leaves opposite or whorled. .r r. Flowers with three petals and three sepals and three whorled leaves, in spring. Trillium rr. Flowers not in threes. .s s. Leaves not entire, not toothed or divided. .t t. Plants with milky juice. Asclepias tt. Plants without milky juice. .u u. Plants creeping. .v


55 v. Plants of wet areas near water, flowers in axils. Ludwigia vv. Plants of drier areas, flowers in pairs. Mitchella uu. Plants not creeping. .w w. Plants with needle-like leaves. Dianthus ww. Plants without needle-like leaves. x x. Leaves whorled at nodes. . Saponaria xx. Leaves only two at nodes. Centaurium ss. Leaves toothed or divided. .y y. Leaves toothed. .z z. Plants with square stem Satureja zz. Plants with regular stem. .a a. Plants with whorled leaves or leaves encircling stem, flowers in flat-topped clusters. Eupatorium aa". Plants not as above. Epilobium yy. Leaves deeply lobed or divided. .b b. Leaves deeply lobed, upper leaves only toothed, flowers in axils. Leonurus bb. Leaves divided. .c c. Leaves fern-like, plant hairy, leaves very divided, five petals, paired flowers Geranium cc. Leaves not fern-like. d. Flowers in head-like clusters, plant of fields. Trifolium dd. Flowers not in heads, inwoods. ... Cardamine


56 FLOWERS BLUE OR PURPLE a. Plants with basal leaves only, no leaves on stem. .b b. Flowers solitary Viola bb. Flowersborninspike Pontederia aa. Plants with leaves on stem. .c c. Leaves alternate. .d d. Plants climbinG' Solanum dd. Plants not climbing. .e e. Leaves entire. .f f. Flowersinheads .............. Aster ff Flowers not in heads, five-parted. M;yosotis ee. Leaves toothed or divided. .g g. Leaves toothed. .h h. Flowers in heads. Cichorium hh. Flowers not in heads. .i i. Flowers in a spike, plants not prickly. ; . Lobelia ii. Flowers not in a spike, plants prickly. ... Solanum gg. Leaves divided. .j j. Leaves trifoliate.. Medicago jj. Leaves five to seven lobed..Hydrophyllum cc. Leaves opposite. .k k. Plants creeping. .1 1. Stem square, leaves kidney-shaped. Glechoma 11. Stem regular, plants small. Veronica kk. Plants upright. .m m. Leavesentire. ............. Prunella mm. Leaves toothed. .n n. Stems not square, flowers in spikes. Verbena


57 nn. Stems square. .0 o. Each flower on a long stalk. Mimulus 00. Flowers not on long stalk. .p p. Flowers clustered at top. Nepeta pp. Flowers from axils.. .Scuttelaria FLOWERS GREEN OR BROWN a. Plants with no green leaves. .b b. Plant unbranched, single nodding flower. . Monotropa bb. Plant branched, many flowers Epifagus aa. Plants with green leaves. .c c. Plants flowering in early spring before its leaves develop, in woods. Caulophyllum cc. Plants not as above. .d d. Plants very small (six inches high), leaves less than one inch long, growing in dense colonies, inmudnearstream. . Floerkia dd. Plants taller than six inches, leaves larger than one inch, not as above. .e e. Plants small creeping in lawn with milky juice. Euphorbia ee. Plants not as above. .f f. Plants with basal leaves only. .g g. Plants with divided leaves (three Arisaemaleaflets), in woods. gg. Plants without leaves divided. h h. Leaves arrow-shaped, growing near water. Peltandra hh. Leaves not arrow-shaped, dryer ground. ... ff. Plants with leaves on stems .i i. Flowers in heads. j j. Heads in axils, plants with spines. Xanthium jj. Heads apical, plants without spines. Ambrosia


58 ii. Flowers not in heads. .k k. Plants with stinging hairs. .1 1. Leaves very large rounded Laportea 11. Leaves not rounded. Urtica kk. Plants without stinging hairs. .m m. Plants with sheaths, encircling stem at node. .n n. Leaves arrow-shaped or crisped. Rumex nne Leaves entire. Polygonum Tovara rom. Plants without sheaths, leaves alternate, toothed. .0 o. Flowers terminal. Penthorum ,\00. Flowers in axils. Chenopodium iI j!


59 THE VEGETATION TYPES OF THE RICE CREEK BIOLOGICAL FIELD STATION The vegetation of the Field Station is composed of three general types. They are woodlands, post-agricultural fields and wetlands. The woodlands include evergreen plantations, secondary growth seral deciduous woodlands, and a secondary growth Beech-Maple forest. The post-agricultural fields occupy a large portion of the area covered and include open fields in various stages of invasion by shrubs and trees. The wetland types occur along Rice Creek south of Rice Pond, on the margin of Rice Pond, and along Rice Creek north of Rice Pond. WOODLANDS Evergreen Plantations Evergreen plantations are located in Tract and I. Tracts H and I planted with Pinus sylvestris, Tract G with Picea Abies. Tracts G, H, and I hav.e herb layers characteristic of the fields they are replacing and contain the same common species as the open fields. In Tracts H and I, the pines are beginning to shade out some of the field species. Tract F is a well developed plantation of Abies balsamea, Picea Abies, Pinus resinosa, and Pinus Strobus. Other woody species are interspersed throughout the evergreens; they arc Flhrw.-.ill.l:S cathartica, Alnus rugosa, Pyrus Malus, and Fraxinus affipricana. Deciduous, seral woodlands The deciduous, seral woodlands occur in Tracts B, C, and D. Trsc-t:15 1 S ,:orr,posed of three varying areas. These areas are separated by two old stone walls each running beginning where the south border of Tract B nlllS IGY"'::-.-scuth ,.and ending on the north border of Tract B. The area is young, seral growth which has replaced a field. It is la.rgely composed of the following woody species: FraxjIlus americana _L..----:... I


60 Vitis Alnus rugosa Prunus serotina Rhamnus cathartica Ulmus ttZZlll(l' americanus Rubus 'Ader saccharum The middle area is older than the west area and contains thick growths of Crataegus punctata and Tilia.americana besides the species common to the west area. The east area of Tract B is largely an overgrown apple orchard. It contains, in addition to Pyrus Malus, and the woody species common to the west and middle areas, a stand of Pinus Strobus and thick growths of' All of Tract B most commonly contains the following: Solidago 2..El?.. Ranilllculus acris Potentilla recta Plantago lanceolata Anthoxanthum odoratum Rhus radicans Achillea millefolium Rubus 2..El?.. Tracts C and D are similar seral woods. Both have replaced, at least in part, old orchards, and'now have an abundance of dead trees of Ulmus americana. Along the road, bot? tracts have a great variety of species. The northwest section of Tract C is a dry, high area with the following:


61 Rubus Prunus virginiana Rhus typhina Anthoxanthum odoratum Achillea millefolium Plantago lanceolata Antennaria neglecta Fragaria The rest of Tract C and Tract D are similar. The frequently encountered in Tracts C and D are the following: D;yopteris spinulosa Onoclea sensibilis Ca;ra cordiformis Alnus rugosa Ranunculus scleratus Thalictrum polyganum Podophyllum peltatum Fragaria vesca Geum canadense Rhus typhina Viola cucullata Viola pensylvanica Comus alternifolia Lysimachia Nummularia Glechoma hederacea Leonurus cardiaca Gratiola neglecta Galium Mollugo Galium obtusum Viburnum Rafinesquianum


62 ChrysanthemumParthenium Rhus radicans Ulmus americana Prunus Crataegus punctata Fraxinus americana Pyrus Acuparia Acer saccharum Rubus odoratus Circaea quadrisculata Vitis monogyna Athyrium Filix-Femina Populus tremuloides Rubus allegheniensis Rubus flagellaris Parthenocissus guinguefolia Tilia americana Chelone glabra Beech-Maple Forest Tract A is a secondary growth Beech-Maple Forest. The dominant trees present are Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, and Betula lutea. Other trees commonly present are Ostrya virginiana, Tilia americana, Prunus serotina and Fraxinus americana. No Tsuga canadensis is present in the tract. Present in the tract are the following: Athyrium Filix-Femina Polystichum acrostichoides Anthoxanthum odoratum Glyceria melicaria Carex convoluta


--63 Carex laxiflora Carex pedunculata Arisaema triphyllum Luzula multiflora Polygonatum pubescens Smilacina racemosa Maianthemum canadense Trillium erectum Trillium grandiflorum Uvularia grandiflora Epipactis Helleborine Erythronium americanum Actaea pachypoda Hepatica acutiloba Caulophyllum thalictroides Dentaria diphylla Dentaria laciniata Ribes cynosbati Tiarella cordifolia Agrimonia gryposepala Rubus flagellaris Spiraea alba Spiraea latifolia Geranium robertianum Rhamnus cathartica Viola cucullata Viola pensylvanica Viola rostrata Monotropa uniflora Epifagus virginiana


64 Mitchella repens Lonicera canadensis Viburnum acerifolium Viburnum Lentago Aster divaricatus Podophyllum peltatum Geum canadense Onoclea sensibilis Rubus odoratus Prunus virginiana Cornus alternifolia POST-AGRICULTURAL FIELDS Open fields occur on ten of the tracts of the Field Station (on map, Tracts J-S). Several species are common in all fields. They are: Equisetum arvense Anthoxanthum odoratum Phleum pratense Rumex Acetosella Rumex crispus Taraxacum officinalis ,{ Ranunculus acrisI \ Fragaria Aster Solidago Vicia ( II Plantago lanceolata Barbarea vulgaris Daucus carota Potentilla recta I !i I III I I )I II


65 Galium All the fields are being invaded by shrubs and trees. Field K and Field 0 are in the advanced stage of invasion, beginning to resemble the seral woodlands of Tract B. In Fields K and 0, the distinction between fields and woodlands is difficult to make. The common invading species are Fraxinus americana, Alnus rugosa, Ulmus americana, Crataegus punctata, Prunus virginiana, Pyrus Aucuparia, Cornus stolinifera, Rhus typhina, and Rhamnus cathartica. The hedgerows dividing many of the fields from each other are composed mainly of Rhus typhina Tilia americana Fraxinus americanus Populus tremuloides Ulmus americana Fagus grandifolia Pyrus Aucuparia Pyrus Malus Alnus rugosa Prunus virginiana Prunus serotina Cornus stolonifera r Viburnum Rhamnus cathartica Acer saccharum Acer platanoides Acer rubrum


66 WETLAND TYPES Along Creek, South .2!. Pond Tract B is composed almost entirely of the wet woods associated with Rice Creek and wet areas near the stream. Some dryer woods towards the northeast section of the tract are similar to Tract C and Tract D. The trees near the stream are mainly Fraxinus americana, Prunus serotina, Alnus rugosa, and Ulmus americana which are mostly all dead. Along the stream is a unique type of vegetation which is, for the most part, composed of species not found in any other area of the station. The species found associated with the stream are the following: Dryopteris Thelypteris Onoclea sensibilis Potamogeton illinoens1s Sagittaria latifolia Cinna arundinacea Glyceria grandis Cyperus 'strigosus Eleocharis acicularis Acorus Calamus Peltandra virginica Juncus effusus Saururus cernuus Salix purpurea Laportea canadensis I t Urtica dioica Polygonum pensylvan1cum Polygonum sagittatum Tovara virginiana Brassica Kaber palustris fI IIi! i


Apios americana Gleditsia triacanthos Floerkea proserpinacoides Impatiens capensis Viola pallens Ludwigia palustris Cornus Amomum Cornus racemosa Cornus stolonifera Lysimachia ciliata Lysimachia terrestris Fraxinus nigra Echinocystis lobata Lobelia Cardinalis Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium maculatum Mikania" scandens Margin of Rice Pond The margin of Rice Pond is a marshy area undergoing primary hydrarch succession in the artifical pond. The submerged aquatic species of the Pond are the following: MYriophyllum exalbescens, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Potamogeton crispus, and Potamogeton foliosus. The floating aquatic species of Rice Pond are Lerona minor and Spirodela rhiza. The Margin of the Pond contains many emergent and wet habitat species. Among them are the following: TYpha angustifolia TYpha latifolia Sparganium eurycarpum


F'fI r;8 Alisma triviale Sagittaria latifolia Echinochloa crusgalli Leersia oryzoides Carex lupulina Carex retrorsa Carex vulpinoidea Dulichium arundinaceum Eleocharis calva Scirpus expansus Scirpus validus Pontederia cordata Juncus effusus Juncus nodosus Polygonum minus Polygonum punctatum Cicuta Dulbifera Sium suave Asclepias incarnata Bidens frondosa Bidens laevis Along Creek, north of Rice Pond The stream side vegetation along the outlet of Rice Pond is a woody habitat for only a short distance from the stream until there are fields. The banks are mostly covered with Alnus rugosa and the following are present in the area: Equisetum arvense Potamogeton crispus Alisma triviale .. ------------


69 Foa trivialis Carex stipata Fontederia cordata Iris versicolor Salix discolor Dianthus Armeria Caltha palustris Cardamine bulbosa Satureja vulgaris Galium asprellum Onoclea sensibilis Eupatorium maculatum Eupatorium perforiatum Verbena hastata Impatiens capensis


70 DISCUSSION The Rice Creek Biological Field Station lies in a tension zone between two eastern deciduous forest associations. These associations are the Beech-Maple Forest association and the Oak-Hickory Forest association. The Beech-Maple association occupies a large part of the land area in New York State (Bray, 1930) and extends where proper conditions prevail west from New York into Wisconsin, east into New England and south along the Appalachians (Braun, 1964). In general, the Beech-Maple association is the climax vegetation type for New York State except for the Adirondack Mountain Region and the Tug Hill Plateau Region, which contain northern coniferous forest species; and the Hudson Valley and Lake Plains Regions south of the Great Lakes, which contain Oak-Hickory forest species. The Oswego area was included by Bray (1930) in the Oak-Hickory Zone and there are representative species of that zone in the Oswego area and at the Field Station. The Oak-Hickory forests near 'Oswego occur near Lake Ontario on glacial lake deposits with soils formed in silty and very fine sandy lake or wind deposits. The Beech-Maple forests in the Oswego area, including the Field Station, occur on glacial till (Olson, 1969). Braun (1964) interprets the relationship between the Beech-Maple association and the Oak-Hickory associations as having the Beech-Maple forests occupying the more mesic and fertile sites and Oak-Hickory forests occupying the dryer and less fertile sites within the Beech-Maple forest region. In other areas where many different associations may be found in close proximity to one another, the Oak-Hickory forests occupy the dryer, warmer, and lower sites with Beech-Maple forests on sites which are more moist, cooler, and more elevated (Shanks, 1952). Oosting (1952) interprets the relationship between the Beech-Maple association and the Oak


71 Hickory association as climax and pre-climax respectively, where the two forests occur in the same area and Beech-Maple is found on better sites than the Oak-Hickory. This concept describes the conditions existing in the Oak-Hickory forests near Oswego, some of which contain some Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum. These forests no doubt are becoming more fertile with time. The fact that the Beech-Maple forest predominates at the Field Station is clear. Some of the distinctive indicators of Beech-Maple regions present at the Field Station are the trees Fagus grandifolia, Acer saccharum and Betula lutea (Bray, 1930). The fact that it is the climax growth of the area is also indicated by the presence of seedlings of these species. Some indicator shrubs present at the station are the following: Viburnum acerifolium Cornus alternifolia Sambucus canadensis Rhus ty;phina Prunus virginiana Some of the indicator herbs are the following: Actea pachypoda Erythronium americanum Hepatica acutiloba Mitchella repens Tiarella cordifolia Trillium erectum Trillium grandiflorum Epifagus virginiana Monotropa uniflora Polystichum acrostichoides


72 Indicator species of an Oak-Hickory association are present at the Field Station but these are rather infrequent. They are the following: Carra cordiformis Carra glabra Gleditsia triacanthos Saururus cernuus Caulophyllum thalictroides The predominance of the species characteristic of Beech-Maple forests in the area indicates the probable climax of the Field Station if succession is uninterrupted. ,i t I r r


73 SUMMARY 1. The flora of the vascular plants of the Field Station was to be composed of 344 species from 75 families. found 2. Specimens of the flora are Station. on file in the herbarium of the Field 3. A key to the genera of vascular plants was the flora. constructed to accompany 4. The vegetation types were described. 5. The flora of the Field Station was forest association. found to be the Beech-Maple


LITERATURE CITED Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of Eastern North America. Hafner Publishing Co., New York. Bray, William L. 1930. The development of the vegetation of New York State. Technical Publication No. 29. The New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Faust, Mildred E. 1961. Checklist of the vascular plants of Onondaga County, New York. Bulletin of the Syracuse University Museum of Natural Science, No.9, Syracuse University. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany, 8th Edition, American Book Company, New York. Gleason, Henry A. 1963. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 vols. New York Botanical Garden. Olson, G. W., Witty, J. E., and L. L. Marshall. 1969. Soils and their use in the five county area around Syracuse. Cornell Miscellaneous Bulletin 80. New York State College of Agriculture. Oosting, J. 1956. The study o plant communities. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 2nd Edition. Whittaker, R. H. 1953. A consideration of climax theory: as a population pattern. Ecol.' Monog., 23:41-78. the climax